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Transcript of FUTURE TENSES
BY THE 4th
Future Continuous has two different forms: "will be doing " and "be going to be doing." The future continuous expresses an activity that will in progress at a time in the future
FUTURE PERFECT TENSE
The future perfect expresses an activity that will be completed before another time or event in the future
FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS
The future perfect continuous emphasizes the duration of an activity that will be in progress before another time or event in the future. Sometimes the future perfect and the future perfect continuous give the same meaning.
SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE
Simple Future has three different forms in English: "will", "shall", and "be going to.". They often express two very different meanings. All of them refer to a specific time in the future.
"Will" is used with promises or voluntary actions that take place in the future.
"Will" can also be used to make predictions about the future.
[will + verb]
• You will help him later.
• Will you help him later?
• You will not help him later.
[will have + past participle]
You will have improved your English by the time you come back from the U.S.
Will you have improved your English by the time you come back from the U.S.?
You will not have improved your English by the time you come back from the U.S
FORM Future Perfect with "Be Going To"
[am/is/are + going to have + past participle]
You are going to have improved your English by the time you come back from the U.S.
Are you going to have improved your English by the time you come back from the U.S.?
You are not going to have improved your English by the time you come back from the U.S.
FORM Be Going To
[am/is/are + going to + verb]
• You are going to meet Jane tonight.
• Are you going to meet Jane tonight?
• You are not going to meet Jane tonight
HOW TO USE?
"Will" often suggests that a speaker will do something voluntarily. A voluntary action is one the speaker offers to do for someone else. Often, we use "will" to respond to someone else's complaint or request for help. We also use "will" when we request that someone help us or volunteer to do something for us. Similarly, we use "will not" or "won't" when we refuse to voluntarily do something.
USE 1 "Will" to Express a Voluntary Action
• I will send you the information when I get it.
• I will not do your homework for you.
• I won't do all the housework myself!
• A: I'm so tired. I'm about to fall asleep.
B: I'll get you some coffee.
"Will" is usually used in promises.
USE 2 "Will" to Express a Promise
• I will call you when I arrive.
• I promise I will not tell him about the surprise party.
• Don't worry, I'll be careful.
• I won't tell anyone your secret
"Be going to" expresses that something is a plan. It expresses the idea that a person intends to do something in the future. It does not matter whether the plan is realistic or not.
USE 3 "Be going to" to Express a Plan
• He is going to spend his vacation in Hawaii.
• She is not going to spend her vacation in Hawaii.
• A: When are we going to meet each other tonight?
B: We are going to meet at 6 PM.
• I'm going to be an actor when I grow up.
[will be + present participle]
You will be waiting for her when her plane arrives tonight.
Will you be waiting for her when her plane arrives tonight?
You will not be waiting for her when her plane arrives tonight.
FORM Future Continuous with "Will"
[am/is/are + going to be + present participle]
You are going to be waiting for her when her plane arrives tonight.
Are you going to be waiting for her when her plane arrives tonight?
You are not going to be waiting for her when her plane arrives tonight.
FORM Future Continuous with "Be Going To "
Use the Future Continuous to indicate that a longer action in the future will be interrupted by a shorter action in the future. Remember this can be a real interruption or just an interruption in time.
USE 1 Interrupted Action in the Future
I will be watching TV when she arrives tonight.
I will be waiting for you when your bus arrives.
I am going to be staying at the Madison Hotel, if anything happens and you need to contact me.
He will be studying at the library tonight, so he will not see Jennifer when she arrives.
USE 2 Specific Time as an Interruption in the Future
In USE 1, described above, the Future Continuous is interrupted by a short action in the future. In addition to using short actions as interruptions, you can also use a specific time as an interruption.
Tonight at 6 PM, I am going to be eating dinner.I will be in the process of eating dinner.
At midnight tonight, we will still be driving through the desert.We will be in the process of driving through the desert.
When you use the Future Continuous with two actions in the same sentence, it expresses the idea that both actions will be happening at the same time. The actions are parallel.
USE 3 Parallel Actions in the Future
I am going to be studying and he is going to be making dinner.
Tonight, they will be eating dinner, discussing their plans, and having a good time.
While Ellen is reading, Tim will be watching television
In English, we often use a series of Parallel Actions to describe atmosphere at a specific point in the future.
USE 4 Atmosphere in the Future
When I arrive at the party, everybody
is going to be celebrating
will be dancing
are going to be talking
. A few people
will be eating
pizza, and several people
are going to be drinking
beer. They always do the same thing.
HOW TO USE
The Future Perfect expresses the idea that something will occur before another action in the future. It can also show that something will happen before a specific time in the future.
USE 1 Completed Action Before Something in the Future
By next November, I will have received my promotion.
By the time he gets home, she is going to have cleaned the entire house.
I am not going to have finished this test by 3 o'clock.
Will she have learned enough Chinese to communicate before she moves to Beijing?
Sam is probably going to have completed the proposal by the time he leaves this afternoon.
With Non-Continuous Verbs and some non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, we use the Future Perfect to show that something will continue up until another action in the future.
USE 2 Duration Before Something in the Future (Non-Continuous Verbs)
I will have been in London for six months by the time I leave.
By Monday, Susan is going to have had my book for a week.
FORM Future Perfect Continuous with "Will"
[will have been + present participle]
You will have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives.
Will you have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives?
You will not have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives
FORM Future Perfect Continuous with "Be Going To"
[am/is/are + going to have been + present participle]
You are going to have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives.
Are you going to have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives?
You are not going to have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives.
We use the Future Perfect Continuous to show that something will continue up until a particular event or time in the future. "For five minutes," "for two weeks," and "since Friday" are all durations which can be used with the Future Perfect Continuous. Notice that this is related to the Present Perfect Continuous and the Past Perfect Continuous; however, with Future Perfect Continuous, the duration stops at or before a reference point in the future.
USE 1 Duration Before Something in the Future
They will have been talking for over an hour by the time Thomas arrives.
She is going to have been working at that company for three years when it finally closes.
James will have been teaching at the university for more than a year by the time he leaves for Asia.
How long will you have been studying when you graduate?
WILL versus BE GOING TO
To express a PREDICTION – either WILL or BE GOING TO is used
When the speaker is making a prediction (a statement about something she/he thinks will be true or will occur in the future), either will or be going to is possible
a. According to the weather report, it will be cloudy tomorrow
b. According to the weather report, it is going to be cloudy tomorrow
There is no difference in meaning between (a) and (b)
-When the speaker is expressing a prior plan (something the speaker intends to do in the future because in the past she/he has made a plan or decision to do it), only be going to is used
2. To express a PRIOR PLAN – only BE GOING TO is used
A : Why did you buy this paint?
B : I’m going to paint my bedroom tomorrow
Speaker B has made a prior plan. She decided to paint her bedroom last week. She intends to paint her bedroom tomorrow
3. To express WILLINGNESS – only WILL is used
a. A : The phone is ringing
B : I’ll get it
In (a) speaker B is saying “I’m willing, I’m happy to get the phone”. He isn't making a prediction. He has made no prior plan to answer the phone. He is, instead, volunteering to answer the phone and uses will to show his willingness
Both "will" and "be going to" can express the idea of a general prediction about the future. Predictions are guesses about what might happen in the future. In "prediction" sentences, the subject usually has little control over the future and therefore USES 1-3 do not apply. In the following examples, there is no difference in meaning.
USE 4 "Will" or "Be Going to" to Express a Prediction
• The year 2222 will be a very interesting year.
• The year 2222 is going to be a very interesting year.
• John Smith will be the next President.
• John Smith is going to be the next President.
• The movie "Zenith" will win several Academy Awards.
• The movie "Zenith" is going to win several Academy Awards.
USE 2 Cause of Something in the Future
Using the Future Perfect Continuous before another action in the future is a good way to show cause and effect.
• Jason will be tired when he gets home because he will have been jogging for over an hour.
• Claudia's English will be perfect when she returns to Germany because she is going to have been studying English in the United States for over two years.
ACTIVE / PASSIVE
• The famous artist will have been painting the mural for over six months by the time it is finished. ACTIVE
• The mural will have been being painted by the famous artist for over six months by the time it is finished. PASSIVE
• The famous artist is going to have been painting the mural for over six months by the time it is finished. ACTIVE
• The mural is going to have been being painted by the famous artist for over six months by the time it is finished. PASSIVE
NOTE: Passive forms of the Future Perfect Continuous are not common.
Future Continuous vs. Future Perfect Continuous
If you do not include a duration such as "for five minutes," "for two weeks" or "since Friday," many English speakers choose to use the Future Continuous rather than the Future Perfect Continuous. Be careful because this can change the meaning of the sentence. Future Continuous emphasizes interrupted actions, whereas Future Perfect Continuous emphasizes a duration of time before something in the future. Study the examples below to understand the difference.
• He will be tired because he will be exercising so hard.
THIS SENTENCE EMPHASIZES THAT HE WILL BE TIRED BECAUSE HE WILL BE EXERCISING AT THAT EXACT MOMENT IN THE FUTURE.
• He will be tired because he will have been exercising so hard.
THIS SENTENCE EMPHASIZES THAT HE WILL BE TIRED BECAUSE HE WILL HAVE BEEN EXERCISING FOR A PERIOD OF TIME. IT IS POSSIBLE THAT HE WILL STILL BE EXERCISING AT THAT MOMENT OR THAT HE WILL JUST HAVE FINISHED.
"Shall" is used to indicate future action. It is most commonly used in sentences with "I" or "we," and is often found in suggestions, such as "Shall we go?" "Shall" is also frequently used in promises or voluntary actions. In formal English, the use of "shall" to describe future events often expresses inevitability or predestination. "Shall" is much more commonly heard in British English than in American English; Americans prefer to use other forms, although they do sometimes use "shall" in suggestions or formalized language.
Shall I help you? suggestion
I shall never forget where I came from. promise
He shall become our next king. predestination
I'm afraid Mr. Smith shall become our new director. inevitability
1. Alvin (give) __________ Vania a chopstick
2. Paul (begin) _____________ to study at seven PM. Levina (come) _____________ to Paul's at eight. Paul (do) __________ his homework when Levina comes.
3. Sally (master) ___________ the new Wing Chun Technique by tomorrow
4. Juan (eat) _______________his banana for 3 seconds. Juan (finish) ___________________________his banana a few seconds later