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Neural Anatomy

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by

Ian McKay

on 11 December 2013

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Transcript of Neural Anatomy

Neural Anatomy
By: Charla & Ian
What is a neuron?
Parts of a Neuron
Cell Body/Soma
Axons
Dendrites
Synapses:
"Site of transmission of electric nerve impulses between two nerve cells or between a nerve cell and a gland or muscle cell. At chemical synapses, impulses are transmitted across microscopic spaces via chemical substances called neurotransmitters. In electric synapses, direct communication between nerve cells whose membranes are fused is possible because ions flow between the cells through channels. Electric synapses are found mainly in invertebrates and lower vertebrates; they transmit messages faster than chemical synapses. Chemical transmission seems to have evolved in large, complex vertebrate nervous systems, in which multiple messages must be transmitted over long distances." Webster
Or Simply:
the point at which a nervous impulse passes from one neuron to another
"One of the cells that constitute nervous tissue, that have the property of transmitting and receiving nervous impulses, and that are composed of somewhat reddish or grayish protoplasm with a large nucleus containing a conspicuous nucleolus, irregular cytoplasmic granules, and cytoplasmic processes which are highly differentiated frequently as multiple dendrites or usually as solitary axons and which conduct impulses toward and away from the nerve cell body—called also nerve cell." Webster
Or... A nerve cell; a cell that transmits information by changes in polarization of parts of its membrane.
The multiple processes of a neuron that receive afferent synapses from the axons (or dendrites) of other neurons.
The long process of a neuron that carries action potentials to the axon terminal.
The part of a neuron containing the nucleus but not incorporating the axon and dendrites
Functional Types of Neurons
Additional Information about Soma
Motor Neurons (Afferent)

Sensory Neurons (Efferent)

Association Neurons
(Interneurons)
Classification by Somata
Axonal Types
Dendrites
Neurotranslators/Neuromodulators
Dendritic Arborization
Testing Methods
Synapses
Isodendritic Neurons

Allodendritic Neurons

Idiodendritic Neurons
Answers:
& Dynein
Axonal Transport System
Fast Anterograde

Fast Retrograde

Slow Axoplasmic
What we're going to cover:
Defining our terms
Categories/types of neurons
Closer look at neural anatomy
Synapses & neurotransmitters
Action potentials
Volume transmission
Axonal transport system
Types of testing
Dendritic Spines
"Any of various outgrowths of certain nerve-cell dendrites, ranging in shape from small knobs to thorn-like or filamentous processes, that are preferential sites of synaptic axodendritic contact."
Resting and Action Potentials
Resting Potential:
The electrical potential of a neuron or other excitable cell relative to its surroundings when at rest.
Action Potential:
The change in electrical potential associated with the passage of an impulse along the membrane of a muscle cell or nerve cell.
Schwann Cells
Any cell that covers the nerve fibers in the peripheral nervous system and forms the myelin sheath.
Schwan's Cells?
Just kidding! It's "Schwann"
Myelin Sheath:
A layer of myelin encasing (and insulating) the axons.
Myelin:
A soft white material of lipid and protein that is secreted by oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells and forms a thick sheath about axons
Kinesin
Ion Mechanisms and Resting Potential
Just to appear smart and agitate math haters
Chemical synapses continues
We forgot Na+!
Don't worry, there's just a few more variables
The difference between Synapses
Glial Cell
Glial cells are A supportive cell in the central nervous system. Unlike neurons, glial cells do not conduct electrical impulses. The glial cells surround neurons and provide support for and insulation between them. Glial cells are the most abundant cell types in the central nervous system. Types of glial cells include oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, ependymal cells, Schwann cells, microglia, and satellite cells.
Volume Transmission and Diffusion
Volume Transmission Types
Axonal Transport System Continued...
Questions?
Sing Along Time!
Electrical Synapses
Full transcript