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Autonomy & Collaboration
Transcript of Autonomy & Collaboration
Autonomy & Collaboration
Construct projects, tasks, expectations, and checklists as a class
Provide necessary learner training for spaces, tools, and tasks
Encourage critical thinking, moving beyond stereotypes, development of intercultural competence
Observe and monitor student progress as they collaborate, but avoid too much control
Provide input/feedback as it aids or guides the project
Ask more questions than you provide answers
Assure all students have an appropriate role in a project
Classroom Practices that Promote Autonomous Collaboration
Autonomy is most useful in collaborative contexts
Flexible environments offer many opportunities but can also be challenging
Students may not know how to be autonomous collaborative language learners
Communication and learning strategies
Students may be unaware of the potential of autonomous learning spaces
How they can learn more about their locality
Assumptions regarding collaborative autonomous abilities
Learners are motivated and confident (willingness)
Learners have knowledge and skills (ability)
Learners utilize communication strategies
Learners utilize learning strategies
Qualities of autonomous collaborative learners
Increased insight into all sides of exchange
Ease of project facilitation
Enhanced access to others
Recontextualizes the “other”
Promotes greater ICC
Promotes collaborative autonomous language learning abilities
Benefits of Local Project Based Collaboration
Built upon principles of telecollaborative exchanges
Constructivist and collaborative
Ideally project based
Includes a range of localities
Local can be combined with telecollaborative
What is Local Collaboration?
Fosters negotiation (Blake, 2000; Lee, 2002; Smith, 2003),
Allows increased student control (Chun, 1994),
Promotes a wider variety of linguistic strategies (Smith, 2003).
Students actively engage in online collaborative activities due to the public nature of the information and sense of accountability (Sengupta, 2001).
Some have investigated the role of CMC in establishing and maintaining relationships (Belz, 2003; Bikowski, 2008).
Collaboration among language learners is beneficial(Bruce, Peyton, Storch, 1999).
Collaborative learning benefits from the context, tools and participants (Arnold & Ducate, 2006).
Learners engaged in meaning construction naturally reflect upon their language production (Swain, 1995)
Collaboration can occur in varied ways (Kessler, 2009).
Collaboration in Language Learning
Autonomy promotes student control over learning.
Autonomy has also been associated with:
Self-direction (Benson, 2001)
Motivation (Spratt, Humphreys, & Chan, 2002
Individual differences (Dörnyei & Skehan, 2003)
Learner setting (Benson, 2001)
Kessler, G. (2009). Student initiated attention to form in wiki based collaborative writing. Language Learning & Technology, 13(1), 79-95.
Kessler, G., Bikowski, D, & Boggs, J. (2012). Collaborative Writing Among Second Language Learners in Academic Web-Based Projects. Language Learning & Technology, 16(1), 91-109.
Kessler, G. & Bikowski, D. (2010). Developing collaborative autonomous learning abilities in computer mediated language learning: Attention to meaning among students in wiki space. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 23(1), 41-58.
Kessler, G., & Ware, P. (2011). Addressing the language classroom standards of the European higher education area through the use of technology. In M. L. Pérez Cañado (ed.) Competency-based Language Teaching in Higher Education. John Benjamins: Amsterdam.
Levy, M., & Hubbard, P. (2005) “Why call CALL 'CALL'?” Computer Assisted Language Learning, 18(3), 143-149.
Littlewood, W. (1996) Autonomy: An anatomy and a framework. System, 24, 427- 435.
Group digital storytelling
Digital cultural collages
WebQuests with group debriefing
Instructional or documentary movies
Collaborative written wiki
Client focused projects
Projects that Promote Autonomous Collaboration
Build confidence to experiment within the autonomous space
Teachers and students
Exploit the language and technology skills they have
Allow for the unanticipated potential of new learning spaces
Exploit the technology skills the teacher has
Allow your pedagogy and collaborative practices to co-evolve with technology
Provide students with opportunities to develop their collaborative autonomous language learning abilities
Facilitating Local Project Based Collaboration
Negotiation contributes to language learning through:
Enhanced semantic understanding (Long, 1981; Long & Robinson, 1998)
Morphosyntactic understanding (Loschky, 1994)
Greater awareness of a language learner’s role in learning (Vygotsky, 1978).
Smith (2003) found that students engaged in CMC that encouraged extensive negotiation devoted 66% of their participation to task completion rather than negotiation.
Generally limited to pair work
Collaboration contributes to
Increased complexity in writing (Sotillo, 2000)
Higher quality of writing (Storch, 2005)
Student motivation (Kowal Swain & Lapkin, 1998).
Collaborative Writing Research
Parks, Hamers, and Huot-Lemonnier (2003, p. 40) identify four types of collaboration:
(1) joint collaboration: Two or more writers working on the same text who assume equal responsibility for its production
(2) parallel collaboration: Two or more writers who, although working on the same text, do not assume equal responsibility for its production
(3) incidental collaboration: Generally brief, spur-of-the moment requests for help
(4) covert collaboration: Getting information from documents or other linguistic or nonlinguistic sources during the writing process
(1) Autonomy as a communicator
The ability to use the language creatively
The ability to use appropriate strategies for communicating meanings in specific situations;
(2) Autonomy as a learner
The ability to engage in independent work (e.g. self-directed learning)
The ability to use appropriate learning strategies, both inside and outside the classroom;
(3) Autonomy as a person
The ability to express personal meanings
The ability to create personal learning contexts
Littlewood’s Autonomy Framework