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Module 1.4 Theories, Principles & Models of Learning Present

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Victoria Heatley

on 7 April 2015

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Transcript of Module 1.4 Theories, Principles & Models of Learning Present

Introduction
The purpose of this presentation is to compare and contrast approaches to deliver safe and inclusive teaching and learning

We have been able to do this within our group from observation of our extended teaching practices, varied peer observations and variety of feedback gained from placements, observations and academic study
Application of Teaching and Learning Theories & Principles
Moving on from commmunication models and theories, we will next be discussing learning models and theories.

Behaviourism STIMULUS
Cognitivism DISCOVERY
Humanism SELF - WORTH
Andragogy ADULT LEARNING
Constructivism ACTIVE


Behaviourism
"Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own specified world to bring them up in and I'll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select -- doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief and, yes, even beggar-man and thief, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations, and race of his ancestors."

--John Watson, Behaviorism, 1930
Cognitivism
"The psychology of learning which emphasizes human cognition or intelligence as a special endowment enabling man to form hypotheses and develop intellectually" (Feldman, Cognitivism)

Bruner - Spiral learning theory - new ideas based on current and past knowledge

Ausubel - Subsumption theory; Advance organisers are devices used in the introduction of a topic which enable learners to orient themselves and link information and knowledge

Vygotsky - Outlines that learning is passed down through generations, resulting in social interactions between children, peers and a mentor, taking cultural and social context into account (Zone of proximal development) (cannot do/guidance/can do) and stretching learners

Piaget - Theorised Four Stage Development theory (sensorimotor and operational stages), psychology of learning emphasising human cognition, forming hypotheses and developing intellectually


Models & Principles of Reflection
Application of Models & Principles of Communication
Module 1.4 Theories, Principles & Models of Learning Presentation
Korille Reid - Early Childhood Studies and Child Care, Grace Dunkley - Media , Victoria Heatley - Computer Science

Cognitivism Cont'd
Evidence of Cognitivism can be seen from our peer observations by the following. Similarities include:

All examples were student-centred, teacher-led with structured activities
Scaffolding & Structuring was evidenced through lesson planning in all peer observations promoting deep learning
Socratic/Probing questions used through all
All had learning consolidated through learning-checks and reinforced
Inductive learning was achieved through activities promoting autonomy in learning and discovery
Conclusion
Behaviourism Cont'd

In two of the peer observations the teachers have used reinforcements such as positive praise and rewards like finishing early if the behaviour is good.

The other teacher used both reinforcement and punishment to encourage the students this would promote inclusivity because he used a variety of ways to get a response from the students. Some students may adapt quicker to different behaviour approaches and have two strategies is more like to cater to the whole class rather than just using one approach.

Similarities
The class was very much tutor-led and student-centred.
Positive praise/regard
Acknowledgement when students are on task
All had tasks set as soon as they enter the room

Difference
All three observations used positive regard to motivate
their students to learn the only difference was
the way they applied it

Theories of Humanism
Humanism
Constructivism
Applied to our own practice
Cognitivism Cont'd
Differences between the lesson observations include:

How the resources were used
Style of delivery
Structure of lesson
All lesson observations exhibited a safe and inclusive learning environment, designed to stimulate students in a cognitive manner.
May inhibit inclusivity by excluding learners, if lessons are not differentiated enough between ability ranges.
"Social constructivism not only acknowledges the uniqueness and complexity of the learner, but actually encourages, utilizes and rewards it as an integral part of the learning process" (Wertsch 1997)
Constructivism argues that we actively create our own knowledge using active techniques such as create, reflect and change.

It is the role of the teacher to understand the learner's preconceptions, to guide activities and build on them, to encourage problem solving, from passive to active. (Drawing from Gestaltism, Humanism, Cognitvism, Behaviourism)
Evidence of Constructivism can be seen from our peer observations by the following. Similarities include:

All examples were student-centred, teacher-led with structured activities and group work
Guided discovery was evidenced through lesson planning in all peer observations promoting deep learning
Diagnostic questions used through all
All had learning consolidated through learning-checks and reinforced through explaining the learning
Inductive learning was achieved through activities promoting autonomy in learning and discovery
Peer assessment and teaching occur due to discussion of material within groups, trial and error
Constructivism Cont'd
Constructivism Cont'd
Some differences were seen between observations where they overlapped due to the nature of constructivism, where some showed stretch and challenge activities (Vygotsky), some showed positive reinforcemet (Behaviourist) and others showed experential learning (Humanists)

All observations exampled safe and inclusive learning by scaffolding learning and differentiating activities and questing style.

Inclusivity could be inhibited if the teacher did not facilitate effectively, if feedback is not adequate, or has a poor understanding of students perceptions
http://mikecrudge.com/2013/08/07/one-thing-every-church-should-consider-but-usually-doesnt/#more-256
Bibliography
"In every case of reflective activity, a person finds himself confronted with a given, present situation from which he has to arrive at, or conclude to, something that is not present. This process of arriving at an idea of what is absent on the basis of what is at hand is inference. What is present carries or bears the mind over to the idea and ultimately the acceptance of something else". (Dewey 1933: 190).

Schon wrote about exploration of experience, interaction and reflection, with concepts such as 'reflection on action’ and ‘reflection in-action’
We can look at Kolb's learning cycle and Gibb's structured debriefing in reflective practice.
As teachers, we reflect before, during and after, as part of reflective and evaluative practice, in line with the professional standards. This is aimed to have an impact on our teaching nature that allows us to provide a safe and inclusive learning environment

This may inhibit inclusivity if we do not consult our learners and peers for constructive feedback.
https://degreesfiction.wordpress.com/2012/04/21/the-indeterminate-zones-of-practice/
http://alexperception.blogspot.co.uk/2010/10/reality-consists-of-mental-and-physical.html
Knowles, M. (1984). The adult learner: A neglected species. 3rd. ed. Houston: Gulf Publishing.

Laurillard, D. (1993). Rethinking university teaching: A framework for the effective use of educational technology. London: Routledge.

Ramsden, P. (1992). Learning to teaching in higher education. London: Routledge.

Reece, I. and Walker, S. (2006). Teaching, training and Learning a practical guide 6th edition. Oxford: Alden Group.

Mezirow, J. (1981). A Critical Theory of Adult Learning in Tight (op cite).

Scales, P. (2008) Teaching in the Lifelong Learning sector. Berkshire: Open University Press.

Images are from Google (free to copy)

“Different people learn in different ways; some have a preference for a particular style of learning and teaching. This is why teachers need to understand learners do not all in the same way and they must provide a range of teaching and learning experiences if learners are going to achieve.”

Scales (2008:57)

Compare and contrast approaches to deliver safe and inclusive
teaching and learning.

By using our peer observations to analyse the application of:

Teaching and learning theories and principles in
education and learning.

Models and principles of communication in education and training.

Applying relevant models and principles of reflection in an education and
training context.

Aim:
Key proponents are:

Abraham Maslow Hierarchy of needs
(Physiological, Safety, Love/Esteem, Belonging, Self-Actualisation)

Carl Rogers Core conditions
(Empathy, Congruence, Unconditional positive regards )

A.S. Neill Open Education / Liberation
(Taking initiative)

David Kolb Learning styles model and Cycle, experiential learning theory.
(Experience, perception, cognition behaviour)
Ramsden (1992)

Student-centred learning can be a difficult process
for learners. It aims to promote understanding and deep learning as compared to the alternative shallow or surface learning. It places the onus onto the student to explore and inquire, to reflect and articulate, to collaborate and co-operate, in active tasks requiring enhanced degrees of initiative, interest, motivation and cognitive and physical efforts.

 (Oliver R, 2000:151 cited in Reece et. al. 2006)

Andragogy
Learning is:
Adult based performance- centred as they apply what they learn to their life experiences.

Acquiring readiness process
CHARACTERISTICS
Adults
Student Centred / Student Led
Prior knowledge
Experience
Goal Orientated
Independence
Relevance / Motivation / Deep Learning

Laurillard, D. (1993

Jack Mezirow

Malcolm Knowles

Theories of Andragogy
Ramsden (1992)Key proponents:

Transformative Learning:
Instrumental
Communicative
Emancipatory

Six assumptions about adult learning:
The need to know
Self concept
Experience
Readiness to learn
Orientation to learn
Motivation

Shannon – Weaver’s Model

Carl Roger – Attending Skills

One way or another these principles are connected and used daily.
We discovered that sometimes in one session teachers integrated different aspects of each principle effortlessly.
We learnt that it is important to take information and ideas from all the theories, principles and models presented. This is promotes:
Inclusiveness
Equality & diversity
Motivation
Differentiation and ultimately learning
According to Scales (2008) Continuous reflection on teaching, learning and assessments will help you to understand why, how and when to apply the principles of learning and aid your planning.

Mezirow (1981) stated that to assist adults to learn in a
way that promotes autonomy, self- worth and self-directness in a way that enhances their capabilities. We as teachers of those adults need to help them see the value and relevance in our subjects or lessons.
We do this by having aims and objectives and purposes for our lessons.

Behaviourist Theories
Pavlov (1903) published the results of an experiment on classical conditioning.

Thorndike (1905) formalised the "Law of Effect".

Watson (1920) conditioned an orphan called Little Albert to fear a white rat. Phobia

Skinner (1936) introduced the concepts of operant conditioning and shaping.

Bandura (1963) Bobo doll studies. Social Learning Theory

Learning is:
A change of behaviour as a result of experience and practice.
A continuous process. (Reinforcements)
CHARACTERISTICS
Behaviour is the result of stimulus – response
Teacher Led / Teacher Centred
Trial & Error / step by step
Superficial Learning
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