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Japanese History - Tokugawa to Modern Day

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Xuan Yuan Huang

on 13 December 2013

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Transcript of Japanese History - Tokugawa to Modern Day

The Meiji Restoration [1868]
Tokugawa Shogunate (Edo) [1600 - 1868]
Meiji Japan
[1868 - 1912]
Taishō
[1912 - 1926]
1912 - 13: Taishō financial/political crisis
1914 - 18: WWI
1915: Twenty-One Demands to China by PM Ōkuma
1917: Bolshevik Revolution
1918 - 1922: Japanese intervention in Eastern Siberia
1918: Rice riots
1918: Hara Kei's government
First commoner appointed PM
1919 - 1920: League of Nations formed
Japan unable to obtain a racial equality clause in Treaty of Versailles
1921 - 1922: Washington Conference -> Four Power Treaty (France, UK, Japan, US)
1921: Women gain right to attend political meetings
1923: Great Kantō Earthquake
The
genrō
(Meiji oligarchs) and other Meiji elite start to die off and Taishō is a sickly man, allowing real, democratic political parties to form within the Diet without relying on patronage.
Shōwa
[1926 - 1989]
Heisei [1989 - ]
Japanese History - Tokugawa to Modern Day
Timeline
1600: Battle of Sekigahara; defeat of Toyotomi loyalists and other western Japanese clans
1603: Ieyasu named Shogun, moves capital to Edo
1605: Ieyasu resigns in favor of son Hidetada
1611: Ryukyu Islands become vassal of Satsuma domain
1614: Ban on Christianity fully implemented
1615: Code for Warrior Households
1616: Ieyasu's death
1623: Iemitsu becomes third shogun
1633: Interdiction on travel abroad
1639: Expulsion of all foreigners except Dutch in Japan

First Half of Meiji Japan [1868 - 1895]
1868: Meiji Restoration
1871: First national newspaper
1872: First railway
1874: First political parties
1877: Saigō Takamori's Satsuma Rebellion
1885: European-style Cabinet
1889: Promulgation of Constitution
Idea that all Japanese are direct subjects of the emperor, and that citizenship therefore derives from subjecthood to emperor
1890: Imperial Rescript on Education
Declaration of universal education as a goal and of what to teach children (traditional values, national unity)
1894 - 95: First Sino-Japanese War
Korea transferred to Japanese sphere

Prewar and Wartime
[1926 - 1945]
1925: "Universal" Suffrage (males 25 and older)
1925: Peace Preservation Law
1927: Chiang Kai-shek's military expedition against the CPC
1930: Great Depression
1931: Invasion of Manchuria (Mukden Incident)
1937: Full-scale war with China, Nanjing Massacre
1940: Konoe Fumimaro signs Tripartite Pact with Germany and Italy
1941: Pearl Harbor
1945: Atom Bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki

Tokugawa Rule
To help curtail the power of the daimyo, the Tokugawa classifies them into three types of vassals:
Tokugawa family (
Shinpan
): Average of 500k
koku
Wealth distributed among Tokugawa's best allies via confiscation of lands through various policies- land of daimyos without heirs, treasonous daimyo, etc. reverting to the Shogunate
Allied Daimyo (
Fuda
i): 10k - 100k
koku
Outside Daimyo (
Tozama
): Many over 100k
koku
Daimyo who sided with the Tokugawa at the last moment or never did so at all

The Tokugawa also implement
sankin kōtai
- alternate attendance. By forcing daimyo to regularly come and reside in Edo (typically with large and expensive revenues), the Tokugawa exert control over the daimyo and bleed the daimyo of precious funds.

The power relationship between the
bakufu
and the daimyo
han
ebbs and flows throughout the Edo period.
Economy
Tokugawa cities and the economy grows rapidly thanks to the constant flow of retinues in and out of Edo via cities and roads. Peace between the pacified daimyo promotes commerce.
Cultivated land area doubles
Population almost doubles from 1600 to approx. the middle of the Tokugawa
Bakufu
's common currency system and coinage
Monetary stipends eventually replace samurai's
koku
/land rights
Market networks for city supplies
Rise of the merchant class in cities
Mitsui (Edo) and Sumitomo (Osaka) founded

Society and Culture
Classes
Ideal class structure (classical Chinese):
Gentleman-scholars (warriors, in Japan)
Peasants
Craftsmen
Merchants
Actual class structure:
Samurai
Merchant-craftsmen
Peasants
Distribution:
Samurai: 10%
Priests: 2%
Peasants: 75%
Urban: 7-8%
Miscellaneous: 4%
Commoners make up half the population in cities. For the first time in history, commoners regularly become merchants, samurai become peasants, etc.
Even rural peasants and their villages grow in wealth.
The Merchants
Link cities and countryside
Liquidate, store, sell crops
Roles of storing, distribution, banking
50% of Edo Populalation
Merchant values

High Society
Systems of Learning and Philosophy
Tokugawa Neo-Confucianism
Basis in Song Confucianism of Zhu Xi (1130 - 1209)
Confucian reinterpretation of Shinto
Confucian and warrior values of Yamaga Sokō
Retaliation against revisionism by adopting original Confucian texts

National Learning (
Kokugaku
)
Inspired by Neo-Confucian anti-revisionism and driven by Neo-Confucian opposition to study of japan
Study of Japanese classics - poetry and myth
Return to "pure" Shintoism, without Confucianism or Buddhism

Dutch Learning (
Rangaku
)
Two main areas - medicine and astronomy
Sugita Genpaku's report on an autopsy (1771)
Science and sensationalism

Haikai
Poetry
Merchants favored
haikai
for its weirdness, which almost mocked the idea of poetry itself
Like their warrior predecessors, the nascent merchant class wanted to absorb aristocratic culture while retaining themes of their own
Notably, warriors themselves now looked back on their ancestors' war culture, as they themselves no longer fought during the peaceful Edo and needed that old warrior culture to build their self-identity
Represents an attitude of both respect and ridicule towards language, literature, and tradition
Based on interaction between classical and vernacular language
Juxtaposition of incongruous worlds and languages
Dislocation of habitual perceptions
Recasting established literary topics into contemporary language and culture

Making whales and sea-lions
swim in the cherry blossoms waves
at the hill top

Poetic deconstruction of "waves of cherry blossoms" cliche
Cherry blossoms, waves, and hills associated in classical Japanese poetry
Whales and sea-lion are entirely non-classical, vernacular words
Edo
Yoshiwara, Edo
Yoshiwara was the Edo-licensed leisure quarters - the red-light district.
Gathering place for intellectuals, artists, performers
Courtesans became glamorous models of fashion and femininity outside the quarters, despite often working because of poverty or their life being the only one they knew
System of social rules highly elaborate - money alone is not enough
Ukiyo
(Floating World) references this area in particular
Edo Literature and Theater
Haikai
Books of the Floating World (
Ukiyo Zōshi
)
"Floating World" (
ukiyo
) first referred to world of sexual pleasure and illusions, later broadened to "contemporary world"
Ihara Saikaku (1642 - 1693)
Ningyou Joururi
(Puppet-chanting) or
Bunraku
Chikamatsu Monzaemon (1653 - 1725) - first well-recognized playwright
Kabuki
Theater

Joururu chanter and shamisen player
Puppets act roles
Popular because it offered escape from Edo's regimented, duty-bound lifestyle
Giri: Duty, rational/civilized behavior
Jou (Ninjou): desire, emotion, natural feeling
Two types of play
Contemporary (Sewamono)
Historical (Rekishimono) - can become social commentary of the present day, with characters acting like contemporary people, since criticizing Tokugawa government directly was quite dangerous
Grew so popular that some kabuki actors began to imitate dolls

Bunraku
Genze Riyaku
gen
- present
ze/se
- world
ri
- advantage, benefit, profit
yaku
- benefit, gain, advantage
"this-worldly benefits" - material or physical gains, aid in advancement, healing, health, success, well-being, freedom from problems and avoidance of disasters
Key element - this element versus "next world" (
genze
versus
raise
) with hopes of good rebirth
Not limited to a single person
Asked for more frequently in Edo period as new technologies and urban development, mercantilism and foot traffic, population increase, and the threat of fire came together - social concerns change over time
Lotus Sutra
:
Kumarajiva's translation of
Lotus Sutra
in the 5th c. CE from Sanskrit to Chinese
Boddhisattva Kannon/Avalokitesvara/Guanyin introduced in Ch. 25 as deliverer of
genze riyaku
; Sensouji temple tied to Kannon

Decline of the
Bakufu
The Black Ships
Ideology of the Late Tokugawa
The Meiji Restoration [1868]
Early Meiji Japan
1789 - 91: Matsudaira Sadanobu's Kansei Reforms
Price ceilings on rice (anti-speculation)
Rent controls
Restrictions on merchant guilds (anti-speculation)
Freeze on foreign policy
Censorship
Ends due to Tokugawa being incapable of deficit spending
Samurai face stipend cuts; many resort to part time work or abandon their samurai status entirely to try and catch up to their merchant "inferiors"
1830 - 40s: Famine, peasant uprisings, urban riots
Peasants squeezed by landlords
1840 - 50s:
Bakufu
and
Han
reforms
Reforms in Chōshū and Satsuma more successful than those of Tokugawa

1842: End of 1st Opium War, Beginning of the Unequal Treaties
1846: US acquires California
1853 - 54: Commodore Perry and his Black Ships arrive in Japan
Shogunate forced to sign Convention of Kanagawa
1855: Treaties with Britain and France
1857: Treaties with Holland and Russia
1858: Treaty of Amity and Commerce (US)
1858: Succession dispute in the Shogunate
Resolved by courtier Ii Naosuke, who was assassinated in 1860
1864 - 68: Wars between Chōshū, Satsuma and the
bakufu
1868 - 69: Boshin War; end of the Shogunate
January 3, 1868: Meiji Restoration

Merchant ideas of utility and economic relations
Dutch learning and Western Science ("Eastern ethics and western learning")
The
Mito
School of Shintō Revivalists (National Learning School)
Sonnō jōi
("revere the emperor, expel the barbarians") from Neo-Confucianism
The idea of a central emperor that rules a united Japan is still powerful and begins to fill the power vacuum of the declining 19th century Tokugawa
Subtext of phrase: ending the Tokugawa government
Becomes a political slogan in the overthrow movement
The "barbarian" in "
joui
" referred in Ancient China to eastern barbarians - Japan and Korea - but came to refer to Westerners, who came to Japan from the east

Key Figures - unlike the Edo easterners that ruled the Tokugawa, the southerners that led the restoration were fairly traditional (ironically, they initiated modernization)
Ōkubo Toshimichi (Satsuma): advocated relocation of emperor to Tokyo; Home Lord during the Restoration
Kido Kōin (Chōshū): Imperial Advisor, helped draft the Charter Oath and oversaw the Abolition of the
Han
Saigō Takamori (Satsuma): more conservative, traditional warrior values; military leader with key role in establishment of conscription and Abolition of the
Han
Itō Hirobumi (Chōshū): 1st Prime Minister, main architect of Meiji reforms and constitution, founder of the Seiyūkai
Ōkuma Shigenobu (Satsuma): foreign affairs, monetary reform, calls for British-style constitutional monarchy
Emperor Meiji "restored" to power, modeled after Western monarchs
Key focus: creation of a strong, militaristic state like Prussia, England
Wants to be like the Westerners and invade rather than be like the rest of the world and get invaded; only non-Western colonial power

Timeline
Government
1868: Charter Oath (Oath in Five Articles) lays out path to modernization
1871 - 76:
Creation of national land tax - all territory, public or private, comes under national jurisdiction
Abolition of four-class social system, Establishment of western-based nobility (peers) and
heimin
(commoners)
Samurai stipends and other financial obligations transferred to national government
Establishment of military based on national conscription
Abolition of the
Han
, Establishment of Prefectures
First national newspapers - first steps towards national institutions that define the people as belonging to the Japanese state
Literacy in Japan had always been relatively high
1873: Iwakura Mission, political crisis over Korea
1877: Saigō Takamori's Satsuma Rebellion
Last stand of the disaffected samurai, Saigō's ritual suicide
1889: Meiji Constitution promulgated
Emperor as head of state
Bicameral legislature: House of Peers, House of Representatives (elected by property owners)

Emperor
Genrō
: elder councilors, nowadays referred to as the Meiji oligarchs, dominated the Emperor and government
A parliamentary Diet to theoretically unite the wills of people and state, but weak and repeatedly dissolved
Military: modernized by Yamagata Aritomo
Lack of national unity - samurai class had originally taken care of warfare, while the peasants simply worked their local land without concern for national duty
Fukuzawa: "It would not be far from wrong to say that Japan has a government but no people."
Advocates national conscription, universal education to create a unified Japanese identity
NOT under the control of the diet

Theme: Japan "dressing" itself up, both literally and figuratively, like the great Western powers - Prussia, England, France, America.
Second Half of Meiji Japan [1895 - 1912]
1894 - 95: Sino-Japanese War (Treaty of Shimonoseki, 1895)
End of Korean vassalage, cession of Taiwan and parts of Liaodong, indemnity, four more open ports, and MFN status
Enormous boost to Japanese morale - hope of mirroring Britain's success as a small but dominant island nation
1900: Chinese Boxer Rebellion
1902: Britain-Japan Alliance
1904 - 05: Russo-Japanese War (Portsmouth Treaty, 1905)
Japanese feel cheated; Russians revolt
1910: Japan-Korea Annexation Treaty
1912: Republic of China founded
End of the unequal treaties and extraterritoriality in Japan
Possibility of war with economic benefits excites Japan
Japan gains great respect, although it is not yet regarded as a great power

Meiji Japan
Modern Japanese Literature
Translations of western works flood Meiji Japan, greatly influencing Japanese writers
Genbun Itchi (Union of Writing and Speech)
Idea that writing should reflect speech, then a very new concept
Simplification so that commoners can reasonably become literate
Connection to the contemporary (through reflection of common speech and thought) instead of the past (common traditional writing)
Romanticism, Realism/Naturalism
National culture and literary history
Genres:
Poetry:
Traditional forms:
tanka
,
haiku
Modern forms: free verse
Evolution of haiku into Western naturalist concept of a "snapshot" of time
Drama:
Traditional forms:
noh
,
jōruri
,
kabuki
Modern forms:
genki
(new theater)
Fiction
Traditional forms:
monogatari
,
gesaku
Modern form:
shousetsu
(novel)
Natsume Souseki (1867 - 1916), perhaps the greatest and most influence Japanese writer of the modern era
Best known for works like
I Am a Cat
(1905)
Fukuzawa Yukichi, Thinker on Western Civilization versus Japan
Outline of a Theory of Civilization
(1875)
Social Darwinism
"Civilization and Enlightenment"
Three-tier ranking: uncivilized, semi-civilized (like Japan), civilized (the West)
An Encouragement of Learning
(1872 - 76)

Ueda Kazutoshi's
National Language and Nation-state
(1894)
The four components of nationhood:
Territory, and absolute control over it
"Race" - a very new concept in both Europe and Japan, its meaning still evolving
Contrast with Portuguese use of "race" when they first encountered Japan
Unity - shared historical tradition, a single political system, religion, language
Achieved through education (Japan managed to achieve this in just a generation)
Law

Civilization and Nationhood
A Modern Military
Yamagata Aritomo, field marshal and twice PM,
genrō
Spearheaded modernization of Imperial Army
Defeated Saigō's Satsuma Rebellion
1872: Universal Conscription
Served as primitive form of universal adult education
A German army, a British navy

A Modern Economy
Defined by significant central planning - government promotion of initial growth at a loss through its own capital, then selling of matured infrastructure beginning in 1880
Railway lines link old city-centered economies into national economy
Specialized banks offer long-term credit, allowing deficit spending
Industrialization
Mining
Zaibutsu
and State Monopolies
Zaibutsu
led by men close to government leaders
Purchased matured infrastructure and state monopolies at bargain prices as privatization began

Westernization and the Making of Modern Japan (Part 1)
Over 3k foreign advisers during the Meiji Period - engineers, technicians, field workers, legal advisers, etc
More than 11k passports issued to Japanese students for overseas studies, mostly the US and Germany, between 1868 and 1902
Heavy Meiji sponsorship of rapid modernization
Aiming for revision of unequal treaties (extraterritoriality, tariff control clauses, MFN status)
Ōkuma: "To attain an equal footing with the other powers" was the primary goal
Participation in 1893 World Expo
Creation of national identity using the West as both a guide to follow and a reference point for Japan to distinguish itself from

In the 20s and 30s, Japan became highly Americanized through goods and culture, especially consumer culture.
Jazz cafes, Sunday drives, Western rooms or even houses, baseball, clothing, all become popular in Japan
Reactionaries in the 30s push against influx of western culture ("mindless materialism", lacking "deep spirituality and long traditions of Japan", "evened-out", emphasis on individuality and personal fulfillment)
Sought a particularly Japanese identity that, ironically, was often simply defined as whatever America's wasn't
Reflects rise of America from great to global power after WWI and fall during Great Depression

Timeline
Westernization and the Making of Modern Japan (Part 2)
Postwar
[1945 - 1989]
Konoe Fumimaro [1891 - 1945]: PM 1937 - 39, 1940 - 41
Initially attempted to rein in Imperial General Headquarters but eventually bowed under pressure
Pushed remaining political parties to unite into one party
Tōjō Hideki [1884 - 1948]: PM 1941 - 44, general in the IJA
Planned Pearl Harbor, ran an increasingly totalitarian government
Executed by the International Military Tribunal for the Far East after taking ultimate responsibility for the War

The Occupation
[1945 - 1952]
Led by Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers, General MacArthur; dominated by Americans
International Military Tribunal for the Far East tries Japanese war criminals
Constitution of Japan (1947) ends the Empire of Japan, begins the State of Japan
Significant influence from Allied Occupation
Emperor as symbol of the state
Renunciation of war and armed forces (Article IX)
Rights of people: universal suffrage
Prime Minister Yoshida Shigeru (1878-1967)
Pro-western stance meshed well with occupation
Yoshida Doctrine: focus on economic revival and a minimal diplomatic presence, relying on the US for military security under Article IX
Japan-US Security Treaty (1951 - 52)
End of the Occupation (except in Ryukyu)
Continued presence of military bases

The New Government
Structure:
Executive Branch
Emperor (figurehead)
Prime Minister (appointed by Diet)
Cabinet (appointed by PM)
Bicameral Legislative Branch
House of Representatives (Lower)
House of Councillors (Upper)
Judicial Branch
Parties:
Japan Socialist Party (JSP)
Experienced a brief surge of popularity postwar
Liberal Democratic Party (LDP, dominant since 1955)
Formed by merger in 1955 between Liberal and Japan Democratic Parties to counter the left-wing
Japanese Communist Party (JCP)
In existence since 1922 but suppressed until the end of the war

The Cold War
1949: Establishment of People’s Republic of China
1950-53: Korean War
1951: Japan-US Security Treaty
Censorship and repression by Occupation forces
After Occupation, persistent pressure by US to militarize as an East Asian bulwark against communism

Society and Economy
Initial “New Deal” progressive reforms during the Occupation mostly abandoned with the advent of the Cold War
Rights of women, including suffrage, improve but remain relatively limited
Breaking down of traditional extended family
Cultural nationalism
Korean War (1950 - 53) leads to boom
Shipbuilding, steel production, manufacturing (decline in agriculture)
Life Expectancy: 47 in 1935, 68 in 1960, 78 in 1990
Higher education boom
1950s: >50% beyond 9th grade
1975: 90%
1990: 95%
Timeline
1987: Per capita income overtakes that of the US
1989: Death of Shōwa (Hirohito)
1990: "Heisei Depression"
1991: Pledge of financial support for the Gulf War
1994: Ōe Kenzaburo receives the Nobel Prize for Literature
1995: Great Hanshin Earthquake
1995: Sarin gas attacks on Tokyo Subway
1997: Sanyou Securities, Hokkaido Takushoku Bank declare bankruptcy
First bank collapse in Japan
2001: Koizumi Jun'ichiro becomes PM
2004: Koizumi government sends 1000 soldiers to Iraq
2009: DPJ landslide victory
2011.3.11: Tōhoku Earthquake
2012: LDP landslide victory
Shinzo Abe becomes PM
Post-bubble/Postmodern Japan
Economic stagnation
Decline of lifetime employment system
From Salarymen and Office Ladies to Freeters and Parasite Singles
Otaku
,
hikkikomori
Murakami Haruki (B. 1946): writings of social alienation
Yoshimoto Banana (B. 1964): writings of social alienation
Questioning the idea of a single "Japan"
Questioning of modern Japanese social, economic, cultural situation
Education in Japan
Education:
West versus East
Civilization: from Latin
civilis
, "relating to a citizen"
Culture from Latin
cultura
, "cultivation" of mind and body through education
bun
, lit. "pattern": writing, letters, civilized, cultured; typically contrasted with military to emphasize necessity of both
Both China and Japan referred to conquest as "transforming" natives
Education: from Latin
educere
, "to lead forth"
School: from Latin
schola
, "time or place for leisure and debate"
gaku
: "learning"; place of learning, transmission from master to disciple
Education in Historic Japan
Nara, Heian
Elementary Education: Thousand Character Classic, etc.
Imperial University/Academy: Chinese classics, Law, Mathematics
Women's education: Calligraphy, poetry composition, music
Main theme: Knowledge comes from China

Medieval Period
Among aristocracy, learning is privatized
Buddhist Temples
Warrior private schools and libraries

Edo Period
Temple schools (primarily for commoners)
Private academies
Tokugawa
bakufu
official school
Domain Schools

Modern Period
National system of education
Elementary, middle schools, University
National language, calligraphy, classical language
Transition from classical Chinese to Japanese texts
Imperial Universities
Modern Japanese Education
Moral education - honesty, justice, self-reliance, responsibility toward society, cultural and national pride, etc.
Ninomiya Sontoku (1787 - 1856): economist, philosopher, moralist
Fused Buddhist, Shintoist, and Confucian teachings
Meiji (1868 - 1912)
Imperial Rescript on Education (1890): emphasis on common goals to limit instability of modernization: shushin kyoiku, absolute monarchy, Confucianism and Japanese notions of citizenship; memorized by students
Taisho (1868 - 1926)
Rise of democracy and active party politics; greater political participation
Education began to emphasize freedom, individualism, initiative
High School Textbook Controversy
Ienaga Saburo (1913 - 2002)
The Pacific War
(1968) discusses issues of perspective with the name of Japan's role in WWII
"Greater East Asia War" - perspective of wartime Japanese government
"Pacific War" - American perspective
Fifteen Year War and Asia-Pacific War - more neutral
"In the education we received in the prewar period, Japanese history was white-washed in the extreme[...]Because we received such a blinkered education, we were unable to prevent the tragedy of the disastrous 'fifteen year war'"
Ienaga Textbook Trials (1965 - 1997)
Fujiwara Akira (1922 - 2003) and the Nanjing Massacre Research Group
Yoshimi Yoshiaki (B. 1946)
Comfort Women: Sexual Slavery in the Japanese Military During WWII
(1995)
Full transcript