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Absolutism vs Relativism

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Rafael Oropeza

on 18 October 2018

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Transcript of Absolutism vs Relativism

Let's Review!
What are the two types of Virtue Ethics that we discussed from Chapter 4?
1) Nichomachean - Aristotle
2) Confucian
What do you think?
Are morals dependent on the culture you live in?
Or are they absolute across all cultures?
Absolute essentially means “perfect in quality; complete; not limited by restriction or exceptions; not to be doubted or questioned – positive, certain, unconditional.
Cultural Absolutism
Similar moral principles exist in all societies
All people have similar needs
Similar situations and relationships exist across cultures
Similarities in sentiment, emotions, and attitudes
Means there are no values that cut across all cultures and people that are not relative to the specific place or person in and by which they are held.
Values are relative to time, place, person, situation, etc. ; no values are absolute or independent of cultures and people.
Studies reveal wide variation in customs, manners, taboos, practices, and so on, from culture to culture
Moral beliefs derive from culture
Different cultures believe that their morality is the one true morality
Cultural Relativism
Propositions and Truth
Propositions are true or false statements regarding state of affairs (occurrences, events, or happenings).
A true proposition describes a state of affair that was, is, or will be occurring
A false proposition describes a state of affair that did not occur, is not occurring, or will not occur.
Truth is absolute and not relative to belief, knowledge, person, place, or time.
Types of Propositions
Analytic Propositions:
Truths that are known to be absolute because we know the definition and meaning of words
Ex: all triangles have 3 sides
EX: all bachelors are unmarried
Internal Sense
Internal Sense Propositions:
We know to be true merely because we have the experience
Ex: I have a headache
External Sense Proposition
External Sense Propositions:
Describe a state of affairs that occurs in the external world of which we have evidence through our external senses
Ex: there is a table at the front of this room
Moral Propositions
Propositions that have moral impact.
Ex: abortion is evil
Ex: Human beings should never kill other human beings
Generally, but not always, these propositions contain words like should, ought, right, good, etc.
What is relativism? What is it relative to (in terms of ethics)?
What is moral absolutism?
Define the four types of propositions
Chapter 5 - Absolutism vs Relativism
"Nothing is neither good or bad, but thinking makes it so"
Full transcript