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Transcript of 8.2. Rebellion
The eighteenth-century dilemma
The Bourbon reforms
From kingdoms to colonies
The consequences reforms
Eighteenth-century reforms introduced by the Bourbon dynasty in the Spanish empire.
1765 Quito Revolt
Túpac Amaru II Rebellion, 1780-2
Indigenous uprisings in Peru
1739, plans for wide-ranging multiethnic uprising in Oruro discovered.
Reforms represent a fundamental shift in the colonial relationship that we saw developing over the 16th and 17th centuries.
Economic reforms along mercantilist principles, aiming to keep economic activity within the empire as much as possible, protecting and bolstering production in the Peninsula.
Measures to better control transatlantic trade (and to exclude foreigners from it).
System disincentivized, and even shut down, American manufacturing int he hope of encouraging industry in the Peninsula.
And unintended consequence conflict with other European powers over trade.
Effort to assert royal control over the administration.
Most Habsburg councils of state replaced by new system of ministers.
Council of the Indies replaced by Secretary of the Indies, and relegated to an advisory and judicial position.
Viceroyalties of Spanish America
under the Habsburgs
The Viceroyalties of Spanish America after 1783
of New Spain
Río de la Plata
From kingdoms to colonies?
Fundamental transformation of the empire.
Historians have characterized it as shift "from kingdoms to colonies", or as a "reconquest" of America by the Crown.
How would the New World react?
Effort to turn back the clock on Criollo gains.
Leader of reforms in 1770s José de Gálvez, Minister of the Indies.
Audiencias packed with new appointments.
Parallel bureaucracy of "Intendants" introduced (but abandoned after Gálvez died in 1787).
New taxes, royal monopolies, and treasury offices.
Reforms succeed in increasing royal revenues, but at what cost?
Jean Ranc, Portrait of Philip V, King of Spain, c.1723.
Museo del Prado, Madrid
Juan Carreño de Miranda, Portrait of king Charles II of Spain (c.1685). Wikimedia Commons
Louis Michel Van Loo, Portrait of Ferdinand, King of Spain.
Anton Raphael Mengs, Portrait of Charles III, King of Spain, c.1761. Museo del Prado, Madrid
Francisco de Goya y Lucientes, Portrait of Charles IV, King of Spain, 1789. Museo del Prado, Madrid
r. 1808, 1813-1833
Francisco de Goya y Lucientes, Portrait of Ferdinand VII in his robes of state, 1815. Museo del Prado, Madrid.
Consequences of the reforms
Reforms affect different regions and sections of society differently.
Popular uprisings, previously largely confined to Europe, begin to take place.
1692, riot in Mexico City over rise of food prices.
But after 1700, uprisings more frequent and larger.
1692-1700, 140+ uprisings in New Spain.
1750s-80s, 80+ in Peru.
1742, uprising under Juan Santos Atahualpa in Eastern Andean foothills of Peru.
Manages to hold control of the region for almost a decade (
see your handout
1750, further plot discovered in Lima aiming to destroy Spanish authority in the city.
Plan foiled, but erupts in nearby Huarochirí.
1750s - 13
1760s - 16
1770s - 31
1780 alone - 13
Motivated by imposition of
system and other grievances.
Significant messianic element, invoking idea of Inca restoration.
Response to Charles III's fiscal reforms post-1763.
Rebellion seizes control of Quito and surrounding villages, but fails to spread further.
Led by José Gabriel Condorcanqui, Tupac Amaru II.
Began in the town of Tinta, with execution of
, and spread south and north to Cuzco.
But it soon alienated criollos and much of the indigenous nobility.
Crushed 1781; ~100,000 dead.
Result: abolition of
and (temporarily) of
, and creation of new Audiencia of Cuzco.
Comuneros Revolt, 1781
Reaction against "visitation" of New Granada (modern-day Colombia) and introduction of reforms.
Local farmers rebel in protest, march on local town of Socorro, and find support among local elite.
Force sent to suppress them from Santafé de Bogotá overwhelmed, and rebels march on the capital.
Rebellion spreads, and government surrenders.
Visitor banished, and promise of no further visitations.
Criollos promised preferential treatment in appointments to administration.
Taxes cut and some royal monopolies abolished.
Hidalgo Revolt, 1810
Traditionally characterized as beginning of the Mean bid for independence.
Led by priest Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, beginning in Dolores, near Guanajuato, on 16 September 1810 (now commemorated as Independence Day), with "Grito de Dolores" reenacted.
Movement soon turned into an open assault against the
and peninsular population, which probably delayed the break with Spain cf. other regions of Spanish America.
Why did people rebel?
Easy to see these episodes as precursors to independence movements: this has been the norm in much Latin American historiography.
But this is teleological and simplistic. Necessary to look more carefully at the motivations of different groups.
Criollos articulate grievances by drawing on notions of Habsburg good government: not defying Spanish rule but Bourbon innovations.
Local elite joins comuneros because economic interests were also threatened.
And because of Bourbon effort to exclude them from opportunities in the colonial administration.
Criollo elite participates in this and other rebellions to protect themselves from fiscal and administrative changes.
Strong discourse of rights of the kingdom within the composite monarchy.
Mexico City cabildo demands right to participate in government after fall of the king, as a true kingdom.
Rhetoric of racial equality and new political order based on sovereignty of the people only emerges later.
Everywhere, criollos had grown to enjoy and expect participation in colonial government.
Also growing self-awareness and identification with lands where they were born — within discourse of distinct "realms" of composite monarchy.
Predominantly indigenous uprising, originating in, and led by, indigenous nobility.
Distinctively indigenous ideological roots: neo-Inca utopic messianism.
But also desire to retain role in government as curacas, seen to be eroding.
To some extent, also effort to retain positions of authority and agency within colonial government, under pressure of Bourbon impositions.
How does it compare?
Movements were not independence movements (although some interpreted as such later).
Very different social and political context.
No republican tradition, or ideology of opposition to absolutist rule.
Ideological framework instead based on earlier model of monarchy.
Only after 1810 do criollos adopt political language and models offered by the US and France.
Even then, political culture and institutional framework of the Spanish world continues to have a profound and long-lasting influence.
But that is a story for History 151B.
Housekeeping and announcements:
Turn OFF your cell phone.
You may use a computer ONLY for taking notes. Surfing the web, checking social media, etc. distract not just you but also those seated around you.
Come on time.
If you must leave before the end of class, let me know IN ADVANCE and leave quietly.
Use the restroom IN ADVANCE.
I won't go beyond our allotted time. Do NOT pack up early.
I encourage you ask questions from the floor during lecture. Just raise your hand.
HSSB 4224, Tuesdays 10:00 am -1:00 pm,
and by appointment.
Class 2: Reform, reaction, rebellion
HIST 151A. Latin American History, c. 1492-1810
University of California, Santa Barbara
Prof. Juan Cobo, email@example.com
Unit 8: Crisis, reform, and rebellion
The deadline for submitting a
of your essay was June 1st. I only received a handful. Unless we have come to an agreement, I will assume the rest of you will be taking the exam instead.
On a piece of paper, write your name, perm number, major, and year, and answer the following question (in a few words — one or two lines at most):
Of all the things you learned in this class, what struck you the most?
Hand your answer in as you leave class.