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English 10

English 10 Integrated Mind Map Assignment

sally ju

on 23 September 2011

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Transcript of English 10

10 Grammar Short Stories Shakespeare Poetry Writing Clauses Independant Dependant can stand alone as a sentence containts subject and verb
does not express a complete thought
can't stand alone as a sentence can be combined by a conjunction
(FANBOYS) Punctuation Semi-Colon Comma Colon seperates items in a list
seperates an unnecessary idea in a sentence
between IND. clauses and after FANBOYS
After a dependant clause that is followed by an independant clause

Comma Splice: do not join two independant clauses with a comma Althought she was late, all her work was completed follows an IND. clause and introduces an example, list, or quotations

a colon comes after a complete sentence - no "is" or "are" Wrong: What Maria said was: Tommy did not enjoy the ride can replace the period in two sentences with similar ideas
used before certain connecting words which are folllowed by commas

used to organize a complex list Cory didn't put away the dishes; therefore, he had to take out the trash for two weeks My aunt lived in Pickering, Ontario; Edmonton, Alberta;
Seattle, Washington; and Tsawwassen, BC. Gregory only took three possessions: his camera, swiss army knife, and matches Quotation Marks Titles book chapters
short stories
short poems
newspaper & magazine articles
television & radio episodes
titles of songs Italics / Underlines books
long poems
works of art
television & radio programs
newspapers & magazines Plot Diagram Exposition Conflict Rising Action Climax School Days The Tell-Tale
Heart Harrison
Bergeron The Metaphor North End
Faust Short
Stories Setting Conflict Point of
View Theme Irony First Person (narrator) Though one may not think
themself as guilty,
their conscience may
haunt them. D - readers understand
narrator's insanity,
yet narrator claims innocence
V - narrator "loved the man"
yet killed him
S - confesses crime to police Internal Narrator is guilty of
slaughtering the old man,
and his nervous, beating
heart shows his distress S - narrator's home
T - possibly the past, night
W - rain, thunder
M - gloomy, suspenseful,
frightening Man vs Self External Man vs Society Society is forcing "equality"
in unfair ways, which were
challenged by Harrison
Bergeron, the protagonist. Omniscient Understand the feelings of
many characters, and all
thoughts and ambitions
are explained Indivuduals in society
are able to contribute
ideas, skills, and
revolutionary ideas S - Charlotte's schools
T - present time
W - undefined
M - reflective,
thoughtful Internal Man vs Self Charlotte does not stand up
for her ridiculed teacher, and
only realizes her regrets after
Miss Hancock is hurt D - Miss Hancock would
support Charlotte, although
Charlotte doesn't
understand;Charlotte doesn't
reveal her close relationship
with her teacher People should exercise
their right to voice
their beliefs, or it'd
go to waste Internal Man vs Self Alex cannot face is problems,
and instead isolates himself,
digging into a social phobia
which he can't overcome Novels S - home, school
T - past (1990s) during the
back to school season
W - cool, breezy autumn
M - playful, fun, young Nothing will improve
if one does not reach
out for help Limited Omniscient POV changed throughout
the story to share several
characters' perspectives Parents will always
strive to give their
children the best that
they deserve Resolution Short Stories Novels single outstanding character
single plot & principal episode
very condensed, including narrative techniques
read in single sitting
<20,000 words
most characters are essential
characters aren't as developed variety of different characters
more than one episode including conflict
several narrative techniques used repeatedly
includes cliffhangers
several chapters or sections
includes minor characters and scenarios
characters and setting are thoroughly developed plot
POV S - Nova Scotia; Alex's home,
office, isolation chamber
T - present time, spring
W - end of the winter
M - profound, surprising S - Alex is expected to recover
for the sake of his family, as
well as his own health, but
carelessly digs himself deeper
into the isolation chamber,
leaving himself helpless S - readers expect Harrison,
being the protagonist, to save
society. However, the story
concludes with the death of
the rebellious citizen S - Bergeron household,
television studio
T - 2081 (far future)
W - undefined
M - profound, mature,
symbolic Omniscient Every character's
thoughts are
revealed Story was told with
Charlotte being the
central focus Limited Omniscient Tom Robinson's
trial People Environment Prejudice Boundaries Courage Compassion trapped characters Boo Radley Tom Robinson Mayella Ewell gossip
closed-minded opinions racism
community suppression
jail poverty
reputation breaking boundaries Boo Radley Tom Robinson Mayella Ewell communication with children escaping from jail
speaking against accusations hiding
expresses love for Tom court case Atticus Tom Robinson pleaded innocent, although jury was biased
recognized his rights as a human defended Tom
defied Maycomb's gossip
fought to make a difference Scout's life Aunt Alexandra Jem Calpurnia shows strength
unabashed by racism
supportive of Atticus role model
proud of father primary caregiver
mother figure to Scout Maycomb small secluded gossip and reputations don't change
whole town finds out about news community is quite familiar with eachother
little interest from outside the town
less global influences Finch household respectful Finch family Atticus Scout & Jem respected everyone, regardless of age, race, or reputation
taught children to treat others how they'd like to be treated honored Atticus' views
learned to respect Tom, Mrs. Dubose, and Boo Radley reputation racism gossip any news is quick to spread throughout Maycomb
characters don't realize or confront their bias Terms rhetorical devices enhance the listening pleasure of a poem figurative devices repetition alliteration assonance consonance repitition of initial sounds within a line of a poem repetition of >2 vowels repetition of >2 consonant sounds onomatopoeia word's sound suggests it's meaning eg
woof sounds euphony cacophony harmonious words which create a pleasant flow harsh sounds intentionaly placed together comparison simile metaphor conceit direct comparison using "like", "as", or "than" direct comparison using identification ("is") extended, elaborate metaphor characterization personification humanistic qualities given to inanimate things or ideas apostrophe an address to a person or personified object not present emphasis allusion direct reference to a different popular idea hyperbole an impossible exaggeration litote understatement used for emphasis repetition words or sounds repeated to provoke emotion symbolism an image suggesting another idea contradiction paradox oxymoron rhetorical question euphemism asking a question with an obvious answer a seemingly contradictory statement that may be true two contradictory terms brought to emphasize an idea expression of an unpleasant fact in more pleasing language Introduces the characters, setting, and any critical background history The problem in a story that a character must come across, either against another antagonistic force, or the character itself. External Types of Conflict Man vs. Man
protagonist is pitted against another character, or group of characters. sometimes physical Man vs. Nature
protagonist has conflict with an element outside of his control Man vs. Society
protagonist struggles against ideas, practices, or customs of other people Man vs. Self
protagonist strruggles with a decision or change within them self Internal Another force that may or may not be relative to the conflict which prevents the characters from solving the conflict The highest point of the story, where the conflict is about to be finalized waves wailed and wallowed through the water the exams were a breeze Shelly worked on the cake for decades her skin was as pale as snow Sarah pulled a Houdini on the teacher imagery wording in a poem that enhances the reader's senses larger half pictures speak more than words The outcome of the story where the action slows and any loose ends are resolved Types of Characters Protagonist Antagonist Central character in the story The force against the protagonist (see "Conflict") Round
usually progatonist
complex. multi faceted character Dynamic
character that undergoes changes Foil
two characters with contrasting personalities which emphasize eachother Static
character that remains the same throughout the story Flat
a character with a single dimension
minor character Stock
a flat character with a typical, stereotyped personality Charlotte in The Metaphor realizes her bitterness Policemen in The Tell-Tale Heart play a minor role Charlotte's proper, sophisticated Mother vs. Miss Hancock and her extravagant appearance George and Hazel Bergeron remain the same Alex in North End Faust The narrator in The Tell-Tale Heart has the typical ":Madman" personality S - setting
T - time (season, year, time of day)
W - weather
M - mood Short Story Concepts Point of View story is told by a character
reader sees the story through a character's eyes
only understand's a single character's ideas
told with "I, me, we" etc First Person Limited Omniscient story told in third person
thoughts of certain characters
readers' knowledge is limited to that of each character's
told with "they, she, he, it" etc auther knows and see all
any characters' iedas can be revealed and commentated
told in third person Omniscient Objective appears as if a camera were following the story
no comment; readers can only placed as a spectator without explanations
reader must interpret story
told in third person Irony Verbal Irony when the opposite of what is said is truly meant
also called sarcasm Dramatic Irony audience knows something that the character doesn't know
reader can predict what will conclude Situational Irony reader expects one circumstance, yet the reverse happens
unexpected conclusion Theme Central Concept unifying generalization about life implied by the story
includes major details of the story
not conrtadicted by any detail
cannot rely on supposed facts Expression theme isn't a moral or lesson
theme should not be cliche; cliches reduce impact
must be a statement, in sentence form Cliche: expressions overused by writers which have lost their effectiveness "apple of his eye"
"sly as a fox" Style Dramatic Elements The sequence of events within a story, where a dilemma arises, suspense is created, and conflict is examined and finally resolved. Symbolism Vocabulary Diction Satire word choice abstract/concrete, imagery, figures of speech, thythm and sound patterns, repitition emphasis on the vices of a person or group for the purpose of humor or reform Dialogue the contrast from the speech of particular groups of characters Tone speaker's attitude toward the subject Irony A difference from what is expected Connotation The emotions associated with the word, which varies depending on a reader. Either positive or negative. Denotation The meaning of a word as defined by the dictionary. weeds plants foliage - neutral + a concrete image that represents a more abstract or complex idea
often repeated, emphasized, or significantly placed in stories black cats symbolize bad luck
a forest symbolizes life and nature Foreshadowing Flashback Narration Suspense an uncertain outcome that jeopardizes the expectation of readers a hint or clue as to another event later on in the story ashes on a sidewalk may foreshadow that the characters will encounter a fire a shift in scenes in a story, where readers view another event in the past that is relevant to the plot the speaker who recollects the story to the audience devices which appeal to the mind of readers Types of Poems Name Description Example Narrative ballads poem tells a story
emphasis is on plot. narrative poem composed to be sung
contain action & simple language The Charge of the Light Brigade
Alfred Tennyson Fair Helen
Anonymous Lyric poem that expresses personal ideas of the speaker
song-like form free verse King of Pain
The Police The Islands
Margaret Atwood poem with no end rhym, regular rhyme, or regular length
relies on natural speech rhythms found poetry the creation of a poem based on the composition of different, uncoordinated sources In-Class Found Poem Presentations
Ms. Szolomicki's Class 14 line poem written with rhythm
expresses a single theme or idea sonnet Act I Prologue
Shakespeare Patterns Atticus was sure to respect everyone, regardless of age, race, or status diverse the younger characters are influenced by Atticus, Calpurnia, and Alexandra, who are all quite dissimilar
the children embrace their vast relationships Maycomb was generally quite narrow-minded, and never tested their limitations
reputations and statuses never changed within the town (eg. Boo Radley) Tom Robinson Calpurnia Tom wasn't trusted due to the racial injustive in Maycomb
Unfairly treated, yet the unjustice was quietly accepted prejudiced by Aunt Alexandra
avoided conflict by expressing her views in the Church
kept her self-respect External Boo Radley demonstrated compassion towards children and society
informal communication showed love and caring
deflected prejudice Court Reverende Sykes welcomes and accepts the children
Judge Taylor strives to give Tom Robinson the best change at expressing the injustice by appointing Atticus rhythm rhyme structure stanza rhyme scheme refrain a single repeated line within a poem ... And miles to go before I sleep
And miles to go before I sleep Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening
Robert Frost similarity of sounds within words, which often contributes to the musical flow of a poem the stresses in poetic lines, or the intended flow of the words Shakespearean sonnets consists of pentameters the pattern of rhymes in a poem, defined by the last word in each line Elizabethean sonnets have a rhyme scheme of ababcdcdefefgg the arrangement of a number of lines in a poem; each new stanza represents a change in ideas Falling
Action The point where the plot slows down immediately after the climax To Kill a Mockingbird Mood atmosphere the writer's emotions towards a piece. the effect of the writer's mood on a piece; represented by the setting of the plot and how the readers feel Harper Lee may have felt inspired and defiant before writing her eye-opening book.
Lee wrote the book during the peak of the Civil Rights movement, when the injustice of segregation was being regocnized. Maycomb is a judgemental town, yet the Finch household is warm and youthful.
TKAM was written in the time period of the Great Depression, where economy was low and living standards were difficult. Essays Persuasive Literary Narrative Universal Essay Structure Introduction Hook - interests the reader question, controversial statement, generalization, quote, etc.
State purpose - introduce the topic and summarize background
3 issues - state the evidence behind the topic
Thesis statement Body Paragraphs Topic Sentence - includes a transition and must be related to the thesis
Explanation - convey ideas to the reader

Concluding sentence - reconfirms the topic sentence SEE
State a point for the thesis statement
Example that supports the topic sentence
Explain the example's impact on the topic Conclusion Synthesize - reword the thesis statement and show their relationship
Purposes - review and re-summarize the three ideas in reverse order
Pursuade - convince the reader of the original opinion
Concluding sentence - a profound statement that makes the reader reflect afterwards argues a point about a specific topic
statements, followed by facts provide examples focus on a piece of literature
includes character analysis, theme examination, plot analysis told in chronological order
explains an event that happened to the reader
only essay written in first person About Structure essay where the goal is to convince reader to adopt the perspective of the writer
logic and reason argues the writer's idea
displaye extensive understanding of the material straightforward and convincing language
consider feedback from counterarguments
include evidence and proof from proved sources About Structure expresses ideas about literary work
writer poses their interpretation of concepts in a piece of work
quotes must be used librerally to provide evidence from the text each topic sentence relates back to the thesis
introduce the essay with a short summary of the plot that relates to the thesis
formal essay written in present tense About Structure personal story of the writer told in chronological order

topic idea is proved by the story introduction establishes setting and defines the thesis
body paragraphs use imagery to show the reader the proof
dialogue may be cautiously used
conclusion is the epiphany where the issues are solved Compare & Contrast identifies the similarities and differences between works or ideas
requires careful organization About Structure two topics discussed simaultaneously

contrast introduction displays all the ideas that will be compared
topics should be balanced, fair, and consistent
details, examples and quotations provide clarity The order in which events occur Examaning similarities between several entities Explanation of differences between entities Tragedy Novel scenes / acts
plot movement is clearly defined in acts
quick action
many events are against the favour of the protagonist
final suspense where plot seems favourable
catastrophe: the complete downfall of the protagonist at the end of the series irony
figurative language
dynamic characters
tone Exposition Exciting Force Rising Action Climax Falling Action Final Suspense Catastrophe chapters / parts
chapters create suspense, rather than divide plot
action is detailed
characters are well developed
falling action does not lead to more suspense; no more action is included
conclusion is usually in favour of the protagonist, and does not require further examination Do Don't transitions & quotes

be specific & detailed

persuasive language

analyze the info Transitions at the beginning of each new paragraph to create an easy flow. Use proven evidence to convince readers and demonstrate understanding Be sure of what is written - less "maybe, possibly, sometimes, somewhat" etc Five readers more information than they originally know. Writers can argue their interpretations in writing, use run-on sentences

limit vocab

write in wrong POV

rely on redundancy Use punctuations and varied sentence structures to keep the writing clean Use thesauruses or language from the text to explain ideas Many essays can only be written in a single point of view Use concise language to argue ideas, and do not repeat ideas or topics anywhere in the body paragraphs About
Shakespeare History born in 1564 in London
written total 37 plays and 154 sonnets His Work plays were appealing with action, violence and poetry
captured human emotion and universal themes
used historical sources (allusions)
histories, comedies and tragedies propaganda - communication used to influence it's audience to realize a different perspective
Shakespeare had certain characters which were thought to resemble Nobles of the time Criticism during the area, there was still racial, religious and gender biases, which are included in Shakespeare's works

works were sumetimes subject to criticism for containing propaganda bias - favouritism of one side in a dispute comedy - amusing, light words. Shakespeare's plays often dealt with mistaken identity, and misunderstandings

tragedy - Shakespeare's most successful works, in which a noble has a flaw which leads to his demise The Tempest, A Midsummer Night's Dream Macbeth, King Lear, Othello Presentation Direct Indirect character's personality, attitude and behavior is revealed by the narrator, author or other characters character's personality isn't described, rather, traits are defined by how characters act or the dialogue Exposition Finch family, Calpurnia and Dill are introduced in Maycomb
children pester Boo Radley
Dill leaves and Scout starts school in the autumn
family dinner where Scout evesdrops on Atticus Conflict Atticus is appointed to defend Tom Robinson Tom Robinson's family is jeopardized
Jem & Scout are teased by Mrs. Dubose
disagreeable Aunt Alexandra creates a disruption in the family
court trial where Ewells are introduced
Tom Robinson is trialed as guilty, although Bob Ewell hit Mayella Rising Action Climax Atticus reveals that Tom Robinson tried to escape but was brutally shot Falling Action Bob Ewell harasses trial members
school show where Jen and Scout are hurt by Bob Ewell Conclusion Boo Radley saves Jem and Scout, who befriend him slang informal language used in dialogue to enhance characters' personalities Structure Terms two feuding families, Mantagues and Capulets introduced in Verona
Romeo shows desperate love for Rosaline Romeo and Mercurio break into Capulet party
Romeo meets and falls in love with Juliet
Tybalt banishes the Montague Romeo seeks the Friar for assistance
Friar devises a plan to evade Juliet's marriage with Paris Mercutio and Tybalt are killed, thought Romeo is banished
Juliet unknowing of Romeo's sentence, drinks the potion Romeo purchases a potion once finds himself helpless
Capulet family must change the party; not much regard to Juliet Romeo drinks the potion and dies
Friar finds Juliet after plague clears and hurries with her to find Romeo Romeo dies to be "reunited" with Juliet
Juliet finds Romeo and kills herself plays are written in blank verse, except for prequels, and soliloquies, which are english sonnets

Shakespearean plays are dramatic

include aside comments blank verse - lines do not contain internal or end rhyme drama - a piece of literature to be performed, specifically acted community court Miss Maudie supportive paternal figure to Jem and Scout
represents strength and optimism Stephanie Crawford town gossip
holds little opinion of her own Miss Caroline does not adapt well to Maycomb
represents hypocrisy in her lesson discussing racism Dophus Raymond openly disregards Maycomb's opinion
breaks a racial boundary
situational irony displayed, as he is not really drinking Bob Ewell unpleasant reputation and poverty
alcoholism causes him mental stress Miss Maudie Certain less literate characters in TKAM are shown to demonstrate slang in their dialogue Colloquial the contrast between formal dialogue in literature to more familiar speech Atticus' speech is much more formal, yet most other characters display informal speech, sometimes containing slang. Plot Diagram External Man vs Nature The frogs that Morley and
Dave set off cause trouble,
rather than bring joy to the
students. S - readers expect that the
parents' hard work will
enlighten the children, yet
the frogs cause trouble popular symbols of peace
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