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Sze Chi Lee

on 1 November 2013

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GEK 1502
Group 14

Functional food
Processes food from the time it is first eaten till when it’s either absorbed by the body or passed out as faeces

Good Bacteria
Bad Bacteria
The ideal ratio
Anti-biotic drugs wipes out both beneficial and non-beneficial bacteria indiscriminately

Our health profile is dominated by what is going on in our gut

What is in our gut is affected by the types of FOOD WE EAT and other lifestyle factors.

Probiotics, prebiotics and functional foods affect our gut in a positive way

Our entire profile is run by

Exists everywhere

Importance of probiotics:

Intestinal bacteria:
Influences many aspects
e.g waste processing, digestion, absorption and distribution of nutrients, energy levels, skin health, energy and longevity, treats necrotizing enterocolitis and prevents pouchitis.
Important for long term development
Particularly important in children’s health
(age 1-7 years)

Development of our immunity system begins at a very sterile point
Causes us to be susceptible to illnesses
As we start to breathe, we start to grow and create a living and good bacteria which we live with throughout our lives.
Benefit in treating atopic eczema and milk allergy in infants and children

Thank you
Examples of probiotics:
Lactobacillus, Lactobacillus GG (often called LGG), found in diet supplements, Yakult and milk products

Effects of Probiotics
Symptoms of lack of probiotics

Digestion problems, lethargy, bad breath, skin problems, bloating and regular bowel syndromes, low immunity, recurrent urinary tract infections

Adverse Effects of over-intake
Gas, abdominal pain, diarrhea

One study found that patients with severe pancreatitis who were given probiotics had a higher risk of death.

In addition, probiotics can be formulated into many different types of products such as foods, drugs, and dietary supplements but are NATURALLY FOUND IN PREBIOTICS.


The food that feeds probiotics to your gut through food supply; a special form of dietary fiber.

Non-digestible/low-digestible food ingredients
Benefit host organism by selectively stimulating growth/activity of one or a limited number of probiotic bacteria in the colon

Prebiotics increase the number or activity of beneficial bacteria by nourishing them

Commonly exists in 3 food groups

Raw plant foods

Sprouted foods

Naturally and fully fermented food.

However, as the need for FUNCTIONAL FOODS rises, prebiotics are being added to many every day food choices such as cereals, biscuits, breads, table spreads, drinks, and yoghurts.

Enhanced and strengthened immune system, Improved bowel regularity, Better-controlled weight and appetite due to healthy gut hormonal changes, Reduced risk of cancers due to reduced carcinogens in the colon, Increase of calcium and magnesium absorption etc.

Functional food refers to any food or food ingredient that may provide a health benefit beyond the traditional nutritional function. The functional food concept was first initiated in Japan in the 1980s.

Has some bacterial strains and products of plant and animal origin containing physiologically active compounds beneficial for human health and reducing the risk of chronic diseases.

They comprise:

conventional foods containing naturally occurring bioactive substances

foods enriched with bioactive substances

synthesized food ingredients introduced to traditional foods

Health effects:

Reduction of cancer risk, improvement of heart health, stimulation of immune system, decrease of menopause symptoms, improvement of gastrointestinal health, maintenance of urinary tract health, anti-inflammatory effects, reduction of blood pressure, maintenance of vision, antibacterial and anti-viral activities, reduction of osteoporosis and anti-obese effects.

Filling of dietary gaps caused by allergies

Allyl compounds have been used as modifiers of the risks of
heart disease
among its many other uses.
Is it feasible to tailor a diet for an individual’s specific genetic profile?

Interaction between diet and development of diseases based on an individual’s genetic profile.


The demonstration of such health effects remains a difficult task that requires long-term experiments.

Kenny, Tim et al., 2012.
(Roberfroid, Marcel 2000)
(BBC Food, 2010)
(Hasler, Clare 2002)
(GoLive Probiotics & Prebiotics, 2012)
(Milner, John 2000)
(Milner, John 2000)
(Hasler, Clare 2002)
GOOD bacteria that is pro-life and supports our intestinal flora

Keep us healthy and well by creating life in our gut.

(Prebiotic Canada, 2013)

(Chen, Julie et al.,2012)
(Jaret, Peter, 2013)
(Prebiotic Canada, 2013)
(Prebiotin, 2013)
(Prebiotic Canada, 2013)

(Prebiotic Canada, 2013)
(Prebiotic Canada, 2013)
(HardysHealthStores, 2012)
(HardysHealthStores, 2012)
(HardysHealthStores, 2012)
(HardysHealthStores, 2012)

(HardysHealthStores, 2012)
(HardysHealthStores, 2012)
(Olejnik, Anna et al., 2005)
(Olejnik, Anna et al., 2005).
(Lin, David C., 2003)
(Olejnik, Anna et al., 2005)
(Olejnik, Anna et al., 2005)
Roberfroid, M. (2000). Prebiotics and probiotics: are they functional foods?. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 71 (6), pp. 1682s-1687s. Retrieved from: http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/71/6/1682s.full [Accessed: 8 Sep 2013].

The Huffington Post (2013). The Benefits of Probiotics. [online] Retrieved from: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/julie-chen-md/probiotics-benefits_b_1934339.html [Accessed: 8 Sep 2013].

Vrese, M. and Marteau, P. (2007). Probiotics and Prebiotics: Effects on Diarrhea. The Journal of Nutrition, 137 (3), pp. 803S-811S. Retrieved from: http://jn.nutrition.org/content/137/3/803S.full [Accessed: 8 Sep 2013].

Webmd.com (2013). What Are Probiotics? Benefits, Supplements, Foods & More. [online] Retrieved from: http://www.webmd.com/digestive-disorders/features/what-are-probiotics [Accessed: 8 Sep 2013].

Olejnik, Anna et al. (2005) “Probiotics, Prebiotics and antioxidants as functional foods” Acta Biochimica Polonica, Vol. 52, 5th August 2005. Retrieved from:
http://www.actabp.pl/pdf/3_2005/665.pdf [Accessed: 8 Sep 2013]

Lin, David C. (2003) “Nutrition In Clinical Practice: Probiotics As Functional Foods” Sage Publications, Vol. 18, 1st December 2003.
http://ncp.sagepub.com/content/18/6/497 [Accessed: 8 Sep 2013]

(Roberfroid, Marcel, 2000)
(Roberfoid, Marcel, 2000)
Hasler, C. (2002). Functional Foods: Benefits, Concerns and Challenges—A Position Paper from the American Council on Science and Health. The Journal of Nutrition, 132 (12), pp. 3772-3781. Retrieved from: http://jn.nutrition.org/content/132/12/3772.full#sec-7 [Accessed: 8 Sep 2013].

Milner, J. (2000). Functional foods: the US perspective. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 71 (6), pp. 1654s-1659s. Retrieved from: http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/71/6/1654s.full#ref-5 [Accessed: 8 Sep 2013].

Milner, J. (2000). Functional foods: the US perspective. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 71 (6), pp. 1654s-1659s. Retrieved from: http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/71/6/1654s.full#ref-5 [Accessed: 8 Sep 2013].

Patient.co.uk (2013). The Gut | Health | Patient.co.uk. [online] Retrieved from: http://www.patient.co.uk/health/the-gut [Accessed: 8 Sep 2013].

Prebiotic Canada (2013). Prebiotics - A functional food that stimulates the growth of healthy bacteria, helping produce digestive enzymes.. [online] Retrieved from: http://www.prebiotic.ca/probiotic.html [Accessed: 8 Sep 2013].

Prebiotic Canada (2013). Prebiotics - A functional food that stimulates the growth of healthy bacteria, helping produce digestive enzymes.. [online] Retrieved from: http://www.prebiotic.ca/prebiotic_fibre.html [Accessed: 8 Sep 2013].

Prebiotin (2010). Benefits Of Prebiotics And Probiotics | Digestive Health. [online] Retrieved from: http://www.prebiotin.com/prebiotics/health-benefits/ [Accessed: 8 Sep 2013].

Roberfroid, M. (2000). Concepts and strategy of functional food science: the European perspective. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 71 (6), pp. 1660s-1664s. Retrieved from: http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/71/6/1660s.full [Accessed: 8 Sep 2013].
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