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Managing Strategic Information

This presentation is about managing and using strategic information
by

KK Aw

on 12 August 2014

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Transcript of Managing Strategic Information

Related objects can be displayed as:
Simple List
Grouped list
List with descriptions
Filtered list
Tree with resource count
Sidebar menu structure
Document path
Tabbed pages etc.
Managing Strategic Information
using the
Multicentric Information Framework

Diversity of information
Types of information – reports, technical papers, articles, news, textbooks, databases, websites, blogs, etc.
Nature of information – basic to highly technical, advocacy, propaganda, entertainment, etc.
Multiple sources – official, academic, NGO, public opinions
Peer reviewed and non-peer reviewed
Primary, secondary and tertiary information
Challenges
Information Explosion
Information Space
Search Engines
Good for beginners looking for popular information as that's what it is designed for.
Not good when you want specific information.
Poor when searching within a specific domain - keywords are too common.
Decisions making support is poor. You get thousands or millions of hits. How much can you read to support your decision making?
It depends too much on choosing the right keywords or phrases.
Information Literacy
Basic Tenet
Definitions:
to recognize when information is needed and have the ability to
locate,

evaluate,
and
use
effectively the needed information – American Library Association, 1989
key to
social,

cultural
and
economic
development of nations and communities, institutions and individuals in the 21st century – Prague Declaration, 2003
President Barack Obama’s Proclamation designating October 2009 as National Information Literacy Awareness Month:

"Rather than merely possessing data, we must also learn the skills necessary to
acquire,

collate,
and
evaluate
information for any situation... Though we may know how to find the information we need, we must also know how to evaluate it. Over the past decade, we have seen a crisis of authenticity emerge. We now live in a world where anyone can publish an opinion or perspective, whether true or not, and have that opinion amplified within the information marketplace. At the same time, Americans have unprecedented access to the diverse and independent sources of information, as well as institutions such as libraries and universities, that can help separate truth from fiction and signal from noise."
Are you sufficiently information literate outside your area of specialization?
Components of Information Literacy
Tool literacy
Resource literacy
Social-structural literacy
Research literacy
Publishing literacy
Emerging technology literacy
Critical literacy
Information is only useful if it is organized.
Characteristics of Information
Types of information
Types of reports
News types
Information Modes
Information presentation
Information scale
The 5Ws and H
Categories of Information
Reports
News
Press release
Legislature
Policies
Guidelines
Standards
Articles
Books
Journals
Bulletins
Presentations
Plans
Videos
Field observations and studies
Assessment reports
Feasibility studies
Development plans
Progress reports
Design
Management reports
Audit reports, etc.
Announcements
Event
Call for action
Venting
Interview
Propaganda
Opinions, etc.
Observed
Modeled
Projected
Existing (as built)
Planned
Recommended
Assertion
Location
W0rk in progress
Tables
Graphs
Maps
Charts
Infographics
Drawings
Photographs
Diagrams
Satellite images
Screen captures
Visual outputs
Modelling outputs
Videos
Text (Narration)
Geographic
Organization
Local
National
Regional
International
Time
Day
Week
Month
Year
Decades
Millennium
Time horizon
Who – people, organizations, stakeholders
What – issues, events, concepts, principles
Where – country, geography, facility
When – time frame, time horizon
Why – theory, culture, practice, discipline
How – process, procedure, methodology
Passport - Metadata, Information about information
Environment - Operating conditions, constraints, topography
Characterization - Objective information
Evaluation - Subjective information
Management - Human intervention, procedures, tracking
Adapted from Bioversity Crop Descriptors
Value of Information
Timeliness
Sufficiency
Level of detail or aggregation
Redundancy
Understandability
Freedom from bias
Reliability
Decision relevance
Cost efficiency
Cost effectiveness
Comparability
Quantifiability
Appropriateness of format
Quantity
Portability
Conceptual Framework
Taxonomy
Information architecture
Controlled vocabulary
Information resolution
Hierachical and network structures
Information Relationship Management
Document Engineering
List Management
Metadata
The practice and science of classification
Plant Taxonomy dates back to the time of Aristotle.
Almost anything—animate objects, inanimate objects, places, concepts, events, properties, and relationships—may then be classified according to some taxonomic scheme.
Also applied to relationship schemes.
Structure for organizing information within a domain
It may combine several taxonomies.
Navigational structure
It provides a network structure for managing connections.
Supports controlled vocabulary.
Used for grouping and filtering of information resources
Definitions:
mandate the use of predefined, authorised terms that have been preselected.
reduce ambiguity inherent in normal human languages where the same concept can be given different names and ensure consistency.
typically handle the problem of homographs, with qualifiers.
Descriptors
In crop descriptors - terms used to describe or characterize cultivars or to distinguish plants or seeds collected in germplasm programs.
Like taxonomy, descriptors list can be developed for any subject matter.
Descriptors can include methods, units of measurement and controlled vocabulary.
Supports information comparability
Large documents such as books, reports, long articles may discuss many subjects, issues, analysis, assertions and recommendations.
Large documents are considered low resolution information as users need to expand additional efforts to get at the information required.
Search engines may return these documents based on popularity.
The large documents need to be preprocessed to disaggregate the information resources into smaller units of information such that they can be posted against the information architecture meaningfully.
A large document can be disaggregated into smaller units of information each representing a reusuable information resource.
The disaggregated information resources can be posted more meaningfully against the information architecture.
Names
Unique succinct identifier for documents
Include where relevant - What, Where, Who and When
Similar to citation but excluding publication
Aliases are familiar in some disciplines, e.g. Scientific name, Common name and Local name.
Ability to sort names is often very useful.
Common way of organizing information.
It provides a checklist to ensure completeness.
Every filing system is imperfect.
It is difficult to find information across different folders.
Information organized based on relationships.
It is a virtual storage that requires the use of computers.
It allows users to look for the information from multiple perspectives based upon the relationships or linkages.
Relationship Management is based on Graph Theory
Relationships help us make sense of the world
International Standards –
Topic Maps,
Resource Description Framework (RDF) and
Semantic web.
Current buzzwords
CRM – Customer relationship management
Social networks - Facebook, Myspace and LinkedIn are all based on relationships
Types of Relationships
Hierarchical or subsumption relationships
Generic associations
Interfaces or directed graphs
Hypergraphs
Arc, link or edge objects
Interfaces can be modeled using the N-Square chart. The N-Square chart is used by NASA for modeling system interfaces.
The resource relationship structure shows how and information resource can be related to other resources and the Information Architecture.
“Document engineering is the computer science discipline that investigates systems for documents in any form and in all media. As with the relationship between software engineering and software, document engineering is concerned with principles, tools and processes that improve our ability to create, manage, and maintain documents.“

ACM Symposium on Document Engineering
Principles
Embed intelligence in documents using XML Document Object Model.
Process and manipulate documents using XML technology.
Document centric workflow
Self-managing documents
Declarative programming is a way of specifying what a program should do, rather than specifying the actual process required.
Managing strategic information requires a flexible and adaptable environment with end-user computing support provided through declarative applications development.
List Management
LISP (LISt Processing) is the favored programming language for artificial intelligence.
Set theory is the branch of mathematics that studies sets, which are collections of objects.
Tree structures are lists of lists.
XML technology is based on list management.
Metadata is information about information.
We need metadata to annotate documents with keywords that may not be included in the text.
The information in the metadata allows the document to be mapped against the information architecture.
Entities Extraction
OpenCalais is a web service provided by Thomson Reuters for extracting entities from text documents.
The entities extract by OpenCalais include:




Calais:
Connect. Everything
Multicentric Information
Framework

Components
Fast flip
Interactive List
processing

Google maps integration
Information network display
Key benefits
Self managing documents
Support browsing – a key requirement for learning
Big picture and baseline information to support systems thinking and systems dynamics
Know what we know and what we don’t - sitemap with resource count
Sense making and weak signals handling - grouping and interactive list processing
Assess the contents of reports – who, where, when and what
Compare information from multiple sources
Geographically located information
Information more
accessible,

usable
and
exploitable
This diversity would imply that business systems designed for business transactions is unlikely to be the right technology for managing strategic information as these systems are designed for
codified
and
repetitive
information. For our purpose, the system must be
flexible,

adaptable
and
extensible.

The basic difference between business information and strategic information are:
In business information, the intelligence is predefined in the database structure for
performance,
For strategic information, the intelligence has to be embedded in the documents for
versatility
and
flexibility.
Object - anything that can be given a name; a container
Aliases - many names for the same object.
Multiple descriptions
Group – Member or
Broader – Narrower representing hierarchical or subsumption relationships
Associates – representing generic associations.
Link objects - representing the relationships between any two objects.
Everyone is managing information in one way or another, but is your strategic information
managed?
Understanding the characteristics of information is a prerequisite for managing strategic information. It allows us to see the dimensions or facets that need to be managed and the opportunities to help us make sense of the information.
Thumbnails of image and PDF files displayed for browing using horizontal scrolling.
Preview of image and PDF files
Any list can be displayed in fast flip mode
Thumbnail and preview image files of PDF documents are system generated.
Makes PDF documents highly visible.

Demo (http://bit.ly/iaumC5)
Dynamic list processing is provided to help make sense of a long list of information.
List can be grouped and filtered interactively based on relationships available in system.
The list can be related objects or a search hit list.
An invaluable tool for unraveling the information nexus.

Information Graph display
Integrated with Gephi, an open-source graph visualization software and NetDraw by Analytictech Inc.
Display network of any entity with selected relationships
Display network of multiple entities.
Demo (http://bit.ly/ez4wgL)
Google Maps Integration
Place marks
Paths
Polygons
Display combined geo-entities from lists
Hyperlinks back to repository
Demo: [xxx]
User defined directives to self manage the documents based on the contents in the various XML nodes of the documents.
Directives will include:
Generation of object names and aliases
Mapping relationships and link objects
Documents workflow
Pick and fill
Distribution instructions
Sources of information
Publishers
Government
Corporates
Research Institutions
News Media
Journals
NGOs
Activists
e-Descriptors
Electronic Forms (e-Forms)
HTML Forms generation from selected descriptors from the descriptors lists. Also generated are related XML schema and XSLT document.
Customization for individual forms.
The HTML forms, XML schema and XSLT documents can be deployed to the various components of the Framework.
Key characteristics of the generated HTML forms:
Bindings to the XML schema
Dynamic picklists
Connected Picklists
Pick and fill
Repeated items, rows or sections for heterogeneous information
Division display controls
Sectionalized editing
Relationships Display
Dynamic Display of Relationships
Complex Problems Solving
Keywords:
Finished products – reports, books, articles
Classification
Archival and Retrieval
Document management
0........1........2........3........4........5........6........7........8........9........10
Data processing
Library science
Keywords:
Observed information
Structured information
Coded Information
Repetitive
High volume
This area is the challenge
for developing an information
repository that makes digital information
accessible, usable and exploitable.

This is one of our key challenges.
KM/IM Space
What we need may be modular units of information with well defined boundaries, e.g.
Tables
Maps
Charts
Illustrations
Images
Assertions
Recommendations
O*Net (Occupation Network) lists the following skills as the capacities used to solve novel, ill-defined problems in complex, real-world settings:
Problem identifications
Information gathering
Information organization
Synthesis/Reorganization
Idea generation
Idea evaluation
Implementation planning
Solution appraisal
Network or Graph Structure
(Any to any relationships)
Declarative Applications Development
Topics,
Social tags,
Geographical entities,
Natural features,
facilities,
organizations,
people,
industry terms,
products,
technologies and
events.
For more information, write to us at support@multicentric.com
Framework Components
Hierarchical Structure
3-Tier Information Management Structure
Covers wide range of information available in different media and format.
Mostly disorganized and unmanaged information.
Depends on search engines to find information.
Search results often depends on choosing the right keywords.
Based on popularity – poor in handling weak signals.
Information cannot be trusted without validation.
Managed information including private information.
High resolution information architecture
Resources
preprocessed
into smaller unit of information to match information architecture
Allows captured information to be combined, collated, compared and viewed from multiple perspectives.
Information repository is the subject of this presentation.
Issue-Based Information System
Evaluation information.
Focus on Issues rather than facts. Issues are what people care about.
Problems decomposed into focus areas and issues to form issue maps.
Reference materials (Facts) required to support issues, positions, ideas, solutions and argumentations.
Application of knowledge to address issues.
This is the subject of another presentation on MctIBIS (http://bit.ly/tw1465)
Strategy:
Diagnosis
Guiding Principles
Coherent Plans
[Guiding Principles]
[Diagnosis]
[Diagnosis]
[Coherent Plans]
[Coherent Plans]
Authors
Government ministry and agencies
Academicians
Journalists
Lobbyist
Individuals
Activists
Information relationship management engine.
Serves repository on the web based on information relationships
Web based document
filing system
Descriptors and electronic forms
Simple list (http://bit.ly/fv2a5r)
Grouped list
List with description
Tree with resource counts
(http://bit.ly/fSPQlu)
`
Sidebar menu with expanded section
Document path (http://bit.ly/eWtxYu)
Descriptors List
A structured list of descriptors for describing businesses, customers, products, services, issues etc. so that they can be compared and consolidated.
Five categories of descriptors - Passport, Environment, Characterization, Evaluation and Management.
"You cannot manage what you cannot describe."
Richard Rumelt, Good Strategy-Bad Strategy, 2011
Reports contain too much information
Large reports may be hundreds of pages long.
People may be interested in less than 1% of the reports' contents.
As such they are unlikely to be interested in investing their time to read the whole report.
The only time they read may be when they want to find fault with the report.
The amount of information available today is more than we can ever read and comprehend.
Much of this information is of minimal practical use to us, i.e. the signal to noise ratio is also very low.
Trying to manage all information would be foolhardy and a waste of time and resources.
We should therefore restrict ourselves to the information related to the issues of interest to us.
Information is only useful if it is organized. The information needs to be rearranged for us to look at it from different perspectives.
A conceptual framework is important to ensure that our solution is grounded in sound theory. Theory should precede design and engineering.
Document Engineering
A large document can most likely be posted against multiple sub-headings.
Organizing information in this manner is not useful as we are mixing low resolution information against a higher resolution architecture.
Metadata is information about information.
We need metadata to annotate documents with keywords that may not be included in the text.
The information in the metadata allows the document to be mapped against the information architecture.
Multicentric Information
Framework

Covers wide range of information available in different media and format.
Mostly disorganized and unmanaged information.
Depends on search engines to find information.
Search results often depends on choosing the right keywords.
Based on popularity – poor in handling weak signals.
Information cannot be trusted without validation.
Managed information including private information.
High resolution information architecture
Resources
preprocessed
into smaller unit of information to match information architecture
Allows captured information to be combined, collated, compared and viewed from multiple perspectives.
Information repository is the subject of this presentation.
Issue-Based Information System
Evaluation information.
Focus on Issues rather than facts. Issues are what people care about.
Problems decomposed into focus areas and issues to form issue maps.
Reference materials (Facts) required to support issues, positions, ideas, solutions and argumentations.
Application of knowledge to address issues.
This is the subject of another presentation on MctIBIS (http://bit.ly/tw1465)
[Coherent Plans]
Information relationship management engine.
Serves repository on the web based on information relationships
Web based document
filing system
Descriptors and electronic forms
`
To use the information we need to reorganize the information from our perspectives.
Full transcript