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03.05 DNA Replication

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Stephanie Reinhardt

on 4 December 2013

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Transcript of 03.05 DNA Replication

03.05 DNA Replication
By: Stephanie Reinhardt
Date: 12.4.13
Class: Biology
Instructor: Roberts, Peter

Translation is the process in which ribosomes synthesize proteins using the mRNA transcript produced during transcription. At first, the mRNA binds with a ribosome so that it can be decoded one codon (three nucleotides) at a time. Each codon codes for an amino acid and so when each codon is read, a corresponding amino acid is activated. A tRNA molecule has two ends: one that has a specific binding site for a particular amino acid and another that has a particular sequence of nucleotides, an anticodon that can base pair with a codon. Appropriate tRNA molecules attach to and carry the activated amino acid to the ribosome. Anticodons pair with codons to bring the specific amino acid to the correct place. A second tRNA repeats this process and the first tRNA releases its amino to the second tRNA. The two amino acids form a peptide bond using the energy from ATP. The ribosome reads the next codon and another tRNA comes along to repeat the process. As tRNA come and go, amino acids link together, forming more peptide bonds. Eventually, a polypeptide chain is synthesized and it undergoes its conformational changes to carry out its function as a protein.
Protein synthesis is the production of a polypeptide based on a certain region of the genetic code in DNA. It occurs in two stages, transcription, which takes place in the nucleus, and translation, which takes place in the cytoplasm. Transcription is similar to DNA replication in that a single DNA strand is used as a template to synthesize a strand of RNA. In the beginning of transcription, the enzyme RNA polymerase recognizes a specific base sequence that codes for the protein of interest in the DNA called a promoter and binds to it. Next, base pairing occurs where the enzyme unwinds the DNA and assembles bases that are complementary to the DNA strand being copied. If the DNA strand contains the base adenine, the enzyme would complement it with the base uracil instead of thymine. RNA polymerase continues to move along the DNA in the 3’ to 5’ direction until it reaches the termination code. In eukaryotic cells, the newly-formed mRNA transcript must be further modified before it can be used. A cap is added to the 5’ end and a poly-A tail (150 to 200 adenines) is added to the 3’end of the molecule.

Instructions: For this assignment, you will write an essay describing the production of protein molecules through transcription and translation. Your essay should include discussions of the following:

DNA
mRNA
RNA polymerase
base pairing
transcription
translation
tRNA
rRNA
ribosomes
amino acids
protein
Full transcript