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Chapter 2 History of PR
Transcript of Chapter 2 History of PR
History of Public Relations BKE 4023 Introduction to
Public Relations The Develoment of
Public Relations in the US Development of
PR in Malaysia History of PR in Malaysia PR Development in Malaysia In-Class Activities 1950 to 2000: Public Relations Comes of Age 1800s: The Golden Age of Press Agentry 1900 to 1950: The Age of Pioneers Early Beginnings Learning Objectives Persuasion Development of Public Relations Internationally History of Public Relations Students will be able to understand the evolution of public relations.
Students will appreciate the contributions of visionaries such as Ivy Lee and Edward Bernays, who laid the foundation of public relation's practice.
Students will be knowledgeable about current developments and trends in public relations field. Scholars describe the development of public relations differently. But all agree that public relations is about communicating to influence public opinion.
Development of public relation growth can be discussed by focusing on its key activities:
Management In early years, persuasive speech is used to spread religious activity and beliefs such as Islam and Christianity. The Greeks and Roman use public speech to win support for their policies and they use rhetoric to persuade others. 1800s was a period of growth and expansion in the US - the golden age of press agent (a person employed to arrange publicity and advertising)- advertisement and press release were exaggerated - press agent drop tickets on the desk of newspaper editors, along with announcement.
The Legacy of P.T Barnum
P.T Barnum best represents the hype of press agentry - he was master of pseudoevent - planned event with high reporting value - used flowery language, exaggeration, controversy, massive advertising and publicity. He gain many fame and success such as the exhibitor of Joice Heth, Fejee Mermaid issue, Tom Thumbs as first media celebrities and the promotion of Jenny Lind, the Swedish Nightingale.
Publicity and promotion helped to populate the western United States. Land speculators distribute pamphlets and other publicity material. American railroads used PR and press agentry to attract settlers and expand their operations.
Politics and Social Movement
PR tactics is used in politics. Public opinion on issues are collected, news release and articles on political candidates are distributed and published in newspapers to gain public support.
Early Corporate Initiatives - industrialization and urbanization created many new business - PR tactics is used in many stores. By 20th century, PR was more focused on facts and information rather than press agentry.
Many PR pioneers emerged during this phase.
Ivy Lee - the First PR Counsels
Edward L. Bernays - Father of Modern PR
Author W. Page - Establish concept that PR should have an active voice in higher management.
Benjamin Sonnenberg - was the most influential publicist of the mid-twentieth century and suggest for sponsorship of event.
Rex Harlow - was considered to be the father of public relations research and a full-time PR educator.
Leone Baxter - form the first political campaign management firm in the US.
Warren Cowan - serve movie industry in 1930s and represent celebrities as their publicist.
Henry Ford - was American's 1st major industrialist - among the first to use two basic PR concepts.
Teddy Roosevelt - he was the master of promoting and publicizing his projects. During the 2nd half of the 20th century, public relations became firmly established as an indispensable part of America's economic, politic and social development.
After World War II, there were rapid growth in economic and other areas. Eg: Companies open PR departments or expanded existing ones. Number of staff in government sector/agencies and NGO increased.
Television emerged in early 1950s - provide new challenge and medium for PR practitioners.
1960s - Vietnam War protest, civil rights movement, the environmental movement, interest in women's right and other issues - antibusiness sentiment was high - corporation need to adjust their policies - PR practitioner need to have issues management ability.
1970s - era of reform in stock market and investor relations. The Texas Gulf Sulfur case change investor relations - establish the idea that a company must immediately disclose any information that may harm its value in stock market.
1980s - concept of PR in management is fully applied.
1990s - reputation and perception are two concept that were being focused in PR industry.
Apart from economic, other factors that influence the expansion of public relations are:-
major increase in urban and suburban populations
the growth of a more impersonalized society, represented by big business, big labour, and big government.
scientific and technological advances - automation & computerization
communication revolution - mass media and new media (the internet) PR in Malaysia begins as early as the era of the Malacca Rulers.
The rulers ask intelectuals to write or spread their good deeds through 'hikayat' or poem. One of the well know history was written by Tun Seri Lanang - Hikayat Raja-Raja Melayu.
Early PR aimed at gaining independence, formalizing national status, promoting and maintaining unity among the different ethnic groups and promoting government development plan. 1939 - Department of Information was set up in Singapore - to inform about war.
1946 - under Malayan Union, Department of PR was set up - produce leaflets, radio broadcast and face to face communication.
1948 - the department was rename Department of Information - now known as Ministry of Information - to counter communist propaganda during communist insurgency period.
Early 1950s - development of information infrastructure was accelerated - broadcasting facilities were expanded etc.
After Independence - between 1960s to early 1980s PR was focused on efforts to build a democratic nation.
Government hired private consultancies for help with the planning and strategic development for government campaigns. Publicity American Public Relations use publicity and promotion for commercial reason, fund raising or building personalities. In the 1920's, it was more incline toward promoting products and raising money for charitable purpose. Information Information is used to create public awareness on campaigns. It is also used as a medium to encourage the public to support the government campaign and participate in the campaigns especially during World War I and World War II. Marketing PR has become more involve in marketing with the rapid growth in communication technologies, development of infrastructure, easier to access to international market and a more consumer-oriented society.
Pr practitioners help to organize road shows and exhibitions by issuing information pamphlets on company at exhibition and road shows. Management Increasing pressure from knowledgeable publics has encourage PR practitioners to take a more managerial approach in executing task.
Conducting Public Opinion Poll, strategic planning and knowledge-base counseling is growing among practitioners.
Large organizations and service oriented organization emphasis on long term relationship with strategic publics.
Globalization, rapid computerization, internet have forced public relations to be result-oriented.
Strategic planning and knowledge-based counseling is growing among practitioners. The concept of public relations had emerge as early as human lived in society - in ancient civilizations, people were persuaded to accept the authority of the government and religion through PR techniques such as speeches, art, literature, interpersonal communication, staged events and publicity.
During the Middle Ages, the Roman Catholic church was a major practitioner of PR - Pope Urban II used symbolism, staged events and propaganda to persuade thousands of followers to join the Crusades. In 15th and 16th centuries, bankers in Venice practiced investor relations and Gutenberg developed the printing press.
In the United States, the practice of PR during the colonial era - the distribution of brochures and flyers throughout other country to persuade people to migrate to America.
After American colonies we established, publicity and PR techniques were used to promote institution, eg: 1641 Harvard College published a fund-raising brochure.
PR also played active role in American Independence -A major promoter of independence was Sam Adams (historians called "The Father of Press Agentry).