Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM


Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.



No description

Sandra Jin

on 6 February 2016

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse


By Angela and Sandra 7~6
DICTIONARY.COM - grass·land [gras-land, grahs-] an area, as a prairie, in which the natural vegetation consists largely of perennial grasses, characteristic of subhumid and semiarid climates.
THEFREEDICTIONARY.COM - grass·land (grslnd) n. An area, such as a prairie or meadow, of grass or grasslike vegetation.
Define a Grassland:
What nicknames are given to grasslands?
In different places, nicknames for grasslands are different. Some nicknames include:
U.S. Mid-West
South America
Central Eurasia
Grasslands - What is it?
A grassland is an ecological community that is dominated by a single layer of grasses.

Grasslands are fairly flat and they exist on every continent except for Antarctica.

East African grasslands consist of the most wildlife in the world.

It has a very average climate which is between dry desert and a moist forest.

Grasslands supports 10,000 different grasses and 12,000 legumes.
Types of Grasslands
The 2 different types of grasslands are tropical grasslands and temperate grasslands which are determined by climate.
Tropical Grasslands
Location: Africa, Southern Asia, Australia and Northern South America. Near equator, between both tropics.
Temperature: 59-95 degree F.
Rainfall: 20-50 inches per year.
They are known as the 'big game country' as there is a variety of herbivores and carnivores.
The grass is tall (3m) coarse and spiky which is neither juicy nor nutritive and there are scattered deciduous trees.
Temperate Grasslands
Location: Lies between Antarctica or the Arctic and the Tropics. North America, Europe, Southern South America, Africa, Australia and Asia.

Temperature: -40 to 100 degrees F.

Rainfall: 20 - 35 inches per year.

The grass is short, soft, juicy and nutritive. These are treeless plains as rainfall is less.

Growth is restricted by cold winters.
The Prairies of the Great Plains of North America

The Steppes of Central Eurasia (Temperate)
The Pampas of Southern South America
The Downs of Southern Australia
The Savannas of Africa

The Llanos and Campos in Northern South America

The Savannas of Northern Australia
DID YOU KNOW: 1/2 of Africa's entire surface area is covered with grasslands?
That's about 5 million square miles!
Could Humans Survive Without Grasslands?
No, civilization can't live without grasslands.

Grasslands cover 25% of the earth's land mass.

Of all the plants that humans cultivate, 70% are classified as grasses. Such as wheat, corn and rice.

Grasslands provide these grasses and provide food for humans.

Grasslands are the world's bread baskets.
How do droughts and floods help the grasslands?
Droughts are caused by little rainfall over a long period of time. It causes the grasses and plants to dry out. Because of this, the grasslands easily catch fire whether human-caused or naturally-caused. But how does fire help a grassland? Fires burn trees and shrubs but grasses quickly regenerate so that grasslands don't become over populated by trees and shrubs. fire burns old growth so that we can welcome new growth.
Floods basically serves the same importance as fires: to get rid of trees so that the grasslands don't turn into tree lands! Floods cause grasslands to become inundated there for flooding the low grounds and creating islands with the higher grounds. Low grounds continue to stay full of grass while higher grounds have a few trees.
Grassland Soil Types
Grasslands have very deep and nutrient rich soil. Why is that? Because from the plants that die from droughts, fires or floods; a large amount of plant tissue a.k.a. biomass is decomposed and added to the soil every year. Also a large proportion of clay is found in grassland soils which holds moisture better that sandy soils.
Uneven rainfall is a key factor in grasslands. It contributes to what the grassland plants are. Plants need rain to live and if there is no rain, many plants will not be able to survive. That's why the plants that live in grasslands all are able to adapt to hot and dry areas. Grassland plants have extensive and wide spread roots to reach so deep into the ground so that they can find water even during droughts. Snowfall also gets trapped in between leaves and stems so that when spring comes, the snow melts and the plants are provided with water.
Effects of Uneven Rainfall
Uneven rainfall also causes grasslands to have its majority of rainfall in a certain 6-8 month period. This causes droughts and floods that can kill many plants all at once.
Human Impacts on Grasslands:
What have humans done to grasslands in both negative and positive ways?
- 30% of grasslands have disappeared because of urban development (power plants, cities, schools, roads, permanent homes) thus destroying habitats of many animals
- the cars that tour the grasslands have a pollution effect
- A large number of animals have been hunted for their valuable body parts (mostly skins) - endangered species
- global warming creates rising temperatures and increasing the number of droughts
- National parks have been built to preserve grasslands as well
-organizations to help replant areas of depleted grasslands have been formed
- governments have created laws against the hunting of endangered animals and hunting in general
- put endangered animals into captivity so that they are more safe and to help them reproduce and increase the population
- humans start fires that take out lots of plants and damages the soil
- when farming, farmers often use pesticides which if the animals ate it, they would ruin
the whole food chain
Grassland Survival Strategies
Growing Points
Horizontal Runner Roots
If both seed and stock are burnt by fire or uprooted by the harsh winds, rhizomes make it possible for the plant to grow and propagate (multiply through reproduction).
A growing point is a point just above the juncture of the leaves and stem of the plant. It is necessary for plants (mostly grasses)because they are food for many different grassland animals. The growing point allows them to quickly replace and regrow whatever tissues have been eaten.
Many plants use seeds to reproduce. Grassland plants must be able to reach full size and produce seed in a very short time so that they can expand and multiply.
Grassland Life
Due to to the grassland's rough climate and harsh temperatures, the animals and plants that live there must learn to adapt, in order to survive in the grassland. Only the animals and plants that are tough enough to withstand these conditions can survive in grasslands. Grassland animals have developed many useful strategies that help them thrive in the grasslands.
Grassland animals, tend to be mammals, exceptions being birds, bugs and snakes. This is most likely because of the hot, dry conditions, where reptiles (that tend to be water-borne) and amphibians would die, due to lack of water. Grassland animals are also mostly herbivores, and eat the grass that grows throughout the biome. The other trend is predators, especially those who go after larger prey, examples for example the lion, who hunts large mammals, such as zebras, buffalo, gazelles etc. Many small grassland animals tend to burrow themselves in the dirt, in an attempt to keep cool, since it is much cooler underground.
Grassland plants also have many strategies to soak in moisture from the hot, dry climate. For example, the blue grama grass has very shallow roots, that fan out in thick bunches, letting it absorb any rainwater that falls, very quickly, and keeps it from blowing away like it did in the Dust Bowl era of the 1930's. Larger plants develop very deep roots to soak in the water that's at the very bottom of the soil
Grassland Food Chains
Food chains show you the diet of animals and also where they stand in the biome, either as a predator or prey. They give you an idea of the "circle of life" in the biome. A food chain consists of 3 types of organisms: producers, consumers and decomposers.
Producers are organisms that produce their own food instead of getting it from other organisms, thus their name. Plants are producers because they create their own food and gain nutrition from sunlight, soil and water.
A consumer is any organism that must consume another living organism, in order to gain the nutrients needed to survive Herbivores and carnivores alike are both considered consumers.
Decomposers are the organisms that eat or consume dead organisms, and turn it back into food for the producers. Fungi, earthworms, molds and many more are all decomposers, eating up the carcass of a dead animal or the remains of a rotted plant, and turning it into soil for the seeds.
Grassland Food Chain
Bioaccumulation is when a a substance, such as a pesticide or other organic chemicals accumulate in an organism. It occurs when an organism absorbs a toxic substance at a rate greater than that at which the substance is lost. The substance is then passed on to other organisms that consume the first one, and it quickly becomes a larger problem.
Grassland Bioaccumulation
A mouse eats crops sprayed with DDT. An hawk then eats the infected mouse. The hawk is infected with the toxins. The hawk's system is then damaged and its eggs shells will become softer and the chick inside will either die, or be born without being properly developed.
Invasive Species
An invasive species is any species that were introduced to an environment or biome by humans or accidentally, and have become accustomed to the biome and now pose a threat to the natural animals living in the area.
Invasive Species in Grasslands
Some invasive grassland plant species include: Medusahead, crested wheatgrass, smooth brome, and leafy spurge.
We hope you enjoyed our learning with us!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Thank You For Your Time!!!

Loewer, Peter. (1995). Better Homes and Gardens Ornamental Grasses., Desmoine, Iowa: Meredith Books, Round Table Press, Inc.
Loewer, Peter. (1988). Ornamental Grasses - Brooklyn Botanic Gardens. Ed, Barbara B. Psch. Brooklyn, N.Y: Editorial Committee of the Brooklyn Botanical Gardens, Inc.
Weigel, Martene. (2000). Encyclopedia of Biomes. Gale Group.
World Book Encyclopedia, ed., The Plant World. (2000). Chicago. Ill:World Book , Inc.
"Grassland", http://www.Britannica.com/
"Native Warm-Season Grasses",http://clay.agr.okstate.edu/forage/images/nativewsgrasses.htm
"Buchloe dactyloides",http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/graminoid/bucdac/, (2002).
Loewer, Peter. (1995). Better Homes and Gardens Ornamental Grasses., Desmoine, Iowa: Meredith Books, Round Table Press, Inc.
Loewer, Peter. (1988). Ornamental Grasses - Brooklyn Botanic Gardens. Ed, Barbara B. Psch. Brooklyn, N.Y: Editorial Committee of the Brooklyn Botanical Gardens, Inc.
Weigel, Martene. (2000). Encyclopedia of Biomes. Gale Group.
World Book Encyclopedia, ed., The Plant World. (2000). Chicago. Ill:World Book , Inc.
"Grassland." http://www.Britannica.com/, pp. 24-25.
"Bluestem Seed", http://www. bluestem.com/bluegrama.htm
"Species: Bouteloua gracilis",http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/graminoid/bougra/
Celeste G. 2000
"The Grassland Biome",http://mbgnet.mobot.org/sets/grasslnd/plants/5.html, (6/4/00).
"Big Bluestem",http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/Crops/Big_bluestem.html(7/31/00).
"Selected North Dakota and Minnesota Range Plants",http://www.ext.nodak.edu/extpubs/ansci/range/eb69-6.htm#Big, (7/31/00).
There is very little moisture in the grasslands. The key to survival is water. Temperate grasslands receive 20-35 cm of rainfall, and tropical grasslands receive 25-60 cm of rainfall
Full transcript