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Social Enterprise

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James Magnus-Johnston

on 21 November 2014

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Transcript of Social Enterprise

What market-provided goods and services do you access on a daily basis?
Think outside the box for a moment! What goods/services do you access that are not provided by the market?

(hint: they generally provided by nature, by the government, or another third party organization)
A market problem
A market failure
The "market" = a place where buyers and sellers trade goods
A product or service that can
solve a problem in the marketplace;
entrepreneurs can offer a "value
proposition" that improves lives

Examples?
A problem where the buying and selling of goods/services cannot be leveraged to improve lives

Examples?
Markets
"utilize individual self-interest
to efficiently allocate resources (means)
among alternative ends via the pricing
mechanism" - Daly & Farley
Under what conditions do markets fail?
1. Inefficient allocation of resources to competing ends
2. Absence of competition
3. The inherent characteristics of particular resources
4. Inefficient distribution of resources to people
Reasons for market failures
1. "Allocation"

A market good or service must be:

(a)
Rival
-- One for which its use by one person prohibits its use by another person (eg. food, clothing, cars, homes).

(b)
Excludable
-- One for which ownership is possible
with property rights
. If a good is not excludable, someone can use it regardless of whether or not it is owned! Therefore, it cannot be allocated (eg. cars, homes).

Many non-excludable goods are provided by nature (eg. fish in the sea).
"if people are unwilling to pay for a good,
there will be no profit in its production"
(see other slideshow)
(a whole other kettle of fish)
"The capacity of a system, be it an individual, a forest, a city or an economy, to deal with change and continue to develop. It is about the capacity to use shocks and disturbances like financial crises or climate change to spur renewal and innovative thinking..."
Resilience
- Lewis & Conaty, 2012
- They argue for a major SEE (Social, Ecological, Economic) Change
- Replacing the paradigm of limitless economic growth
- A decentralized, cooperative, steady-state economy
- Provides a sense of purpose and focus for Social Entrepreneurship

Are we facing limits? Which ones?
Is the "resilience imperative" compatible
with the principles of business? Can you
achieve a profit while meeting social and
ecological ends?


Daly & Farley argue that "if people are unwilling to pay for a good, there will be no profit in its production" -- in other words, business requires profit
Give some examples why/not using the terms
"market problem" and "market failure." Find examples in your text
The authors present a comprehensive series of strategic questions with a focus on legal and business structures in the following subject areas:

- Energy sufficiency
- Local food systems
- Low-cost financing
- Affordable housing and land reform
- Democratic ownership and sustainability
Be prepared to challenge deeply embedded cultural assumptions.

At the same time, each section of this text is complemented by case studies of pioneering community initiatives rounded out by a discussion and reflections.


What's the difference between
poverty
and
inequality
?
Inequality
: Refers to the distribution of resources and wealth among people

Poverty
: Refers to the inability of individuals to meet basic needs
A response to three broad and ubiquitous issues in the industrialized world:

1) Climate Change
2) Peak Oil
3) The Casino Economy ("the debt burden")

... each of which have serious social implications.

In groups, can you explain to one another what each of these terms refer to? Be sure to use citations from Chapters 1 and 2 in your text.


What do Lewis & Conaty argue cause inequality?
1 of 23 financial crises in the last century occurred prior to 1970.
Refer to:

"Minsky
Instability
Hypothesis"

Low interest rates
High levels of debt
The government "prints money"

Community responses to inequality

"Wealth vs. Commonwealth"
What are three ways allocation took place
in earlier urban civilizations?
Reciprocity: social capital

Redistribution: governance

Regulated markets: governance and local approaches
Consolidation of land ownership

The ascendency of the corporation

A shift toward debt-based banking
What are some alternatives to debt-based banking?
Marty Donkervoort
-
held senior positions
in private corporations, public sector, social economy
- founded
Away Express
, a social enterprise courier service in Toronto
- mentored
The Big Carrot worker co-op
in the retail health food business
-
founded and managed Inner City Renovation
, a construction sector SE
-
taught courses
at Ryerson University, the University of Winnipeg
- a
past director of the Canadian Worker Co-op Federation
, the Worker Owner Development, and the Social Enterprise Council of Canada, among others
-
has an MBA and BSc
in timber engineering
1. 100% Debt-free



2. Cooperative finance



3. Public Banks
"if interest must be charged, why not allow more public ownership of banks" (Canada 1938-1971)

Why Keynes' policies worked!

eg. North Dakota
Historically set up in protest to usury and debt-based banking

eg. "Building Societies" (UK, 1775) = mutual savings
eg. "Credit Unions" (1930s)
eg. "Negative Interest"

"Social Enterprises"

Silvio Gesell (1890s)
Decentralized
currency
put people
to work
during
the depression
Tried in:
- Minneapolis
- Iowa

Currently:
- Brixton
Jord Arbete Kapital
(Land Labour Capital)
1930s: Expanded to 1.5 of Danish money supply
1935: Successfully used debt-free banking

Was shut down, and re-started recently with
great success in Sweden and Denmark
Big proponents: Henry Ford

"do you appreciate that 80 cents of every dollar raised by taxation is spent in the payment of interest?"
Used by
Early Romans
Early Americans

Frederick

Soddy

Currency must be bound by thermodynamic physics

Physical wealth is subject to physics (decays over time); money must reflect this reality rather than appreciate without limit

Compound interest is physically impossible!


Energy Efficiency
vs.
Energy Sufficiency
What's the distinction?
Energy increase
~ 1%
28% bigger
In Manitoba, what requires the use of fossil fuels?
Almost everything requires fossil fuel!
Courtesy
50x'30


Increase
renewable
energy mix
50% by 2030
Why do we need to reduce our energy use?

Potentially catastrophic climate change
What are some examples of innovative social enterprises/initiatives to reduce fossil fuel dependence?
(Essentially everything happening in Denmark)

Fossil Free Kristianstad:
municipality wanted to be fossil-fuel free

Rural district spread out over 25 towns/villages
Kristianstad Energy Ltd. began to replace oil with biofuel (wood) in 1980s
Many job opportunities








Yorkshire YES program
: actions of private citizens

- install PV and solar thermal technology
- dramatic energy-conservation and carbon reductions

Kirklees Energy Services
: non-profit SE enabled 2080 energy saving measures in 1,455 households over three years (home retrofits, better energy options)

- reputable installers
- customer care
- loan program and rebates
- accessed municipal capital

Transition Initiatives:
Generally volunteer-based; also many SEs
UK
Denmark
Providence...


1. Jobs -- "the best social program is a job"


BUILD
"for every million dollars
public agencies invested in the energy efficiency of low-income households, over $20 million is returned in societal benefits – a ratio of 20:1. By contrast, investments in manufacturing generated a 10:1 societal return"
What's the economic argument in favour of
green energy social entrepreneurship?



2. Savings: four groups to benefit from utility bill reductions


1. 100,000 low-income Manitobans
2. Government of Manitoba
3. Federal government and CMHC
4. Manitoba Hydro
Shaun Loney, p. 52
3. Economic resilience*
1. Solar thermal
2. Solar PV
2. Wind
3. Ground source heat pumps
*Protects against
fossil fuel price
volatility
Summarize one initiative that could improve our efficiency or reduce demand in Manitoba (50by30.org)
Reflecting on initiatives in Denmark and the UK, Who were the catalysts for change in these cases?

(see "Transition factors, in Ch. 5)
How did these initiatives increase resilience?

(see "resilience reflections" Ch. 5)
(GHGs)
2013:
2014:
Province announces it will set up a new "efficiency" utility such as "Efficiency Vermont"
What opportunities are there in energy efficiency
or demand side management (sufficiency) in Manitoba?

1. Energy efficiency:
A reduction in energy used per unit of service (eg. heat, light)

2. Energy sufficiency:
An aggregate reduction in the demand and use of energy

(see website)


1. minimal capital cost
2. minimal need for government involvement
Best of all:
But first, the "market rules" have to be favourable
What is its

(a) structure
(b) mission
The jobs and money stay in Manitoba
1. Biomass


2. Wind


3. Solar


4. Geothermal

400,000 acres
of straw is burned/yr
Creates smoke
and clogs emergency rooms
500,000 tonnes of straw worth $50/tonne
or $25 million
Could heat 100,000 homes
Displaces coal/natural gas
Why not?
Coal's downstream costs are not internalized
Manitoba introduced tax
in January 1, 2012 ($14/tonne)
MB Examples:


Some biomass currently being shipped to Europe
due to policy shifts there
5x more benefits
to local economies
More expensive but more reliable
Perfect for community ownership/finance in SW MB

eg. 1,000 investors involved
Each own $7,000 in wind project shares
constant revenue stream

One big idea
Manitoba Hydro purchase the wind farm up front
Sell back through utility bill ($100/mo)
Community ownership achieved in less than 8 yrs

Manitoba expertise could be put to work
Large aerospace industry means we could attempt to scale up local production

Act outdated

originally encouraged consumption of electricity!

Energy use increased
1000 MW since 1992
Reducing energy for export
(no new generation)
Can be leveraged
for energy reduction!
"My uncle is no environmentalist. He likes to rant about timber stumpage fees and the cost of diesel to operate his trucks. Why does he have solar power feeding into the grid, in Emo, Ontario, and we have none in Manitoba?

Well the answer is very much the same as in the Minnesota/North Dakota wind story. In Ontario, the government has told the utility to support solar power." - Loney, p. 134
Why do large utilities not favour small, decentralized projects despite their benefits for resilience and jobs?
Not "dispatchable"

1. Solar Thermal

2. Photovoltaic
Why does Loney argue this is a great resource for First Nations?
100 tanker truck loads of diesel
trek over winter roads to these communities every year

Very high costs:
($0.60 and $0.67 per kilowatt hour vs. $0.062 per kilowatt hour): 37 times higher
- use public lands for renewables

See: MB Hydro programs
See: RISE/BUILD
Land

reform

- and -
Access to assets
Why would providing access to assets such as land and housing reduce poverty and inequality
SEs can leverage tools like community land trusts to reduce the cost of cooperative home ownership
What is the role of SEs in providing access to assets?
"As soon as the land of any country has
all become private property, the landlords,
like all other man, love to reap where
they have never sowed, and demand a rent even
for its natural produce"

- Adam Smith, The Wealth of Nations
Why do thousands of Americans and Britons owe more on their house than it is worth?

("negative equity")

How have banks been able to foreclose on homes and then rent them out at high monthly rates?

- (Lewis & Conaty, Loc 2037)
How many of you are renting?

How many of you want to own homes?
avg. first-time home-buyer now 35
affordable shelter harder to procure
vacancy rate in Winnipeg < 1%
would be fine if incomes (or life expectancy) were rising
Generation squeeze?
Rent increases harm the marginalized
less money for food as expenses increase
less money for transportation as fossil fuel prices increase
cannot access credit for a mortgage
What if we could...

...increase access to ownership
...cut out up to 50% of the interest!
The Community Land Trust!
How has the CLT

improved access to assets?
fostered a sense of community?
fostered local economic development?
secured a resilient pattern of development?
Who owns land and why?

Can you own something you do not create?
(Rousseau)
Historically, land has been consolidated in the hands of fewer and fewer landowners until the system becomes exploitative

18th C Europe (eg. UK)
19th C Russia
21st C America (Credit crisis and ongoing structural change)
Contemporary pattern of development in Canada
The Community Land Trust
separates land price from house price
in the case of agriculture, land can be rented
rolls land into a non-profit governed by a board
community can participate
structure owned by buyer
inspired by "Gramdan" (Ghandi)
replicated in the US during civil rights movement
also promoted by Tolstoy in Russia
Henry George (US economist) promoted "tax on land"
Case 1: US Community Land Trust (1967)
Swann, Borsodi, and King (cousin of ML King)
Supported by Jimmy Carter
Enabled African American sharecroppers and land tenants ownership of land
Ultimately debt service on land still too high
The Community Land Trust
USES

agriculture
workspaces
parks
housing
BY

community
business
non-profits
co-operatives
Effectively
removes
predatory
rent-seeking
features
of market
Case 2: Champlain Housing Trust
Burlington, VT
largest CLT in US
extended a LOC from city pension fund
resale-restricted
help with down-payments
members pool funds for leverage ;)
nursery, SE centre, legal advice, business incubator
money goes a long way
Effectively an SE
Better than govt programs?

Study by Burlington Associates:

more cost effective
more affordable
return on public subsidies
still provided return to owners
Other Case Studies
Irvine, California (2006)
UK: First Garden City, Ltd. (1903-1995)
Scotland: Isle of Eigg Heritage Trust (1997)
CLTs popular in Scotland, England, Wales
From
Exclusive
Home
Ownership...
..to
Mutual
Home
Ownership

(UK, Sweden)
large co-op
finances smaller co-ops
CLT owns the land
tailored to income
benefits those without equity (you)
financing is the first hurdle
LILAC
Reference "transition factors" in your text.

What are some social, cultural, and economic barriers to the institution of more CLTs in Canada/Winnipeg?
How can the CLT be used to improve
small-scale agriculture and improve resilience?
How can we make our food system
more resilient to climate change,
fossil fuel depletion
and economic volatility?
GMOs?
Critique of industrial food system
- ownership consolidated in very few corporate hands
- patents on seeds?
- monoculture depletes productivity of soils
- destroys traditional livelihoods
- shipped from far away

2009: 5% of food consumed
on Vancouver Island produced there
World: 40% of employment
US: 2% of employment
Price of cheap food
- oil as our "servant"
- oil for fertilizers, pesticides
- machinery for water use
- machinery for packaging
- GHG emissions and climate change
- interference with global
nitrogen cycle
1 barrel = 25,000 hrs of human labour
(12.5 years of FT work)
Julien Tromeur
dreamstime.com
EROEI:

10-15:1 calories
20 barrels of oil for each person/year
- ends up in rivers, lakes, oceans
- destroys oxygen ("hypoxia")

9% of global carbon
37% of methane (23x more global warming potential)
65% of nitrous oxide (296x GWP)
80 yrs ago in US, accounted for 25% of disposable income, now accounts for <10%

Industrial farmers often do not earn a living wage
2-3 companies control

- nitrogen supply
- chemical supply
- seeds
What happens
when land
becomes less productive?
Drought:
China
S. America
USA

One solution:
Seikatsu model
- consumer co-operative
- 1948 Japan: concerned about imported food
- purchasing an "ethical responsibility"
- cut out the middle man; social capital built
- farm-to-table approach; returnable packages
- 11 million members in Japan today ($1.1 B)
- inspired "Indian Line Farm" (MA)
Known in N. America as
"Community Supported Agriculture" (CSA)
- farmers raise captial without debt from shareholders
- urban or rural-based (reclaimed land in Burlington)
- average age of farmers is going up
- Food Hubs help with packaging, storage problems
The Land Trust
- Protects farmlandrst CLT an
- Indian Line Farm (MA) first CLT/CSA in USA
- Intervale (Burlington) a CLT
- land transferred to a trust; co-operatives administer land
- BC passed law to "protect farmland"
Indian Line Farm

-

provides 99 yr lease and requires sound farming practices
- next-gen farmers only lease structures
- retains option to repurchase land
- management fee provided to EF Schumacher Society
What are some reasons
why local development is critical to fostering a resilient society?

“the amount of change a system can undergo…
and essentially retain the same functions”

- Lewis & Conaty

SOCIAL -- ENVIRONMENTAL -- FINANCIAL
“People do not live globally… people spend most of their life time at one place. There they work, live, and develop themselves as well as their environment. An economy that pays attention to these facts, would organise itself more locally and with the people in the centre of all its processes.”

- Norbert Frost in Lewis & Conaty

In what ways are our lives global?

In what ways are our lives local?
Are there big solutions to global problems or are there lots of little solutions to big problems?

(ie. US: 27% income growth since 1979; 33% of gains to top 1%; bottom 60% making less)
Some responses:




- Higher energy costs

- Manufacturing and production jobs

- High capital mobility/flight

- No control over investment and development (“dependency”)

- Fuels inequality

- Social capital networks profoundly local

- High energy (personal; fossil) to maintain global networks
- 90% of all trade is local (Ghemawat, 2007)
Community Economic Development
- Rebuilds rebuild marginalized economies
- Community-specific social/economic goals
- Citizen-led
- Includes non-monetized economic system
- Place-shaping (“price of place”)

An inclusive, local development paradigm
- Eg. Seikatsu food model (local, fair, just, resilient)
- Eg. Kristianstaad (identified renewable potential/needs)

Theological implications: increased spiritual fulfilment

How are CED and SE paradigms complementary?
- Community-led

- Includes cross-section of voluntary organizations, faith-based groups, citizens, business leaders

- Democratically owned and operated

Core Functions of CED Lens
1. Equity and local ownership

Equity = asset value from ownership
Cannot be built without local ownership
Why democratizing ownership critical




2. Credit

Credit can be used to leverage equity
Banks may deny loans to small enterprises
(growth vs. risk)




3. Human Resources

Stagnation = no skills
How to build capacity?
How to leverage technical, financial support?
Particularly important in frontier economies
Also requires education, inspiration




4. Infrastructure

Often purview of fed/prov
Sometimes necessary
First Nations, frontier regions
Social economy makes an excellent partner




5. Planning, Research, Advocacy

Priorities established through research
Gather intelligence
See examples in action




6. Building Strategic Partnerships

Equity = who has access to ownership?
Credit = who is willing to lend?
Human Development = who knows how to help?

1. Education

Profound influence on life
Inner-city, rural, urban, etc.



2. Safety and Security

Risk/perceptions of risk influences business
Influences community spirit



3. Social Supports

Mutual support is fundamental to trust



4. Housing

Influences quality of life
Determines ability to meet needs
Cornerstone of health
Can be source of individual equity



5. Culture and Recreation

Leisure often undervalued
Creates sense of common purpose

What happens when one of these elements is not considered?

Success has been identified!

1. Combine action among many
2. Use local resources
3. Draw upon outside resources
4. Provide funding
5. Provide clout to help remove barriers
6. Technical assistance
7. Long-term thinking

Urban Example:
RESO:
Regroupement économique et social du Sud-Ouest (RESO)

“Transforming Montreal’s Poorest Neighbourhoods”


Why did it start?

- Caught in cycle of decline c. 1950s
- 60% of population left
- 1986: 43% below poverty line; 17% unemployed; 25% on welfare

To achieve its mission, RESO offers services:

To the unemployed
To future entrepreneurs
To businesses in the Sud-Ouest
To young adults (Carrefour jeunesse-emploi du Sud-Ouest de Montréal)
To community organizations and enterprises




"To mobilize the Sud-Ouest community around development strategies and projects so that it takes an active part in creating its economic, social and cultural future in a context that is sustainable, equitable and built on the commitment and consultation of the population and social and economic partners."
Turn around: pre-RESO

- Consumer co-op and housing service established
- 23 Housing Co-ops formed
- 300 homes built
- Residents concerned about gentrification
- YMCA funds two community organizers

Community Development Corporation

- Partnership of 9 organizations
- 140 individuals; 13 businesses
- Business assistance
- Local relocation planning
- Management consultation
- Expansion space
- Direct financial assistance and on-the-job training
- Tension between business-broad coalition

Eventually:

- conflict resolution for workplaces
- convener of big-idea projects
- identified opportunities to localize supply chain
- provided good on-the-ground information for investment
- layoff undereducated vs. re-education
- developed a capital fund (business, union, gov’t)
- elected board includes health, educational, cultural institutions
- candidates forwarded from stakeholder constituencies

Challenges:

- gentrification still happening somewhat
- how to ensure enough earned revenue


Rural Example
Coastal Enterprises (Maine)
- Backing from state and local faith-based groups
- 1.8 B in private/public capital
- Stemmed decline in fishing
- looked for “value added” enterprises
- improvement of natural resource base
- “where can we add the most value” (loc 3901)
- local ownership/products
- equitable distribution
- minimize risk (environmental, economic)


Integrating Sustainability

- CEI model of integrating sustainability
- Co-founded “Triple Bottom Line Collaborative”

- Economy – jobs retained/created
- Environment – positive/negative effects
- Equity – providing capital/assistance to those in need

Summary:

- As much about bridging divides as it is about development
- RESO redefined community and authority
- Not defined by government
- Models of “associational democracy”

Does CED strip right to govern?
Is it a strategic enabler?
Is it an alternative to big vs. small gov't?



“Tipping points” can be local or global
Take a moment to with your neighbour to pick
a local social enterprise
or initiative that undertakes some work with themes similar to Coastal Industries (Maine) or RESO.

Criteria
:

- re-localize the economy
- foster social/ecological resilience
2. BUILD Inc.
Building
Urban
Industries (for)
Local
Development


training program
for people who face
barriers to employment
- retrofit homes with insulation
- high-efficiency toilets
- water-and-energy-saving devices (showerheads, etc).

Services
- lowers utility bills
- employs local people
- cuts crime, decreases GHGs
Benefits
1. Inner-City Renovation
2. BUILD Inc.
3. Aki Energy
4. Manitoba Green Retrofit
5. Pollock's Hardware Co-op
6. Imaginability
7. Diversity Foods
4. Manitoba Green Retrofit
- non-profit social enterprise
- energy efficiency retrofits
- residential renovations,
- bed bug treatments
About
- employed locally
- affordable
- meaningful employment
- more affordable housing
- stronger communities
Benefits of MGR
For consumers:

- market rates
- ripple effect
- returns money to community
- removes barriers
- supports Social Purchasing Portal
- online marketing and collaboration tool
- small local businesses
- active practice of Community Economic Development (CED) - Winnipeg-based
3. Aki Energy
- links First Nations to green economy
- FN spend huge sums of money on energy
- money leaves community
- no employment


- lowers utility bills
- uses renewable systems
- creates jobs
Services/Benefits
5. Pollock's Hardware Co-op
- longtime owners couldn’t find a buyer for retirement
- local residents spearheaded consumer co-op
- purchased business/building
- supports MB-based trades-related social enterprises


Manitoba's Social Enterprise Centre
- 32,000 sq feet
- bought by trades-related SEs
- business park
- also Canadian CED Network - Winnipeg
6. Imaginability
- employs more than 300 Winnipeg residents
- living with disabilities
- packaging for local companies
- tent pegs, rice hulls, etc.
Benefits/Services

7. Diversity Foods
- took over cafeteria at the University of Winnipeg
- hire new Canadians and inner city residents
- work with sustainable farmers
Benefits and services
- Most non-profits use project funding
- Project funding has high administration costs
- Non-profit and the government costs
- Wages kept low, hours long
- Redirect labour to services rather than admin
- Governments are large buyers

Could SEs provide more fee-for service work
to goverments?


Project Funding model vs. Social Enterprise model
Average government contract
- do not hire FN workers specifically
- high earnings through the work
- access to the tendering/request for proposal process?
Eg. Manitoba Housing and BUILD

- 375 insulation jobs and 2,000 water retrofits
- every 12 months
- 1.7 million each year
- buy materials, pay apprentices; bills
- 70% of our budget
- 30% training funding
- 70% market efficiency
Government returns:

- $450,000 a year in bill reductions
- Poverty reduction
- Trades apprenticeship
- Renewed city
- Tax revenue rather than support
- Environmental benefits
- Low administration/risk


Could another funding model access this 1.7 million?
SE access to tenders
based on value-added argument


- usually a point system used
- private contractors sometimes do the minimum
- SEs may not do complex work

Precedent in the private sector
- Boeing Inc. works with the Neeginan Aboriginal Training Centre
- train new hires for its Winnipeg operations
- Neeginan secures Federal funding
- Boeing supports Neeginan instructors to set curriculum
- Boeing hires graduates
Why is it important in Winnipeg to be inclusive?
- moral argument
- large dependent population not sustainable
- $1.2 for Urban Circle vs. Police budget ($80 M +) over 6 years

Community finance
Mobilizing money for Social Enterprise


- Muhammed Yunus, Grameen Bank

“In the future the question will not be
‘are people credit-worthy?’ but rather,
‘are banks people-worthy?’”
“convivial tools are those which
give each person who uses them
the greatest opportunity to enrich
the environment with the fruits
of his or her vision”

- Ivan Illich, Tools for Conviviality
If it ain't broke --
actually, it's broke.
The Cash Economy

- payment systems those with credit/debit cards
- the poor do not have access to cards; accounts
- use predatory lenders to cash cheques (pawn; money mart)
- 8.4 M American households with no banking service

Relationship-based banking (1970s)

- Banks used to thrive on relationships (manager-customer)
- Evaluation of character/potential
- Contextual
- Movement away in Global North
- Movement toward in Global South (micro-loans)

Today’s banking decisions

- Automated credit score
- No evaluation of character
- Doesn’t provide access to credit for those without
- Bank mangers focus on top 1%
- Self-reinforcing cycle (big earners – big credit)
- Does not drive innovation

Score based upon income/spending patterns
as well as social media habits and profiling
Remnants of relationship-based banking

- 1% have special branches
- Social enterprises need to look elsewhere

Special Branches:
JP Morgan
Citibank
HSBC
Barclays
Back to the future
New (old?) tools for an “ecology of finance”

- Gifts
- Endowments
- Tax rebates/credits
- Seed capital
- Share capital
- Equity
- Debt structures

Community banking partnership (CBP)

- US/Canada: Credit Union driven
- UK: “Building Society” driven
- Link up education/financial services

Problems with plastic money
Costs borne by working poor

- Energy: pay-as-you-go costs more
- Food: cannot buy in bulk
- Phone charges
- Appliances: retail credit more expensive
- Ceilings on interest rates? – not in the UK



- Inspired by think-tanks
- New Economy Foundation
- Money Advice and Budgeting Service
- ABCD:
Advice on money matters
Banking
Credit
Deposit

One CBP example:
“Fair Finance”

- Backed by a consortium of 6 non-profit housing groups
- Helped 5000 people access credit
- Set up 2000 debt repayment plans
- Saved 1000 people from eviction
- Each eviction costs $6,000 in court fees)
- Provides mediation (also cheaper than litigation)
- Provides legal representation to households facing debt action

Consumer Proposals and Bankruptcy

- Eliminates the debt
- Pay back a proportion of what you owe
- Go through a financial counselling program

An American Example
The Neighbourhood Trust

- Community development credit union
- Non-profit anti-poverty organization
- Serves 300,000 people in Washington Heights
- Shift away from pawnbrokers and payday lenders
- Payday lenders part of a speculative economy


Community Development CUs

- 235 in US now
- 11 B in combined assets
- 1.7 million members
- Hyper-local; very creative
- Share technical systems and infrastructure

What benefits and challenges
can you tease out from this approach (so far)?

“Beyond Microcredit”

- 3B people self-employed globally
- Largest sector
- 80-90% in some countries in G. South

Integrated solutions

- Eg. SEWA Bank (Ghandi-inspired)
- Fair pay, bulk purchasing, pensions
- Legal advice

For whom?

- Non-union protected workers
Agricultural labourers
Casual workers
Homeworkers
Tenant farmers


London Rebuilding Society

- Finance for SEs and ethical businesses
- No access to conventional sources
- Two categories: investors and borrowers
- Distributes small loans
- Guarantees loans
- $4 loans for every $1 guarantee

Mutual Aid Funds

- Similar to African savings-and-loan systems
- Each MAF group designs loan products
- Meets needs of different communities
- Personal loans also considered

For the self-employed (NEF research)

- Marketing opportunities
- Tax advice
- Financial services expertise
- Peer support
- Bulk purchasing
- Legal/professional help

SEED Winnipeg

http://seedwinnipeg.ca/programs

Equity Angles (France)

- 400 social investment angels since 1983
- 3M approach: monies, management, marketing
- Strengthens social capital
- Integrates know-how with equity

BCA Holdings (NS)

- Fed up with banks’ lack of interest
- Negotiated a no-interest loan from Province
- Matched by Cape Bretoners
- Better than stock market return

In pairs, check out

VESTED.org



Why do you think returns might be higher?
Cooperative Capital

- Non-profits have no share capital
- Require grants/loans
- UK: Community Interest Companies (didn’t work)
- Withdrawable share capital
- Similar to deliberate corporation
- Facilitate self-build and transition projects

As an aside:

JS Mill pioneered legislation in 1852
Withdraw capital under certain provisions

Other Structures
Web-Based P2P Banking
- Zopa (http://www.zopa.com/)
- Kiva (http://www.kiva.org/)

Repayable grant funds
- Micro-loans from municipalities
- Shared home improvements (Wpg)

Revolving loan funds (no interest)
- Habitat for Humanity
- Can CLTs use this approach?

Social/Ecological Banks
- Triodos “expand social economy”
- Based on Steiner’s philosophy of social economy
- Rooted in Goethe’s urge to prevent separation of arts/sciences
- Caisse d’economie solidaire Desjardins

What’s unique
about this sector?

Securing gains
for the long haul

To-date we have largely discussed theoretical models and pilot projects that have successfully laid foundations for a more resilient society.

What are some ways in which community-building SEs can coordinate long-term change and ensure optimum effectiveness?
Change established through partnership
Examples:

- RESO
- Kristianstad
- Social Cooperatives
Share a vision of a more positive future
not rooted in deregulation and growth:

- solve local problems
- concerns about poverty
- concerns about environment

Hawken: narcissistic fanaticism vs. genuine breakthroughs!


Is there a way of
"federating" change agents?
- broad-based, multi-layered alternative networks
- eg. Transition Network
- analogies to early Christiandom
- guilds an historical example
Arthur Penty's guilds (1906)

- artisans, small business people tradesmen
- worker self-management movements across Europe
- excluded "rentiers" (stockbrokers, bankers, landowners)
- inspired worker ownership
More pluralistic economic system
Calls for a "congress" including:

- small business
- small producers
- citizens' associations
- came amid economic turmoil leading to WWI

Guilds in the mid 20th century
- clothing
- furnishing
- construction
- farming
wedding ownership with social purpose
Opposition in Europe
- Mussolini arrested/killed leaders of 8000 co-operative societies
- dissolved co-operative league
- similar problem in Germany, Spain, Austria, Russia
- movement towards central planning
In Winnipeg, what organizations
might citizens join/contribute to
in order to co-ordinate or scale up
social/ecological gains?
Which businesses?
Who?

- artisans
- disabled
- minorities

What?

- food?

What infrastructure?
Who?

- community development corps

What?

- technical assistance
- communications


What capital?
Who?

- organizations, labour
- FIs

What?

- labour
- financial resources


Whose ideas?
Who?

- universities
- non-profits

What?

- experience
- knowledge


Precedent
Chantier d'economie sociale
- Quebec-based
- Bouchard convened business/government
- Comprised of many CEDs (rural, urban)
- Inclusive models

Sectors in QC's federated social economy
- recycling
- childcare
- culture/media
- forestry
- manufacturing

- agriculture
- transport
- health
- technology
- eco-tourism
Planning and acvocacy
- local development centres
- community futures development corporations
- technical assistance organizations

RISQ: Reseau d'investissement social du Quebec
- dedicated to making capital accessible for SE
- $10 M loan came from investments (labour, private)
- outcome of 1996 Bouchard Summit
- another "fiducie" ("trust") fund established
- feducie also measures outcomes
- feducie offers "15-yr capital repayment moratorium"
Loose affiliation
- university profs
- government workers
- independent researchers
Results
- kept cost of childcare low
- advances well-documented alternative solutions
- language of "economics" changing ("third sector")

Quality of Life
Improvement for Workers

Economic Democracy and
Workplace Inclusivity

Why are inclusive decision-making structures important to improving well-being for workers?

What are some pros and cons of more inclusive,
democratic workplace structures?

"Economic democracy"
"Quality of life"
"Freedom"
- Fromm's "freedom to" (positive) rather than "freedom from" (negative)

- freedom to "be" rather than to "have"
- freedom from want
- freedom to self-actualize (individually, cooperatively)
- freedom from government restriction, etc
Rand: "virtue of greed"
Through a process that is inherently collective
Positive gains accessed through work for all
Mondragon
- a "guild of guilds"
- started by a priest, Father Jose Arizmendi
- began with:

- training school
- social services cooperative
- regional cooperative development bank

Questions:

Why was the model successful?
Will it work in today's context?
Will it would in Manitoba?
- 256 enterprises
- 83,859 workers
- $20 Billion in annual revenues
- 10% donated to charitable pursuits
- 40% to research and development
- 50% to owner-worker pensions
- only one co-op failure
By the numbers:
Equality (max/min income):

1:3 wage ratio
1:9 today
400:1 in fortune 500

Some of the highest wages
in the EU
Social support for workers
Democratizing social care in Italy
Co-ops in Italy

- accounts for 25% of growth in employment (1990s-early 2000s)
- strategy to build co-ops dates back to 1970s
- "stay small and network"

- Established broad partnerships to strengthen resilience in a comprehensive way
- Think-tank, network of co-ops, business, local service centres
- Identified who does what, then expanded
- Social care co-ops = families, volunteers, paid staff
- Brought about in part by high level of tax avoidance



Type A (59%)
Type B (33%)
- health
- educational services
- workers/volunteers
- govt's can contract out for services
- low taxes
- loans/bonds
- integrate disadvantaged
- must be at least 30%
- workers/ volunteers
- family members
- tax exempt
- loans/bonds
"relational goods"
copied in Belgium and Poland
Tom
Jack
Clarence
Archie
- trouble with the law
- 5 kids
- assaulted seriously
- ICR set up a fund to help
- posted bail for him
- would be provided advances for rent
- gangs courting his sons
- sometimes does not report for work
- often resists assistance from ICR
- had several children with various partners
- CFS had taken two youngest into care
- received education through ICR
- tried to establish stability with partner
- CFS took new child away; returned
- successful in stabilizing life
- helped him get up in the morning
- alcoholic
- helped him build skills
- transitioned to a better job
"Life in Winnipeg's inner city is tough. Before I started working with IRC I felt useless. Oh, I had worked but each time I would get overwhelmed and then quit... ICR offered me more than a job"
- assisting with tragedies
- helping exit from prison
- intellectual disabilities
- opportunity for women
- escape from gangs

Idea-jamming:
With a partner, begin the process
of identifying a social enterprise
case study for you to study and
present on.

For the purposes of this assignment,
social enterprise will be defined broadly.
Social Enterprise
Theory and Practice

James Magnus-Johnston
"Pedagogy of Transition"
to a more Resilient Society
S =
social
E =
economic
E
= ecological
}
Resilience
Climate Change:

- atmospheric carbon at 400 PPM
- irreversible CC at 450 PPM
- must be reduced to 350 PPM
- fossil fuel growth (current int'l investment: 29B to 40.4B T)
- 2008 recession = emissions reduction of 1.9 %
- 2010 recover = emissions up 5.9%
- stop coal use by 2050 (but 200 new ones planned for N. America)


Global Finance:
- volatile oil prices not driving innovation
- shale boom more like a shale bust
- groundwater depletion costs not internalized
- carbon = stranded asset?
"strengthening our capacity to adapt"
-
to

what
?
Seven Principles:

1. Diversity: sustain diversity in all forms
2. Modularity: components that operate independently
3. Social Capital: trust, social networks, leadership
4. Innovation: learning, experimenting, changing
5. Overlap: redundancy and dispersion (not efficiency)
6. Tight feedback loops: information/money circulated
7. Ecosystem services: stop disregarding these
Find one example of a social enterprise applying one these seven principles.
Name one of the seven
principles of resilience
Reclaiming the commons
Relatively recent human inventions:

- Private property (privatization of otherwise free things)
- Ownership and control has some benefits/drawbacks
- eg. Fisheries (only 10-40% of catches have value)
- Forests, oil fields, etc.
(what is "the commons?")
Elinor Ostrom (09 Nobel Prize Winner)
- formal, multinational control structurally fail to protect commons
- centralized, distant, unaccountable
- rooted in "associative democracy" - collaboration, leadership
- shaping markets locally (not "individual responsibility")
Putting it it context:

The transition to a steady-state economy?
Baumol's disease:

- labour productivity up 2.7% yr (1980-1995), 3% decline in working hours
- now increasing by 1.4% yr with an 8% increase in working hours
- decline in manufacturing, increase in "services"
- should we invest in people and climate adaptation instead?
Developing a methodology
for anayzing social enterprises
See: ENP, Chapter 2.
1. What were your initial vision and objectives?
2. Set social goals: who is being helped? How?
3. Set financial goals: how will you make money?
4. What capital/resources are/were available?
5. How will you measure social/ecological outcomes?
6. Was was the pre-feasibility process?
7. Was a feasibility study conducted? (see Food Hub FS)
8. Was a business plan conducted?
9. How did you launch?
10. Did you adapt?

Did the social enterprise
identify a market problem to solve?
Non-profit transitions
to social enterprise
• basic organizational readiness
• social enterprise readiness
• business readiness (most fail <3 yrs)
Culture: businesses (vs) non-profit?
What are some differences?
Who are non-profits
accountable to?
- multiple stakeholders
- clients/customers
- community members
- funders/investors
- high "transaction costs" (bargaining, information)
- tensions surrounding mission and focus

Problem or solution:

Separate the business from non-profit operations
Will that create a more entrepreneurial culture?
Example: Green Action Centre
1. Mission
2. Strategic Plan: SWOT Analysis
3. Internal Change
4. Internal Conflict: for-profit/non-profit
5. Financial Management: Risk averse
6. Cost Effectiveness
7. Personnel
8. Culture of Learning
GA: Social Enterprise Readiness
1. What is a SE? Does the board get it?
2. Buy-in: will donors/funders still support you?
3. Competitors? Allies?
4. Can staff set aside time to participate?
Strengths -- Weaknesses -- Opportunities -- Threats
Business experience
1. Board: accountant, lawyer ("business advisory")
2. Champion: single individual
3. Financial/information systems?
4. Capital to launch: grants/loans
5. Human/other resources?

Do we need a consultant?
or, the fallacy
of the perfect
business plan
Identifying the interrelated social
benefits of social enterprises
The social multiplier
SEs can be assets to government
- reduce government expenditures
- jails (@ $87,655/yr); healthcare, welfare
- help realize goals in ways that governments cannot
- certain flexibility compared with government programs
- provides a model of "justice in action"

How can governments support SE efforts?
Europe
- UK, Italy have developed social economies
- UK has related government department
- policies to support social economy
- legislation soon followed
Canada
- Social Economy "priority area" in 2004 Fed Throne speech
- allocated $132 million for initiatives for funding/research
- achieved in Quebec, withdrawn in Anglophone Canada
- SME services set up
- MB and NS have tax credit programs for CED
Job Creation
- Small businesses (5-100 employees) key
- 98% of all businesses
- 48.3% of Canada's workforce
- 42% of Canada's GDP (2005)
- more cost effective mode of job creation?
Costs between $7,676 and $88,155 to "create a job"

eg. ON paid Samsung $437 M to create 16,000 factory jobs over 25 years ($27,312/job)

A job with ICR costs < $17,000.00 to start (not including social returns)
Social Service Delivery
Internal
External
- provide a social service in the community
- traditional services by government
- home care
- child welfare
- foreign aid
- Winnipeg: RAY
- holistic
- health benefits
- social inclusion
- social support
- skills/apprenticeship training
- ($5,000/trainee for ICR)
- trainees can go on to formal education
- can use grants for private enterprises
- BUILD has multi-year training grant
To what extent should
government fund
social enterprises?

What are some
arguments for/against?
Against:


- disguised gov't programs
- hard sector to "cost"

For:
- positive financial impact
- higher gov't return
- pays CPP/GST and income tax

Annual savings for one person, previously unemployed, with three dependents: $21,668.00

Annual savings for one person, multi-year (generational) assistance, multiple dependents: $23,490.00

Social Return on Investment (SCP)
- ICR evaluates financial/social performance annually
- independent auditor reviews/analyzes the financial performance
- prepares financial statements for Revenue Canada
- find out previous habits/patterns for each employee
How does ICR relate to private sector?
- small size
- delivers a needed service
- competes in private sector
- a "truly public-private partnership?"
SE speed-dating
- explain your SE research
- identify the structure and mission
- can its deliverables be measured?
- does it offer any savings to government?
Measuring outcomes
and managing legalities
How can you assess the performance of
your chosen social enterprise?

Monetary benefit to government?
Jobs created?
Footprint reduction?
Other benefits?


Business Planning
- are social/ecological metrics part of bookkeeping?
- to what extent is it ethical to market the benefits?
What are some reasons to measure outcomes?
Confirmation that the enterprise is on the right track
Adjust and improve planning
Improving day-to-day operations
Building and maintaining support of outsiders
Contributing to the field of social enterprise
Being prepared for demands for the facts
The "Demonstrating Value" approach
- Designed by social enterprise practitioners (collaboration of funders and stakeholders)
- Each SE mission is unique
- Developed out of an in-depth pilot study involving diverse environment
- Provides detailed specific tools to be used
- Designed to inspire improved performance
- Integrates assessment of social performance with business performance
In your groups, go to "demonstrating value.org," click on 'templates'
Find a methodology that may work for your case study


1. Focus on the few critical aspects of performance.

2. Explain how these particular aspects have been chosen.

3. State the goals and expectations you are seeking.

4. Relate the results achieved to these stated goals and performance expectations.

5. Put the results in their proper context by:
» relating results achieved to the ongoing capacity
» explaining what the key risks are and how risk has influenced choices
» describing other key performance factors

6. Recognize and explain the important links between financial and non-financial information.

7. Compare current to earlier performance

8. Compare performance to that of similar entities

9. State why you are confident that the performance information being reported is reliable.
Canadian Comprehensive Auditing Foundation
Key principles:
Business analysis:
Are you exceeding customer expectations about products and/or service quality?

Do you have a diversified customer base so you are not reliant on a few key customers?

Are you paying expenses in a timely manner?

Do you have products and/or services which provide an adequate profit margin?

Are you expanding the number of customers, while maintaining your current customer base?

Do you deliver products and services on time and on budget?

How is your operational efficiency? Can it be improved through better scheduling, use of equipment, or team work?
Organizational sustainability
In which direction does cash flow? To your enterprise or to your organization?

What skills have been added to your parent organization as a result of your enterprise?

Has the enterprise directly or indirectly resulted in more referrals (or more effective referrals) of clients in need of services?

Other questions:

• How does the community you serve view your enterprise and the motivations of the organization operating it?

• Have there been controversies or problems that affect your organization’s ability to attract clients or funding?

• Has your board’s level of skill increased?
Operational
What type of reporting do you need to support management and staff in the decisions they make day-to-day?

Strategic
What type of reporting do you need to support strategic decisions that are often made by a governance body

Accountability

What reporting do you need to show that you take accountability as a serious matter?
Three kinds of information:
see p. 110-111
Legal Structures


- non-profit (not taxed)
- for-profit (taxed)
- charitable (not taxed)
(considered at the outset)
Do you know the legal structure of your SE?
Why did they chose that particular structure?
When does CRA allow
a charity to conduct 'business'?
*It must advance the mission of the charity*

Criteria:

- The intended course of action
- The potential to show a profit
- The existence of a profit
- The expertise and experience
If not applicable, a separate business may need to be set up
Full transcript