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The Conceptual System
Transcript of The Conceptual System
It is a system that studies the cognitive aspects of meaning . this system is capable of organizing and classifying every imaginable aspect of our experience.
2. Graded Membership
Another important fact about concepts is that they can be graded by grading their members in terms of their typicality.
: the notion of time ( concrete commodity)
A Spatial Metaphor
A prevalent metaphor in our language involves the use of words that are primarily associated with spatial orientation to talk about physical and psychological states.
Refer to page 256
1. Fuzzy Concept
We tend to think that the concepts expressed by words and phrases of our language have precise definitions with clear-cut boundaries that distinguish the words from other concepts.
But not all concepts are so straightforward.
The Conceptual System
* Consider The Concepts associated with the following words
* This type of fuzziness pervades the human conceptual system
Can you think about other fuzzy concepts ?
- Concepts can be graded
(see Figure 6.2 page 255)
Even concepts whose boundaries can be scientifically defined exhibit this type of graded membership
- concepts have internal structures
a metaphor is a figure of speech in which an implied comparison is made between two different things that actually have something important in common.
* The concepts expressed by language make a=up a giant network, with many interconnections and associations. a good example of these interconnections is metaphor : the understanding of one concept i term of another
a. you are wasting my time.
b. You need to budget your time.
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is considered another aspect of semantics interpretation which involves determining the role that the referents of NPs play in the situations described by sentences.
The courier carried the document from Boston to Seattle.
- Thematic Roles are used to find out the relation between the different parts of a sentence
a List of Thematic Roles
The Lexicalization of Concepts