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Transcript of NORTHERN ENGLISH
Contact with Brythonic and Old Norse
The Northumbrian dialect was in relatively close contact with the Cumbrian variety of Brythonic, and also with Old Norse in the Danelaw area.
Interviews (clips): interviewees
Ian Atkinson, 43,
Heather Atkinson, 41,
Paul Cook, 61,
Theresa Scott-García, 51, (born in Chile - Grown up in
Matthew Sheldon, 20,
Yi Ding , 22, Beijin (lived four years in
There are several
(vowels and consonants) characteristics of the northern accent.
The majority of those phonological features can be found in
other parts of the world
. That means, they are not actually just characteristics of the northern England accent.
of most of those phonological features is
NORTHERN ENGLAND ACCENT
1.- "The foot-strut split"
2. "Trap-bath split"
lack of trap-bath split
is characteristic of the England northern accent (Wells, 1982).
3. Face and Goat
/eɪ/ and /əʊ/ pronounced in the area of Merseyside (North-East of England) as in RP English. E.g. face /feɪs/ and goat /gəʊt/.
4. Northumbrian burr
In areas such as Tyneside and Northumbria, traditional dialects pronounce the vowel /ɔ:/ in words like
lack of foot-strut split
is a salient marker of northern England pronunciation.(Wells, 1982) By the middle of the 18th century it was already considered a nothern feature.
: The pronunciation of words like "much", "cup", "cut" with a vowel sound /Ʊ/ instead of /ʌ/ as used in RP English could be attributed to their
Middle English pronunciation.
It is a quite
: sugar /sʌgə/ or pudding /pʌdɪŋ/.
Young northern students tend to
their pronunciation, with respect to this feature, when they are in contact with southern students because they consider it a quite stigmatized pronunciation.
(Evans and Iverson, 2007).
Northern speakers pronounce words like bath using a
short vowel /ɑ/
as in trap: /bɑɵ/ = /trɑp/. RP English speakers would pronounce the former with a
long vowel /ɑ:/
Before the 17th century, all speakers in England used a short vowel /ɑ/. Around the 17th century, it became fashionable in the South to
the vowel sound to
ɑ:/ in certain contexts. However, northern speakers of England retained that short sound.
In a study of
Evans and Iverson
(2007), they found that this feature is not considered so stigmatized. Therefore, northern students
do not tend to modify
this pronunciation when they are in contact with southern students of England.
Does this occur just in the North of England?
In General American English, a similar short vowel is pronounced /æ/. Probably, the first settlers of America who came from England brought this short vowel which still remain there.
/e:/ and /ɒ:/ pronounced in traditional dialects of North England. E.g. face /fe:s/ and goat /gɒ:t/.
/iə/ and /uə/ in the area of Tyneside. Those centralised diphthongs are typical of the elder working-class males. On the contrary, young speakers don't want to be related to their old-fashioned father but they still want to be recognised as northerns, so they pronounced those words with a monophthongal pronunciation. (Watt and Milroy, 1999)
the diphthongal pronunciation of words like face and goat is attributed to the Great Vowel Shift. However, in some areas of northern England, this Great vowel shift did not occur.
Middle English /ɒ:/ ---------------------> Modern English /əʊ/
Middle English /e:/ ---------------------> Modern English /eɪ/
considered the standard one , but the
is considered "old-fashioned".
, this feature called "Northumbrian burr"occurs due to the effect of the following uvular sound /ʁ/.
why does this sound appear in English if it is not a sound of this language?
-One of the reasons could be that Northumbrian area was influenced by Germanic and Scandinavian languages which carried this uvular sound.
-Other researchers think that it could be because of an innovation.
Anyway, this sound does not occur in Present-day English. It disappeared because of the influence of the standard variety.
5. "HappY tensing"
The term "
" refers to the pronunciation of the unstressed vowel at the end of words like coffee or happy with a tense vowel /i:/ instead of a lax vowel /ɪ/ or /ə/.
The pronunciation of the tense vowel /i:/ is found in southern England and some northern areas such as Liverpool, Hull and North-East.
In the rest of the northern areas, a lax vowel is used.
Glottalization or Glottal Reinforcement
Rhotic vs. Non-rhotic /r/
Clear & Dark /l/
E.g. happy /hæpi/ /hæpə/
Recent innovation that spread from South to North.
(Wells, 1982; Trudgill, 1999)
However, there is evidence for "happY tensing" in pronouncing dictionaries of the 18th century written in London and New Castle. Besides, it would appear to be diffusing from the northern urban areas of Liverpool and Tyneside to the rest of areas. (Beal, 2000)
The tense vowel is considered the standard one in these pronunciations while the lax vowel used in the majority of the northern areas is
Does this feature just occur in the North of England?
It's also found in Scottish.
/ŋ/ in SING
In Liverpool, South Lancashire and Sheffield
Only before a velar consonant -
* Allophonic variant of /n/
just for the bound morpheme
when it began to be proscribed in pronouncing dictionaries
was perceived as a stereotype of the
, whose favourite pastimes were
huntin' , shootin' and fishin'
We can find this phenomenon also in Scotland and Ireland, for instance.
Is the omission of an initial /h/ in words like
house, heat, hangover
in many dialects of English, such as
Is common in informal speech, especially amongst the working class
Words such as
horrible, habit and harmony
all had no such sound in
the earliest English
form nor were they original spelt with an h.
The most suitable candidate would be
(since as we saw a few lines above those words come from Latin)
Other languages in which this phenomenon appears as well:
(Romance languages: French and Spanish acquired new initial [h] in medieval times), many dialects of
* We can also find it in other English dialects such as
It is now widely considered incorrect to drop the /h/ in the pronunciation
/p, t, k/
When a phoneme is accompanied (either sequentially or simultaneously) by a
In the English dialects exhibiting pre-glottalization, the consonants in question are usually glottalized in the
It could come from conservatives varieties of
, a dialect of the
Dutch Low Saxon
Mainly produced in
When the phoneme /t/ is pronounced as the glottal stop
in certain positions
commented on the phenomenon
found it in areas of Lanchashire
claims that the sound can be heard in RP speakers from the early
such as Daniel Jones Bertrand Russell and Ellen Terry
(1985): West Yorkshire (
) Halifax Huddersfield Bolton ...
The Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary claims that t-glottalization is now most common in London, Leeds, Edinburgh and Glasgow
e.g.: not now
Vary a lot among the different northern dialects
: West country, Corby area, West Lancashire, some parts of Yorkshire and Lincolnshire, and in areas that border Scotland (also USA, Australia, Scotland, Canada, etc.)
: Macken, Yorkshire (except some places in the border with Lancashire)
It is in English from the
(it is also found in German, Danish, Dutch, Southern Sweeden, etc.)
It starts to disappear from the
early 15th century
It was very
in dictionaries, etc. (among scholars)
But we can also see this phenomenon in Spanish (Català), Turkish, Chinese, Indonesian, etc.)
Beal, J. (2000) A handbook of varieties of English.
Evans, B.G. & Iverson, P.(2007) Plasticity in vowel perception and production: a study of accent change in young adults.
Påhlsson, C. (1972) The Northumbrian Burr.
Trudgill, P. (1999) The dialects of England.
Watt & Milroy (1999) Variation in three Tyneside vowels: is this dialect levelling?
Wells, J. (1982) Accents of English. Cambridge University Press (http://books.google.es/books?id=a3-ElL71fikC&printsec=frontcover&hl=es&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false)
In RP /l/ has clear
(occurring intervocalically, as in
) and dark
(occurring pre- and postvocalically, as in
dark allophone is not used
, so that, e.g. film, lip are pronounced with clear [l]
Where /l/ occurs before a nasal, an epenthetic vowel is inserted between the /l/ and the nasal, so that ...
is used in clear contexts
, as in
* Also found it in
*Also found it in the Lowlands of
Anglo-Saxon and (Northern) Old English
English language came to the British Isles with Anglo-Saxon invaders in the 5th. century.
English is a West-Germanic language, related to Frisian, Dutch and Geman.
The origins of the Anglo-Saxons. Based on Nielsen (1998:66). The shaded areas represent the approximate regions from which ancestors of the Anglo-Saxons settled England.
The northern kingdoms of Deira and Bernicia composed the region of Northumbria.
Apart from standard English, Northumbria has some closely related dialects, descended from the early Germanic languages of the Angles and Vikings.
The major Northumbrian Dialects are Geordie, Northern, Western, Southern or Pitmatic, Mackem, Smoggie and Tyke.
ME dialects, from Baugh and Cable (1993:186)
OE dialects, from Baugh and Cable (1993:52)
The Middle English dialects developed from Old English dialects, but there are some differences.
Phonological features: Vowels & Consonants
Survey: Questionnaire & Interviews
In the North-East, Scandinavians formed a large minority compared to Anglo-Saxons and Cumbrians. This led to the many Old Norse loanwords that became part of the Northern Middle English
All these circumstances set the Northern English dialect apart from other English dialects, since it underwent more contact-induced changes than others.
"friendly", "customer service on the telephone"
"English accent associated to class and working conditions"
: not welcoming
"Snob, posh at the North"
"Not now, but I used to"
"Not just sounds but also WORDS"
"Also on the phone"
- Paul (the old man)
"You modify your language based on the people around you", "to feel a kind of connection, feel you're similar"
"Not mine [...] Quite neutral"
"Not now [...] I used to"
"No [...] Just straightforward"
Arróniz Parra, Santiago
Bonilla Eslava, Mª del Mar
Guillén Santos, Fº José