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The Colonization of South Africa
Transcript of The Colonization of South Africa
Africa Imperialism Research Project By Danial Sheikh and Gavin Wong
with special thanks to Vickypoo [Victor Liang] Background information:
South Africa gained its independence on May 31st of 1910, though it is celebrated on the 27th of April. Indigenous peoples of South Africa were divided among different tribes; the largest tribes included the Pedi, Sotho, Basotho, Tswana, Venda, Xhosa, Khoisans, Hottentotts, and the most powerful and famous- the Zulu.
Prior to Dutch and British colonization, the Zulu tribe controlled much of the South African Kingdom with their war-like power and strong tribal alliances. The Zulu controlled most of the social and political power at the time- based upon hierarchical values including kings and militia. Economic conditions were unknown before colonization, but could be presumed as land control and trading of resources.
The British and the Dutch were the first ones to colonize South Africa as Imperial powers. The Portuguese had arrived in South Africa as the first imperialists, but chose not to colonize the land. The colonization of South Africa was split in different parts; the Portuguese arrived early in 1488- however, there were no resources worth trading at the time. When the Dutch East India Company arrived in 1652, with the British in 1779, the Zulu tribe began conflict with this new found invasion. motives for the Europeans South Africa’s position on the continent of Africa was a strategic port location, allowing cargo ships to make stops before heading to/from Asia or Great Britain. When precious gems and minerals were found in South Africa, [Diamond in 1870, and gold in 1886] Europeans immigrated in an attempt to gain even more wealth from mining. This forced the native tribes such as the Zulu out of their traditional lands. Slavery of indigenous South Africans was a large trade, being fuel for an economy; cheap labour along with valuable resources nearby had yielded high profits for companies. The imposition of Christianity on to indigenous peoples was always a motive, as it brings both religious and cultural influence Aspect of Globalization
-The Europeans brought out South Africa's true potential in economics- with an abundance precious stones, and crops that could not be grown in Europe
-Independence could be established in the colonies
-Education was brought and advancements in technology were introduced, bringing South Africa into one of the more wealthy states on the continent Negative -Political issues involving racial hate crimes continuously causes disruption among the economy of South Africa; many jobs are still based upon ethnicity
-There is still political instability and the Afrikaners/Indigenous peoples continue hate crimes against one another -After independence, Afrikaners and Natives continued to lash at one another
-As large amounts of fertile land were used as cash crops by the Europeans, native populations could not use their sacred lands as before.
-Education was only given to the Afrikaners, creating segregation South African Major Events Timeline 1652 1806 1830s 1910 1948 1950s 1961 1976 1984 1986 1987 1989 1990 1993 1994 1997 1999 Dutch East India Co. establishes settlement at Cape Town and soon after issues land grants for the interior. Battles and smallpox push back the indigenous populations of the San and the farmers. Europeans dominate the western half of the area by the1800s. Britain seizes and eventually annexes the Cape Colony by 1806. In 1809, the British decree that the San and Khoikhoi must work for white employers and place restrictions on their travel. Hoping to escape British rule, thousands of Dutch families, known as Boers, migrate further to the north and east. South Africa's interior consisted of a mixture of British colonies and protectorates, Boer republics, and tribal nations until the discovery of diamonds in 1867 and gold the following decade. The Union of South Africa is born under the British Commonwealth. It bands together the British colonies of Natal and the Cape with the Boer republics of the Transvaal and the Orange Free State. Urbanization and economic growth during World War II fuels fears that South Africa's racial barriers will collapse. The National Party introduces apartheid ( A policy or system of segregation or discrimination on grounds of race.) measures against blacks, Indian immigrants and those of mixed race. Under the leadership of Albert Lutuli with Johannesburg law partners Oliver Tambo and Nelson Mandela, the African National Congress organizes a passive resistance campaign against apartheid and issues the Freedom Charter. The government suppresses the movement and begins arresting ANC leaders. South Africa leaves the Commonwealth and becomes an independent republic. Mining, industrial and financial companies continue to bolster economic growth well into the late 1970s. Thousands of students in the black township of Soweto stage protests to demand they be taught in English rather than Afrikaans. Police fire on the demonstrators, sparking nationwide riots and greater repression. The police force has caused more than 500 protester casualties within a year, including the leading activist, Steven Biko. Anglican Archbishop Desmond Tutu is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his non-violent campaign to end apartheid. He criticizes U.S. President Ronald Reagan's "quiet diplomacy" against apartheid and urges a more forceful stance. The European Community and the United States impose economic sanctions on South Africa. The tougher U.S. measures ban the import of South African agriculture, iron and steel, and prohibit U.S. loans and investment to South Africa. A strike by black African railway workers lead to the worst case of violence in South Africa since the government declared a national state of emergency in 1986. Until the government had met workers' demands, eleven workers have been killed and more than 60 trains have been damaged/destroyed by firebomb attacks P.W. Botha steps down as National Party leader and president of South Africa. He is replaced by the younger, more charismatic F.W. de Klerk, who is more sensitive to the growing anti-apartheid movement. De Klerk announces radical changes. ANC leader Nelson Mandela is released after 27 years in captivity. Basic apartheid laws and the nationwide state of emergency have ended. Mandela, de Klerk and representatives from 18 other parties agree on an interim constitution that paves the way for historic all-race elections. All citizens over 18 are allowed to vote, and a long list of social and political rights are guaranteed. Mandela and de Klerk are awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. Mandela's ANC wins 63 percent of the vote in April elections. World leaders gather on May 10 as Mandela is sworn in as president of the new South Africa. Declaring "the time has come to take leave," Mandela- now 79- steps down as ANC party leader. He is replaced by 55-year-old Deputy President Thabo Mbeki South Africa's second all-race elections are scheduled for June 2. Going into the vote, ANC leader and Deputy President Thabo Mbeki enjoys a huge lead over a divided opposition. References:
Boddy-Evans, Alistair . "African Slavery 101 -- Slavery of Africans -- Slavery in Africa." African History -- About.com. About.com Guide, n.d. Web. 15 Mar. 2013. <http://africanhistory.about.com/od/slavery/a/Slavery101.htm>.
Boddy-Evans, Alistair. "Slave Laws in South Africa." African History -- About.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Mar. 2013. <http://africanhistory.about.com/od/slaveryinsouthafrica/p/SASlaveLaw.htm>.
"Colonization in South Africa." Country Facts. Country Facts & Information 2004, 29 Mar. 2010. Web. 15 Mar. 2013. <http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/articles/south-africa/Colonization-in-South-Africa/4013>.
Deng, Deng Akech. "Impact of Colonization and Economic Development in Africa." Liberty, Equality and Solidarity. N.p., 24 Mar. 2007. Web. 15 Mar. 2013. <http://dengakecdeng.blogspot.ca/2007/03/impact-of-colonization-and-economic.html>.
Gustafsson , Anniken. "Black tribes in South Africa." Mimersbrunn. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Mar. 2013. <http://www.mimersbrunn.se/Black_tribes_in_South_Africa_1518.htm>.
Hammond, Kristyn. "Positive & Negative Effects of Colonialism." eHow | How to Videos, Articles & More - Discover the expert in you.. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Mar. 2013. <http://www.ehow.com/info_8505011_positive-negative-effects-colonialism.html>.
"Independence Day of South Africa." Independence Day Celebration. Compare Infobase Limited, n.d. Web. 15 Mar. 2013. <http://www.123independenceday.com/south-africa/>.
Isaacs, Tony. "Colonization Of South Africa." The Travel Guide. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Mar. 2013. <http://www.streetdirectory.com/etoday/colonization-of-south-africa-ualff.html>.
Perry-Globa, Pamela , Peter Weeks, David Yoshida, Victor Zelinski, and Jill Colyer. Perspectives on Globalization. Ontario: Oxford University Press, 2007. Print.
"South African Timeline: 1652 - 1999." RACEANDHISTORY.COM : Understanding how Race and History impact us today. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Mar. 2013. <http://www.raceandhistory.com/historicalviews/southafricatimeline.htm>. Due to the expansion of the Industrial Revolution the demand for raw materials increased. The Europeans began extracting these materials in other countries Europe, being overpopulated, had issues with
poverty and famine. South Africa has fertile soil and good climate, becoming an asset in crop production Modern Day Effects of Colonization Disadvantages:
One overlying effect in the colonization of South Africa was conflict with the warring Zulu tribe. The Zulu were a powerful political force and almost immediately fought back Europeans from taking control of the sacred land. The apartheid laws eventually took over, and the Zulu held very little to no power following.
The moment Europeans set foot upon South Africa, ethnic wars and hate crimes began- and have not stopped even to modern day. Advantages:
South Africa's land was very fertile and rich, alluring Europeans to avoid famine and poor crops back in the mother nation.
South Africa is one of the only states in the continent in which cultural diversity exists.
The economy of South Africa is much stronger than other parts of the continent after the British and Dutch colonized it.
South Africa- being one of the richer nations within the continent- is able to provide for more education, essentials such as food and water, and opportunity to pursue goals. to Colonize South Africa? What were some Immediate Results of Colonization Disadvantages:
Disease such as smallpox was brought upon the land, killing many indigenous from their lack of immunity towards the illness.
Rape and tyranny were among the immediate results of cultural contact, as it provides illusion and abuse of power.
The lack of water was a problem for European settlers, leaving many to die of dehydration. Advantages: South Africa soon became among the more
powerful nations of the continent, with all the economic power and new technologies that the British and Dutch brought.