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Social and Political Effects of Vietnam War

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Shray Patel

on 11 January 2015

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Transcript of Social and Political Effects of Vietnam War

Social and Political Effects of Vietnam War
Tet Offensive
LBJ Continuation
Takes Officer
of Saigon
Powers Act
My Lai
Peace Accords
Democratic Convention

Protest/Kent State
vs. Hawks
MLK Impact
in Vietnam
The Draft/
African Americans
And Women in Vietnam
The significance is that his continuation of the Vietnam War inevitably led to the demise of LBJ’s Presidency.

His inability to end the conflict in Vietnam cast a pallor on his term and led to widespread anti-war demonstrations, and he chose not to run for reelection in 1968 and died in 1973.
Signified the attack of the North Vietnamese on the South Vietnamese with 70,000 members of the Viet Cong and the North Vietnamese Army, coordinating this attack on over 100 cities and towns.
This offensive signified the attack and reciprocation of war from the North to the South, a sign that the North wanted to gain back the land that they thought was theirs.
Nixon was appointed as president in the 1968 election by popular demand, primarily due to the implications where he influenced the outcome of the war by withdrawing and pulling out of the Vietnam war, slowly, whilst still reinforcing South Vietnamese forces.
The effect was that Nixon pulled out of Vietnam in a few swift months, bolstering Vietnamese defenses.
Secretary of State and Foreign Policy Adviser
Negotiated US exit from Vietnam
Later created relations with the Soviet Union and China
Implanted Vietnamization

Made US public happy for Vietnam exit
Kissinger recognized as a fantastic diplomat

Policy implemented by the Nixon administration
Plan to get the United States out of Vietnam, while training South Vietnam to fight and survive
Plan to remove ground forces before aerial forces

Got United States out of Vietnam
Still slightly involved through Air Force and advisors
American public happy with removal

United States invaded Cambodia to eliminate Vietnamese forces
Cambodia was a weak nation that was used by Vietnamese for bases
When US introduced Vietnamization, the US continued in Cambodia to ensure South Vietnam was safe

Prolonged the war
Lead to anti-American sentiment due to the secret nature
US was supposed to be leaving Indochina

Attack on the town of My Lai by US forces
Surprise attack
Killed many innocent civilians - brutal

Showed the United States the ways in which government/military works
Questioning of order giving
Questioning of government objectives

In 1973, the Paris Peace Accords intended to established peace in Vietnam, ending direct US military involvement and temporarily stopped the fighting. North Vietnam, South Vietnam, the United States, and the PRG all met and agreed on ending the war and restoring peace in Vietnam.
This accord was the first meeting directed towards peace talks and led to a period of peaceful coexistence between North and South Vietnam. Temporary peace was reached, but not long after North Vietnam and eventually South Vietnam violated the agreement and resumed the fighting.
The War Powers Act is a federal law intended to check the president's power to commit the United States to an armed conflict without the consent of Congress.
This allows the President to send U.S. armed forces into action abroad only by declaration of war by Congress, "statutory authorization," or in case of "a national emergency created by attack upon the United States, its territories or possessions, or its armed forces."
Saigon, the capital of South Vietnam, was captured by the Northern Vietnamese, causing the city to fall.
The city of Saigon had been under pressure from the North for about seven years, making it inevitable that it would eventually be unable to withstand any longer.

The Fall of Saigon marked the end of the Vietnam War, as the South was no longer able to withstand any more communist forces.
Many United States citizens were deemed exempt from being drafted into service during the Vietnam War.
Men were exempt for working in a particular industry, for attending college, and for having certain medical issues among other reasons.

The deferments did not allow the United States to draft as many men as they may have wanted to.
Deferment later came under fire when George Bush was elected President, as he was exempt from serving in the Vietnam War.

An increasing amount of African Americans, especially African American women volunteered their services for the Vietnam War.
Many women served as nurses on the battlefield

The African American’s involvement in the Vietnam War paved the way for their involvement in future wars, as now nothing is thought of African Americans going to war.
Troop morale dropped drastically in the Vietnam War as a result of questionable objectives, uncertainty towards the enemy, and the draft.

As a result, heavy numbers of soldiers went AWOL or deserted. Johnson came under heavy criticism for the draft and forced involvement of the soldiers in Vietnam
After Vietnamization, desertions rose to all-time highs, and public support for the war plummeted.
Kent State and campus protests occurred when Nixon announced further U.S involvement in Cambodia
Public support further plummeted after the shootings at Kent State. The public were in uproar after the further involvement and the shootings at the campuses
Further protests surrounding the Vietnam War occurred at the 1968 Democratic Convention in Chicago
Support further waned for the Vietnam War as a result of the police aggression and fighting between protesters. Further rioting ensued in opposition of the continued efforts in Vietnam
The Pentagon Papers are a collective account of a United States' political-military involvement in Vietnam from 1945 to 1967
They revealed that the Johnson Administration "systematically lied, not only to the public but also to Congress."
The release of these papers altered public opinion of the Vietnam war. People saw the true nature of US involvement in Vietnam
The United States became divided in regards to support of the Vietnam War, with people that wanted war were called “Hawks” and those who did not want war were deemed “Doves.”
The Doves thought that the Vietnam War was a civil war that the United States had no part in becoming involved, while the Hawks were in full support of the U.S. war efforts

The Doves held numerous anti war protests, mostly on college campuses, which caused many other young men in school to also oppose the war efforts
The protests started a slew of rebellion throughout the United States, with young people in the 1970s not following the typical American standards
This lead to illegal drug abuse throughout the United States

The government was forced to see protest of citizens and was almost forced to withdraw due to the lack of support from citizens
Martin Luther King Jr. was a revolutionary icon to the citizens of America with the point that the government spends too much time and money on national problems and not enough on American problems
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