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The Respiratory System

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Lauren Rawlings

on 19 September 2013

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Transcript of The Respiratory System

Respiratory System
What are the main functions of the respiratory system?
To supply the blood with oxygen so it can be delivered to all parts of the body.
To get rid of the carbon dioxide in the body.

What are the main organs in the respiratory system?
Lungs
Tranchea
Bronchi
Diaphragm

The role of the Respiratory system:
So what is the Respiratory Sytem?

Lets find out...
Lungs:
The lungs are the main organs of the respiratory system.
Oxygen is taken into the body and carbon dioxide is breathed out.
Red blood cells are responsible for picking up the oxygen in the lungs and carrying it to all the body cells that need it.
They then pick up the carbon dioxide and transport it back to the lungs and we breathe it out.

Trachea:
filters the air we breathe.

Bronchi:
two air tubes
carry air directly into the lungs.

Diaphragm
When you breathe in, the diaphragm contracts.
When it contracts it flattens out and pulls downward. This enlarges the space that the lungs are in.
This larger space pulls air into the lungs.
When you breathe out, the diaphragm expands reducing the amount of space for the lungs and forcing air out.
The diaphragm is the main muscle used in breathing.

The structure of the lungs
The lungs are located in the chest inside a lubricated membrane called the pleural membrane.
The lungs are connected to the outside via the trachea. The trachea is a tube kept in a rigid shape due to rings of cartilage.
The larynx or voice box is located at the top of the trachea while at the bottom end it branches out into two bronchi.
The bronchi lead into the lungs.
Bronchi branch off into smaller and smaller bronchioles.
End in tiny air sacs called alveoli.
The surface area of the alveoli is very large so as to be able to absorb oxygen very quickly.

The lungs are very delicate and can easily be damaged.
The cells lining the airways have very tiny hair like structures called cilia on them.
These cilia are coated in a sticky mucus.
The beating cilia force the mucus and any particles of dirt up out of the lungs.
Eventually drops down into the oesophagus and destroys any pathogens.

We inhale through our nose and our mouth.
The oxygen goes through the larynx and the trachea,
Splits into two bronchi and then another two bronchial tubes.
Splits into more tubes called alveoli.
passes through alveoli and diffuses into the capillaries which surround them.
Goes into the arterial blood.
Waste-rich blood releases the carbon dioxide into the alveoli - follows the same part out of the lungs when someone exhales.

Summarize how breathing takes place:
Pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanoconiosis
Cause:
Siliocosis is cause by the inhalation of silica or quartz dust. This dust is found in volcanic ashes. When inhaled, the dust goes through the alveoli and into the blood stream, causing the white blood cells to release cytokines, stimulating fibroblasts. These fibroblast stimulations cause fibrosis. The dust also makes silicon-based radicals that release compounds that damage cells.

Types:
There are 4 different forms of pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanoconiosis, each caused by different amounts of silica dust and a different amount of exposure to it:
~ Chronic- caused by 20 years or more of exposure to low levels of silica dust
~ Asymptomatic- almost the same as chronic, but with no symptoms
~ Acute- caused by short- term exposure to large amounts of silica dust
~ Accelerated- caused by exposure to large amounts of silica dust from 5 to 15 years.
All of these forms of the disease are caused by the same thing, just different amounts of it for different times, so they are all forms of the same disease, not diseases of their own.

Symptoms:
~ an awful cough
~ shortage of breath, or on the contrary, faster breathing
~ weight and appetite loss
~ a hoarse throat
~ increased vulnerability to tuberculosis, a serious lung disease. 

The symptoms of this disease is very similar to those of a normal cold. Some are:
How it effects the body:
Siliocosis actually affects a few body systems. One of these happens to be the respiratory system.
It causes lung damage and a terrible cough. It also causes heavy breathing.
Treatment:
There is no specific and definite treatment to completely get rid of  pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanoconiosis, However there are treatments to remove the symptoms:
~ cough medicine
~ bronchodilators (medicine that causes bronchi to widen)~ more oxygen
~ prescribed antibiotics
~ physical therapy for your chest.

Also, if you know you have the disease and know where the source of silica dust is, move away from it to stop the disease from getting worse. And, if the disease does get worse, in some extreme cases people will need lung transplants.
Preventation:
Pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanoconiosis is actually fairly easy to prevent. Many countries do not have volcanoes so if no one breathes in the ashes it can be prevented.

Respiratory system Song
Thank You!!
Thank you!!
The effect of smoking on the respiratory system and the lungs.
Smoking brings toxins and addictive substances into the body.
Respiratory system circulates these through the body.
The gases and particles in smoke irritate the passages leading to the lungs.
They cause damage to the cilia that normally functions to clear away debris.
The alveoli that normally work to transfer oxygen to the blood also become damaged.
Full transcript