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Sexuality and Gender

AP Psychology: Chapter 11

Maryann Assaf

on 11 February 2014

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Transcript of Sexuality and Gender

Sexuality and Gender
Human Sexual Response: The Facts of Life
Sexual Behavior
Sexual behavior is the biological process where humans experience and express their sexuality and induce arousal.
There are two major determinants of human sexual behavior:
Inherited sexual response patters - ensuring reproduction and that are a part of each individuals inheritance.
Expression of sexuality - influence exerted on the individual by society

The testes begin to secrete androgen, the male sex hormone.
The androgen's produce secondary sex characteristics such as the growth of body hair, deepening of the voice, and increase the sex drive.
Since the level of androgen produced in the testes is fairly constant, men are capable of sexual activities without any regard to biological cycles. Male sexual behavior can occur at any time.
When women reach maturity at puberty, the two ovaries begin to produce estrogen and progesterone - the female sex hormones.
Unlike males, the female gentiles do not produce these hormones constantly, rather than a cyclical pattern.
During ovulation, the egg is released from the ovaries, making the chances of fertilization by a sperm cell highest.
Males have a higher sex drive than females. This is because males think about sex more than women do on a daily basis.
Through biological factors, "prime" people for sex, it takes more than hormones to motivate and produce sexual behavior.
The Phases of Sexual Response: Ups and Downs of Sex
Much of what is considered sexually arousing in our society has little or nothing to do with our genitals, instead, it is related to external stimuli that through a process of learning, have come to be labeled as erotic or sexually stimulating.
Sexual arousal is likely only when a certain part of the body is touched in what people define as a sexual manner and when a person is receptive to sexual manner.
People can learn to respond to almost any stimulus, there is a good deal of agreement without a society of culture what usually represents an erotic stimulus.
Excitement Phase:
The period in which an arousing stimulus begins a sequence that prepares the genitals for sexual intercourse.
In the male, the penis becomes erect when blood flows into it.
In females, the clitoris swells because of an increase in the blood supply to that area and the vagina becomes lubricated.
Plateau Phase:
The period in which the maximum level of arousal is attained, the penis and clitoris swell with blood and the body prepares for orgasm.
Orgasm is the peak of sexual excitement during which rhythmic muscular contractions occur in the genitals.
For women, the breasts and vagina expand, heartbeat and blood pressure rise, and breathing rate increase.
For males, the contractions expel semen, a fluid containing sperm from the penis - a process known as ejaculation.
Resolution Stage
The interval after orgasm in which the body returns to its unaroused state, reversing the changed brought by arousal.
The genitals resume their unaroused size and shape; blood pressure, breathing, and heart rate return to normal.

Refractory Period
A temporary period that follows the resolution state and during which the male cannot develop an erection again.
Gender is the perception of being male of female.
Gender refers to the sense of maleness or femaleness related to our membership in a given society.
Gender Roles
Gender roles are the set of expectations that indicate what is appropriate behavior for men and women.
Expectations about men and women differ significantly and these beliefs may result in favoritism towards members of one sex.
Gender roles may produce stereotyping, judgement about individual members of a group on the basis of their membership of the group.
Stereotypes about gender roles are reflected in sexism, negative attitudes and behavior towards a person's gender.
Sexism on the Job
Differences exist regarding which occupation are deemed appropriate for men and for women.
Sexual Harassment
Personality Factors
One of the most pronounced differences between man and women lies in their degree of aggressive behavior.
Boys tend to display more aggression than girls do.
Compare with men, women experience greater anxiety and guilt about aggressiveness and are more concerned about its effects on their victims.
Cognitive Abilities
No general differences exist between men and women in overall IQ scores, learning, memory, problem solving, and concept-formation tasks.
In early studies of sex differences they concluded that girls outperformed boys in verbal abilities and that boys had superior quantitative and spatial abilities.
Gender and Sex
Sexual Difficulties: When Sex Goes Wrong
Rape occurs when one person forces another to submit to sexual activity such as intercourse or oral-genital sex.
More than half a million sexual assaults are directed against women each year.
Date Rape – rape in which the rapist is either a date or a romantic acquaintance.
Women are viewed to take on pink-collar jobs like nurses, secretaries, and cashiers.
Although the gap has been decreasing, women overall earn an average of $0.80 for every dollar that men earn.
The glass ceiling is an invisible barrier within an organization that may prevent women from being promoted beyond a certain level because of gender discrimination.
Most research suggests there is a 14 to 25 percent chance that a woman will be raped in her lifetime.
Sexual harassment is defined as unwanted sexual attention, the creation of hostile or abusive environment, or explicit coercion to engage in unwanted sexual activity.
One-fifth of women say that they have been sexually harassed at work.
Some 10% of men report experiencing sexual harassment on the job.
Sexual harassment often has less to do with sex than with power.
In some cases, harassment stems from benevolent sexism, stereotyped and restrictive attitudes that appear on the surface to be beneficial to women.
After harassment occurs, the victim feels shame and embarrassment and may be compounded by a sense of helplessness and powerlessness.
Causes of Rape
To show control or power
Anger at women
Desire for sexual gratification
Men generally have higher self-esteem than women do.
Men and women differ in how positively they view their own abilities and how they estimate the probability of their future success.
Childhood Sexual Abuse
Current evidence suggests that gender differences in cognitive skills are minimal.
However, particular tests like math and verbal skills do elicit differences in performances.
Each year half a million children are sexually abused.
Initial Effects

Biological and Evolutionary Factors
Girls who are exposed to unusually high levels of androgen, a male hormone, during their mother's pregnancy will prefer different toys from those who were not.
Women perform better on tasks involving verbal skills and muscular coordination during periods when their production of estrogen is relatively high.
Long-Term Effects
Some psychologists argue that evolutionary forces led to certain differences between men and women's behavior.
Psychologists relying on an evolutionary approach argue that similarities in the division of labor between men and women are due to evolutionary factors.
The extent to which biological and evolutionary factors may underlie gender differences is unanswered.
Poor self esteem
Substance abuse
70 to 90 percent of child victims know their abuser.
Experiences involving fathers, genital contact, and the use of force are the most damaging.
Sexually Transmitted Infections
Most widespread STI.
Women do not initially have symptoms.
In men it causes a burning sensation during urination and a discharge from the penis.
Can be cured with antibiotics.
Genital Herpes
A virus that can't be cured.
First appears as severely painful small blisters or sores around the genitals. Sores heal, but the disease usually reappears 4-5 times in the year following infection.
Later outbreaks are less frequent.
Contagious during the active phase of the disease.
An infection occurring in the vagina or penis.
Caused by a parasite.
Usually no symptoms.
Can cause painful urination and intercourse, a discharge from the vagina and an unpleasant odor.
Can be treated with antibiotics.
First reveals itself through a small sore at the point of sexual contact.
May include a rash in it's secondary stage.
Can be treated with antibiotics if diagnosed early.
If untreated, may affect the brain, heart, a developing fetus, or cause death.
Genital Warts
Small, lumpy warts that form on or near the penis or vagina.
Looks like small cauliflower bulbs.
Caused by human papilloma virus.
Can be treated with a drug called metronidazole.
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
A fatal, sexually transmitted infection caused by a virus that destroys the body's immune system.
In the U.S. it was first found in gay men. It has spread to heterosexuals and drug users that inject with needles.
Most cases are found in Africa.
The Social Environment
Parents interact with children differently depending on their sex.
Differences in behavior produce different socialization experienced for men and women.
Socialization is the process by which a individual learns the rules and norms of appropriate behavior.
Society as a whole communicates clear messages to children as they are growing up as to what their roles are.
Men outnumber women on television and women are often cast in stereotypical roles as house wives.
Our education system also treats boys and girls differently.
Socialization produces a gender schema, a mental framework that organizes and guides a child's understanding of information relevant to gender.
A sexually transmitted infection (STI) is a disease transmitted through sexual contact.
Erogenous zones are areas of the body that are particularly sensitive because of the presence of an usually rich array of nerve receptors
Ways to reduce the risk of getting AIDS
Know your partner's sexual history
Use condoms
Avoid the exchange of bodily fluids, especially semen
Avoid anal sex
Erectile Dysfunction
The inability of a male to achieve or maintain an erection.
Not an uncommon problem, even in younger males.
Drugs such as Viagra can treat erectile dysfunction.
Premature Ejaculation
The inability of a male to delay orgasm as long as he wishes.
'As long as he wishes' is dependent on a man's attitude about how long is appropriate so the disorder is difficult to diagnose.
Most often a psychological problem as there are rarely physical reasons for it.
Inhibited Ejaculation
The inability of a male to ejaculate when he wants to or at all.
The female's lack of orgasm.
In primary orgasmic dysfunction, a women has never orgasmed.
In secondary orgasmic dysfunction, a women has had an orgasm at some point, but no longer does or only does under certain conditions i.e during masturbation, but not during sex.
Inhibited Sexual Desire
Occurs when the motivation for sexual activity is restrained or nonexistent.
Sexual Problems
Ways to Prevent Date Rape
Women should set and communicate their limits.
Keep tabs on what you are given to drink in social situations.
Men should not assume that certain kinds of dress or flirtatious behavior is an invitation to sex.
The word "no" should mean no and not be interpreted as an invitation to continue.
Maryann Assaf
Krystal Howell
Ashley Collado
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