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Worl War I: The Great War
Transcript of Worl War I: The Great War
1914: Triple Alliance
It was one of the
deadliest conflicts in history
, paving the way for
major political changes.
9 million combatants and 7 million civilians died as a result of the war
World War I: The Great War
28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918
"The Central Powers"
The start, the excuse
The first world war began in July 1914. It was directly triggered by the assassination of the
Austrian archduke, Franz Ferdinand and his wife
, on 28th June 1914 by
Bosnian revolutionary, Gavrilo Princip.
An alliance is an agreement made between two or more countries to give each other help if it is needed.
When an alliance is signed, those countries become known as Allies.
A number of alliances had been signed by countries between the years 1879 and 1914
These were important because they meant that some countries had no option but to declare war if one of their allies. declared war first
Imperialism is when a country takes over new lands or countries and makes them subject to their rule
Industrial Revolution 18th & 19th century:
Cheap raw material
Competition to be no. 1
Militarism means that the army and military forces are given a high profile by the government.
The growing European divide had led to an arms race between the main countries.
The armies of both France and Germany had more than doubled between 1870 and 1914 and there was fierce competition between Britain and Germany for mastery of the seas.
Nationalism means being a strong supporter of the rights and interests of one's country.
The Congress of Vienna, held after Napoleon's exile to Elba, aimed to sort out problems in Europe. Delegates from Britain, Austria, Prussia and Russia (the winning allies) decided upon a new Europe that left both Germany and Italy as divided states.
Strong nationalist elements led to the re-unification of Italy in 1861 and Germany in 1871.
The settlement at the end of the Franco-Prussian war left France angry at the loss of Alsace-Lorraine to Germany and keen to regain their lost territory.
Large areas of both Austria-Hungary and Serbia were home to differing nationalist groups, all of whom wanted freedom from the states in which they lived.
The background, the real reason
1915: Central Power
Italy, betrayed his allies and attacks Austria (May1915)
Italy joins the Allies (May 1915)
Germany: Schlieffen Plan
Called for the German army to do a vast encircling through Belgium, into the Northern part of France, taking in control Paris
Germans were stopped at a short distance, Paris taxi-driver sent soldiers to the frontline
Two lines of trenches were done from the English Channel to the frontiers of Switzerland, began the Trench Warfare.
Trench warfare: fighting form ditches protected by barbed wire.
December 24th 1914:
The day football gave the world peace
Development of Military Force
Women: Labor Force
WW1 mark the start of feminist movements, since men were at war, women started to demonstrate the can do men's work as good and fast as them
: Enters the war
In 1917, Russia backs out of the war, to go and deal with its domestic issues.
USA always remain "neutral" to the war
Britain and Germany, were constantly fighting each other over sea control
Britain blocked the entrance of war materials an in response Germany use unrestricted submarines to attack the British Naval force
As consequence a British ship named the Lusitania was sink May 7, 1915
1,100 civilians were dead, incluing 100 Americans
In 1917 Germany, once again uses unrestricted submarines to attack Britain, thinking this would make them surrender.
In response USA enter the war helping the Allies
Surgery and Blood transfusions
Government ideas were spread to public opinion for or against a cause.
System in which decisions regarding production and investment are embodied in a plan formulated by a central authority, usually by a public body such as a government agency.
Economic crisis reach Germany
November 11th 1918 signs an armistice according to let go all weapons
At the end: Peace
Treaty of Versailles signed June 28th 1919, document that states peace between Germany and the Allies. Germany accepts responsibility of all loss an damage, and it comprimise to pay for expenses. (based on the 14 points of Wilson)
League of Nations
was the first international organization whose principal mission was to maintain world peace. (January 10 1920)
1. No more secret agreements ("Open covenants openly arrived at").
2. Free navigation of all seas.
3. An end to all economic barriers between countries.
4. Countries to reduce weapon numbers.
5. All decisions regarding the colonies should be impartial
6. The German Army is to be removed from Russia. Russia should be left to develop her own political set-up.
7. Belgium should be independent like before the war.
8. France should be fully liberated and allowed to recover Alsace-Lorraine
9. All Italians are to be allowed to live in Italy. Italy's borders are to be "alongclearly recognisable lines of nationality."
10. Self-determination should be allowed for all those living in Austria-Hungary.
11. Self-determination and guarantees of independence should be allowed for the Balkan states.
12. The Turkish people should be governed by the Turkish government. Non-Turks in the old Turkish Empire should govern themselves.
13. An independent Poland should be created which should have access to the sea.
14. A League of Nations should be set up to guarantee the political and territorial independence of all states.