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US vs. Newcomer

Tour three of the Early Civil Rights Walking Tour. This tour will begin at the Wanamaker Building, which was the location of the Moody and Sankey Convention.

Philly Education

on 14 August 2014

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Transcript of US vs. Newcomer

US vs. Newcomer
Review of Key Players
Historical Context
Fields Cook
John Valentine
Benjamin Brewster
Upton Newcomer
John Cadwalader
Philadelphia Racist Sentiments?
Moody and Sankey Convention
Inside the Convention
Old Pennsylvania Railroad Building
Opening Newspaper
Moody and Sankey Convention Tickets
Map 1875
Bingham House Census
1st Successful Case in Philadelphia?
1875- 14th S. Broad St. Map
1875 City Directory
Philadelphia Connections?
Philadelphia Inquirer
J.W. Chickering Article
1875 Map
Colonnade Ad
1870 Picture of Colonnade
According to a newspaper source, the $1,000 bail, $500 fine, and legal fees were covered by the owner of the Bingham Hotel.
Bingham House Ad
The Bingham House was opened around 1867 and demolished in 1926.
National News Story
Location in which Cook was refused a room. According to the Inquirer, the Bingham was the second place he was turned away.
Upton Newcomer
In an 1870 census, all of the workers who lived on site in the Bingham House were white immigrants mainly from Ireland.
"This is the first case under the Civil Rights act which has been tried in Pennsylvania.

Underlined Quote
Major religious convention featuring well-known evangelical team Dwight Moody and Ira Sankey, beginning in November 1875, running through January 1876.

It is unclear if the African American community had a role in the convention. As of right now there have only been two accounts of African Americans. Fields Cook and an African American woman who Moody kicked out of a service for a type of behavior Moody did not condone.

The convention was held in the old Pennsylvania Railroad building which was purchased by John Wanamaker; 5 months after the convention ended Wanamaker’s Department Store opened.
Newspaper sources reported that on the first day of the convention over 8,000 people attend; throughout the course of the convention nearly one million people attended.
This celebration took place on 14th S. Broad Street at a restaurant owned by John Price, an African American man.
Fields Cook
White minister who lived in Philadelphia during 1876
Celebration Location

Little is known about this celebration or the people in attendance.

One source, Philadelphia Inquirer, made reference to a celebration of thanks to Cook, Judge Cadwalader, and Valentine after Cook won the case.
Celebration Reference

According to one newspaper article, Fields Cook was scheduled to stay with a local family, but due to his race this plan changed upon his arrival. The article reported that Cook was eventually billeted at the Colonnade Hotel after the incident at the Bingham House.

No other sources have been found to confirm that Cook stayed here, nor any sources to suggest the Colonnade was integrated.
The Colonnade was opened in 1860 and demolished in 1922.
"Responding affirmatively, he received a billet to a family in -- St, Philadelphia, who having had no intimation as to the "race, color, or previous condition" of their expected guest."
(Underlined Quote)
"Instead of going to the "Continental"
where he might have been received
like a gentleman as he was, or to the "Colonnade," where he was afterward billeted and made comfortable."
(Underlined Quote)
JW Chickering was the author of this source; he was a congregational minister who may have attended the Moody and Sankey Convention. Chickering was also a religious correspondent for the New York Observer newspaper.
Brewster was the defense attorney for Upton Newcomer and the Bingham House Hotel.
Quote from Newcomer
"Mr. Newcomer said he should not be presuming as a colored man, as the colored people in the city know how to behave themselves."
(Underlined quote in the article)
African American Baptist minister from Alexandria, VA who was refused a room by Upton Newcomer of the Bingham House Hotel. He was the plaintiff in US vs. Newcomer.
Valentine was the District Attorney for Philadelphia and represented Fields Cook in the US vs. Newcomer case.
The presiding judge of the US vs. Newcomer case.
One documented connection Cook may have had was with a white baptist minister Rev P.S. Henson. Henson was the minister of a Baptist church in Philadelphia during the time of Cook's visit.
US vs. Newcomer Walking Tour
First Successful Case under 1875 Civil Rights Act?

Thank you for your participation in this walking tour. Below is the bibliography for all the sources found throughout this presentation.
Full transcript