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Energy

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by

Georgia Burden

on 31 July 2013

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Transcript of Energy

By Georgia
Energy
Makes change possible.
Energy makes change possible
Energy is everywhere, from the brain power you are using to breath, to the motors of jet planes. Energy is a type of power, and there are many forms of it. Different types of energy do different things.
Energy can be divided into two parts:

Potential energy (stored) and
Kinetic energy (moving).
Potential (stored) energy is based around an object which is resting and not moving. As soon as this object is forced to move or moves by choice, it is using kinetic energy.
Energy comes in many different ways and forms.
Potential Energy
Kinetic Energy
Chemical Energy
Mechanic Energy
Nuclear Energy
Gravitational Energy
Radiant Energy
Thermal Energy
Motional Energy
Sound Energy
Electrical Energy
What is Energy?
Energy, like mass, is a scalar of physical quantity
Energy can make transformations from one form to another. For example, a battery can change chemical energy to electric energy or a dam can change gravitational potential energy to kinetic energy of moving water.
Naturally, there is reversible energy transformations and irreversible energy transformations. Different forms of energy and how they are used and produced effect if they are reversible or irreversible.
It takes a lot of time, cost and energy to produce energy itself. Conserving energy for cost, greenhouse emissions and the well-being of the earth's health is essential to everyone. From small actions like changing your lightbulbs to energy efficient ones to installing a solar or wind farm makes a huge difference but to what?
It is believed that the reasoning behind conversational issues is to do with the greenhouse gases and emissions which is promoting climate change. However there is no real evidence that the is all but a belief. Until evidence and actions are provided, the difference we are really making is unknown.
The increase of the earth's population leads to the increase of energy supplies. So what happens when we can no longer supply the populations demands?
The Joule is named after an English physicist named James James Prescott Joule who lived from 1818 to 1889. He discovered that heat is a type of energy.
Energy is measured in Joules. Their are many ways to define a joule however, the main definition is that a joule is the amount of energy to move one kilogram over one meter in one second.

Food is the main source of energy for our bodies helping us to run, grow, talk and think.
When we use energy, we never consume it all. Instead, we change the energy we consume into different forms of energy. There will always be the same amount of energy in the world however, more and more of it will be turned into heat and evaporate into the air. It is still there, just hard to use.
What is Electricity?
Electricity is the electrical flow of electrons.
All matter is made up of

atoms
, which have a center called

nucleus
. The nucleus contain positive charged particles named

protons

and uncharged particles called
neutrons
. Around the nucleus there are negatively charged particles called

electrons
. The balance between electrons and protons is usually equal and when this balance is upset by an outside force, the atom will either gain or loose an electron. The movement of these electrons constitutes an electrical current, also known as electricity.
Electricity is a secondary resource, it has been caused by another source such as coal, nuclear or solar energy. Electricity is neither renewable or nonrenewable.
Electricity is everywhere, from the depth of the universe to our very own brains and bodies.
A world without electricity is almost impossible to imagine as we rely heavily on it everyday. It cooks our food, plays our music, lights our rooms, keeps us cool and warm as well as keeping us connected with the world.
Electricity travels at the speed of light, about 300,000,000 meters per second.
A spark of electricity can measure up to three thousand volts. A single bolt of lightning can measure up to three million volts and only lasts less then one second.
A man named George Westinghouse developed a device called the Transformer. This device aloud electricity to be transmitted over long distances faster with less electrical loss.
The amount of electricity used to power a power plant generator is measures in gigawatt hours (GWh). A gigawatt hour is equal to one billion watt hours or one million kilowatt hours (KWh).
Electricity is measured in units of power called watts. It was named to honor James Watt, the inventer of the steam engine. One watt is a very small amount of power. A kilowatt is 1,000 watts. A kilowatt hour (KWh) is equal to the energy of 1,000 watts working for one hour.
How is electricity measured?
An electrical generator is a divice that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy. This process is based on the relationship between magnetism and electricity. When a wire or any other electrically conductive material moves across a magnetic field, an electrical current occurs in the wire.
Electricity can be produced in many different ways with different materials. These selectoin of ways each have a different pricings, time and energy use.
The electricity produced by a generator travels along cables to a transformer, which changes electricity from low voltage to high voltage. Electricity can be moved long distances more efficiently using high voltage. Transmission lines are used to carry the electricity to a substation. Substations have transformers that change the high voltage into lower voltage electricity. From the substation, distribution lines carry the electricity to homes, offices and factories, which require low voltage electricity.
Turbines
An electric utility power station uses either a turbine, engine, water wheel, or other similar machines to drive an electric generator or a device that converts mechanical or chemical energy to electricity.
are burned in large furnaces to heat water that makes steam which in turn pushes on the blades of a turbine.
Coal, petroleum (oil) and natural gas
Natural gas, in addition to being burned to heat water for steam, can also be burned to produce hot combustion gases that pass directly through a turbine, spinning the blades of the turbine to generate electricity. Gas turbines are commonly used when electricity utility usages are high in demand.
Nuclear Power
is a method in which steam is produced by heating water through a process called nuclear fission. In a nuclear power plant, a reactor contains a core nuclear fuel, primarily enriched uranium. When atoms of uranium fuel are hit by neutrons they fission (split), releasing heat and more neutrons. Under controlled conditions, these other neutrons can stroke more uranium atoms, splitting more atoms, and so on. Thereby, continuous fission can take place, forming a chain reaction releasing heat. The heat is used to turn water into steam, that, in turn, spins a turbine that generates electricity.
Hydro Power
is a process in which flowing water is used to spin a turbine connected to a generator. There are two basic types of hydroelectric systems that produce energy. In the first system, flowing water falls through a pipe called a penstock and applies pressure against the turbine blades to drive a generator to produce electricity. In the second system, called a run-of-river, the force of the river current (rather then flowing water) applies pressure to the turbine blades to then produce electricity.
Other Generation Sources
Geothermal Power
comes from heat energy buried beneath the surface of the Earth. In some areas of the country, magma (molten matter under the Earth's crust) flows close enough to the surface of the Earth to heat underground water into steam, which can be tapped for use at steam-turbine plants
Solar Power
is derived from the sun. However, the sun's energy is not available full-time and is widely scattered. The processes used to produce electricity using the sun's energy have historically been more expensive than using conventional fossil fuel. Photovoltaic conversion generates electric power directly from the light of the sun in a photovoltiaic (solar) cell. Solar-thermal electric generators use the radiant energy from the sun to produce steam to drive turbines.
Wind Power
is derived from the conversion of the energy contained in wind into electricity. Wind power is usually an expensive sourceto produce electricity. Because winds are stronger higher off the ground, wind turbine towers are about 30 metres tall to allow the rotor to catch more wind energy. The turbines can also move to face the wind.
Biomass
Wood, municipal solid (garbage), and agricultural waste, such as corn cobs and wheat straw, are some other energy sources for producing electricity. These sources replace fossil fuels in the boiler. The combustion of wood and waste ceates steam that is typically used in conventional steam-electric plants.
Fossil Fuels
Fossil fuels were created millions of years ago in the Carboniferous peroid, long before dinosours roamed the earth. In this peroid of time from 360 million to 286 million years ago, the land was covered with swamps filled with huge trees, ferns and other leafy plants including ancient flora and founa matter deep under the surface of the earth.
As the trees and plants died, they sank to the bottom of the swamps into ocenas which were filled with algae. The animal plant and matter then formed into layers of spongy material called peat. Over hundereds of years, the peat was covered by sand, clay, rock and other materials, which turned into a type of rock called sedimentary.
More and more rocks piled upon one another weighing more each time. These rocks began to press down on the peat, squezzing the peat until water was forced out of it. The peat then turned to coal, oil, petroleum or natural gas.
Fossil Fuels contain high percentages of carbon and include coal, petroleum and natural gas.
Fossil fuels are nonrenewable sources as they take many millions of years to form. However, this does not mean that over time we will have the same amount of fossil fuel as animals and plants decay each year. We are currentlyusing more fossil fuel matter and material then nature can produce. It is very likely that the world's supply of fossil fuel will run out over the next few centuries.
More than 90% of greenhouse gas emissions come from burning fossil fuels.
Oil and natural gas are found under the sea and transferred by oil rigs where workers drill holes to seek oil and natural gas.
Natural gas is made out of methane, which is a simple chemical compound made up of carbon and hydrogen atoms. This gas is highly flammable and is often found near oil, under the ground. Because you cant see or smell natural gas, it is mixed with a stinky smell so you can tell if there is a gas leak.
After the artificial smell is added, the natural gas is sent through underground pipes whih connect to homes, businesses, factories and power plants. Natural gas is burned to produce heat, which boils water, creating steam which passes through a turbine to generate energy in power plants.
Coal comes in many different forms from hard, black rocks to soft, brown dirt. Because of the different forms and sizes of coal, some burn faster, hotter cleaner or more effective then others. Most coal is then transported by trains to power plants where it is burned to make steam. The steam turns the turbines and produces electricity.
Cruse oil and petroluem are flammable liquids found in rock formations in the Earth's crust. Petroleum is mostly used for producing oil and natural gas or gasoline. These can be converted into producing fuels such as gasoline, diesel, jet fuels, heating oils and other various oils and fuels.
Fossil Fuels and greenhouse gas emissions change life on Earth in many different ways for example:
Livestock problems will start to occur. Heat stress will reduce breeding and livestock diseases will spread faster in many directions. Problems with agricultural pests will also multiply and breeding seasons and patterns will be changes.
Forests and tropical areas will have a harder time surviving due to the increase of stress from insects, diseases, competition with new, warm weather based plants, fires and hot, blistering winds.
With rising sea levels from melting ice and snow, costal cities and towns may eventially be forced to evacuate because of the high tide and water level. Small islands and reefs will also be effected. This would also bring an increase in floods.
Animal species that can not move or cope with heat will eventially die off. Whether they are marine life, birds, herbivores or carnivores.
Renewable Energy
Energy efficiency is when you use less energy to provide the same service at the same quality.
Energy efficiency is not energy conservation. For example, turning off a light is energy conservation however, replacing a lightbulb with a compact flourescent one is energy efficiency and uses less energy to provide the same service. Both energy conservation and energy efficiency reduces the amount of greenhouse emissions in the air.
See what to do for energy efficiet tips.
Renewable energy can also be known as clean energy, sustainable energy or green power because it generally doesn't cause much pollution.
Renewable energy is energy which can be obtained from natural resources that can be constantly replenished.
Renewable energy is energy which can be obtained from natural resources that can be constantly replenished.
Renewable energy can also be known as clean energy, sustainable energy or green power as it generally doesn't emit much pollution.
Renewable energy sources include:
Solar energy

Wind energy

Geothermal energy

Biomass
, mainly from plants such as firewood, ethanol from corn and biodiesel from vegetable oil. (However, these cause pollution when burnt).

Hydropower
Although renewable energy is almost always available, it is not commonly used by humans as fossil fuel is so much convenient and cheeper.
Energy Efficiency
References
Solarschools.net - www.solarschools.net

Verve energy - www.verveenergy.com.au


What to do?
How can we improve our planet?
To reduce our greenhouse emission output, our focus needs to be on the source of energy we use the most, fossil fuel. By reducing our fossil fuels and swaping energy sources to renewable energy, we can make a huge significance to the world however, everyone needs to participate as it will be a long, tiering process.
One of the main sources of fossil fuel energy we use is to do with houshold appliences and electricity.
The main appliences that have a huge effect on our energy use are heating and cooling appliences such as hot water systems.
In order to improve this we should look towards:

Solar hot water systems (this will make the biggest improvment)

Insulate our houses (this helps with cold winters and hot summers)

5 star energy wise appliences ( these do cost more than reqular, non energy wise appliences)

Install energy wise shower heads

Only fill the kettel half way when boiling it

Use the microwave to heat food instead of the oven.
Another fossil fuel energy consumer is motor vehicals. These consume fossil fuels from their need of fuel to run. There are other alternitives and solutions to using transport that consumes more fossil fuels including:
Using pulic transport more often and

developing more energy efficient engines if possible.
Electrical cars also appear to be another way to reduce fossil fuels however, it depends on how you are recharging your battery. Besides the fact that electric cars are extreamly expensive, when recharged they use a massive amount of energy.

Instead of rechargin the electric moters with electricity, we should use systems such as wind or tidal power for a more energy efficient recharge.
Energy efficient compact flourecent lightbulbs are a great way to improve our energy imout. They last 10 times longer than incandescent lightbulbs and are more energy efficent. These are a must have to businesses and homes.
References
Energy Story - www.energyquest.ca.gov

IEA - www.iea.org/topics/energyefficiency/

Kidsworld - www.kidzworld.com/article/1423-fossil-fuel-energy

National Center for Science Education - nces.com/climate/climate-change-101/what-can-we-do

Solar Schools - www.solarschools.net

Verve Energy - www.verveenergy.com.au

Wikipedia - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Energy


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