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Weathering Erosion Deposition
Transcript of Weathering Erosion Deposition
Iron combines with
oxygen with the participation of water (oxidation).
the effect is rust Water is the biggest cause of Chemical Weathering.
Water weathers rock by dissolving it. Freezing and Thawing Release of pressure Animal actions Water gets into a crack in a rock, then it freezes
and melts making the crack larger and longer,
eventually the rock gets cutted in half. Rust How it is caused:
Carbon dioxide dissolves in rainwater
in the soil, forming a weak acid called carbonic acid,
Which can easily weather limestone and marble. People burn big amounts of oil, coal and gas. Burning these fuels pollutes the air with sulfur , carbon and nitrogen. Theses coumpounds react with the water vapor in clouds creating acids that eventually mix with raindropsand fall as acid rain. A seed lands onto a rock's surface, as it sprouts, its roots are going to go into cracks on the rock. Eventually the roots are going to produce a weak acid to dissolve the rock as the roots "dig" down deeper. As erosion takes away material from a surface of a mass of rock, the pressure on the rock is reduced. This causes the outside of the rock to crack in pieces (like the layers of an onion-science text book). Animals that borrow in the ground brake apart and loosen rocks.
Animals that borrow: moles, ground hogs, gophers, prairie dogs and insects. Plant growth Roots of a tree enter the cracks in a rock. Eeventually it pulls apart the rocks enlarging the cracks of the rock. Over time roots can pry apart cracked rocks. Abrasion Rock particles that are carried by wind, water or ice can wear away parts of the rock and shape rocks, when the rock particles touch the the rock's surface friction happens . Clay
less that 1/256mm
impossible to see with
human eyes without
microscope. Soil particles Silt
less than 1/16 mm Sand
less than 2 mm Gravel
2mm and larger Mass movements Mass movements Definitions Landslide Mudflow Slump Creep It occurs when rock and soil
slide down quickly down a
steep slope (it is the most destructive
mass ovement of all) Rapid down hill movement of a mix of water, rock and soil that slides quickly down a steep slope. (amount of water: 60%) usually occur during heavy rains. mass of rock and soil suddenly slips down. it moves like one large mass (unlike a landslide). Usually occurs with soil rich in clay. Very slow down hill movement of rock and soil. also occurs on gentle slopes. it is the cause of freezing and thawing of water in layers under the soil. Water erosion Rills Gullies Streams Rivers Runoff Bibliography images bibliography http://www.glogster.com/kayty/glog-8007/g-6nenuft9e83caf15nh5pooa
http://www.treknature.com/gallery/photo170006.htm information bibliography 1. Ms. Tarabelli's powerpoints
2. Science text book (pg 236-pg 306) erosion by rivers Waterfalls:
Occur when a river meets and area of hard rocks that erode slowly (rapids form the same way)
The river expands and erodes the land, creating a large river valley, the flat long area along the river is called a flood plain
A meander is a loop-like cirve in the course of a river.
It is a meander that has been cut off from the river deposition by rivers Alluvial fans Alluvial is a wide, sloping sediment
deposit created when a stream leaves
a mountain range. Deltas A river ends its journey when it gets to the sea, since the river is no longer down hills and has no slope the river slows down and the sediment gets deposited. Sediment: sediment is the substance that weathering brakes apart, erosion carries and deposition deposits. Gravity: Gravity (is the force that carries downhill roks and other materials) it is a big part of erosion because it causes mass movement
Potential energy: Potential energy is the energy that accumulates when something is still or not moveing.
Kinetic energy: kinetic energy is the one that something or someone has when they are moving,
Agent: Erosion's agent are: Water, gravity, slope, streambed shape, volume of flow and the sediment load. When runoff water rushes through the soil because of gravity it causes a type of erosion called sheet erosion. Eventually runoff water gathers up in rills, which gather up with gullies, which gather up with streams, which gather up with rivers. More runoff= more erosion The amount of runoff depens of 5 different factors:
2. type of soil
3. Amount of rain per area
4. shape of land
5. how people use the land Tributaries Wind erosion Abrasion Abrasion is when wind carries soil particles (usually sand) agains other rocks it creates friction and models the rock. deflation The process by whcih wind picks up or rolls objects from the ground. With weak wind sand and other small soil particles are going to be lifted up in the air and particles like gravel are going to roll on the surface. Instead with extremely strong wind such as tornadoes cars or houses can be rolled or picked up. Groundwater erosion Caveformation Stalactite/stalagmites kart topography 1. Water sinks into the ground
2. It combines with carbon dioxide
3. Forms a weak acid, called carbonic acid
4. Carbonic acid can break down limestone
5. Groundwater containing carbonic acid flows into any cracks in the limestone in a solution of water
Some of the limestone changes chemically and is carried away
This process creates little holes in rocks, which eventually get bigger
and turn into caves. In rainy regions that have a layer of limestone near the surface, groundwater can change the shape if the land. Rare streams because of water sinking down to lomeston, many velleys and caverns. If the roof of a cave falls, the result is a depression called a sinkhole. Soil on flood plain After a flood, when the river retreates it deposits sediment as new soil, which makes the river valley fertile. Groundwater deposition= stalactites and stalagmites
Wind deposition= sand dunes and loess THE END