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Timeline

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Aleena Cornaby

on 15 October 2014

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Transcript of Timeline

Timeline
Aleena Cornaby
Europe
Islam
476
1000
1500
632
1000
1500
Death of
Muhammad
661
750
Ummayad Dynasty
Abbasid Dynasty
1260
1258
Fall of the
Western
Roman
Empire
1066
1st Crusade
1147-1149
2nd Crusade
1450
1000
High Middle Ages
William the
Conquerer,
Battle of
Hastings
1215
Magna Carta
Signed
1122
End of
Investiture
Controversy
1309
Avignon
Papacy
Begins
1347-1349
Black Death
Black Death
1347-1349
1415
Battle of
Agincourt
3rd Crusade
1189-1192
1095-1099
The Abbasid Dynasty conquered the Umayyad Dynasty in the 8th century during a time of political and social unrest caused by the continued enforcing of the Jizya tax on Muslim Converts. After taking over the caliphate, they built a new capital in Baghdad and adopted Persian administrative techniques (the Persians were one of the groups of people who had been forced to pay the tax, so they were largely involved in the formation of the Abbasidd dynasty). The Abbasid dynasty marked the Golden Age of Islamic Civilization: Courtly life was given a romanticized perspective in the One Thousand and One Nights (or the Arabian Nights), and there were many intellectual advancements achieved in the 9th century in the House of Wisdom, a school of learning established in Baghdad. Their achievements included advancements in Mathematics - Al-Khwarizmi developed the number line, arabic numbers, and the fundamentals of Algebra. The algorithm is named after him. Philosophy: one of the Muslim philosophers of this time was Ibn Rushd, who wrote several commentaries on the Greeks and who is also known as Averroes. Medicine: During the Abbasid Dynasty, the fundamentals of the double-blind study were developed, and the first hospital came into existence under the leadership of Ibn Sina. Astronomy: Al Tusi conceptualized the heliocentricity of our solar system even before Copernicus.
Scholasticism
During the High Middle Ages, the king sought increased freedom from the church. One way they did this was through the issuing of Royal Charters - documents issued to create corporate institutions (towns and universities). These institutions achieved increased freedom for the crown because they provided an alternative source for capable administrators and tax revenue.Therefore the king no longer had to rely on the monasteries and cathedral schools as the only institutions that provided persons able to read, write, and calculate. The men produced by the new universities (Bologna, University of Paris) were able to efficiently administer in the kingdom, and they also gradually distanced themselves from church orders. A new method of intellectual investigation, called Scholasticism, emerged and dominated the university curriculum from 1100 - 1500. Rather than solving debates by means of an appeal to authority and revelation, Scholasticism instead appealed to human reason by means of dialectics. The most enduring fields of Scholasticism have been their contributions in theology and philosophy. Scholastics attempted to reconcile faith and reason by employing classical philosophy and Islamic thought. Famous scholastics include Anselm of Canterbury, Peter Abelard, Albertus Magnus, William of Ockham (Ockham's Razor), and Thomas Aquinas, who wrote the Summa Theologica, the most complete attempt at theological harmonization in history.
Medieval Warm Period/Medieval Climate Optimum
900
1250
Late 12th
Century
Champagne Fairs
The Medieval Climate Optimum led to agricultural surplus, which in turn led to increased trade throughout Europe. The Champagne Fairs are an example of this. The fairs would annually travel a route from Italy in the south to the the Low Countries (Holland and Denmark) in the north. They would pass through the region every week for six weeks, bringing goods such as furs, leathers, textiles and spices. Towns grew along the route, leading to a more permanent local commerce and the use of coinage rather than bartering. Major banks were established on the endpoints of the route, particularly in Antwerp and Florence. Bank notes were eventually made uniform, and the beginnings of modern banking were established in connection with the growing trade. Most importantly, trade led to an increased connectivity throughout Europe - the world "shrunk" a little bit as people were able to travel and ideas, cultures and civilization were shared and spread. Also, as trade increased, so did specialization of labor in various trades as experts produced wares for trading. This upset the traditional "three-legged throne" system of the High Middle Ages because the vast majority of these specialists were neither oratores nor bellatores. Therefore they fell into the default classification of laboratores, although their expertise went far beyond that of a land-bound serf. The tripartite classification system was beyond insufficient.
1358
Hanseatic League
England would not be England if it were not for William the Conquerer and the Battle of Hastings. Following the withdrawal of Rome in the fifth century, Angles and Saxons emigrated into the region of England. Beginning in the eighth century, Norsemen (vikings) entered from Scandinavia. The Anglo Saxon king Alfred the Great (871-899) repelled the viking invasion, and England stayed under Anglo Saxon rule until 1016 when the vikings were victorious under Cnut the Great. However in 1032 Edward the Confessor once again gained control. Following his death, there was a dispute between the two possible successors to the throne - Edward's brother-in-law Harold and his cousin duke William of Normandy. William was of viking descent. In October 1066, he crossed over to England and the Viking armies of William met the Anglo-Saxon armies of Harold on October 14, 1066 at Hastings. Although initially frustrated by the Anglo-Saxon "shield wall," the Normans were eventually victorious and William took over England. The events of the Battle of Hastings were memorialized on the Bayeux Tapestry, which was finished on the 10th anniversary of the battle. William thereafter conducted a series of reforms that transformed England. He conducted the first census (Domesday Book) and supplanted much of the Anglo-Saxon aristocracy with Normans. The conquering of England by William was the last successful invasion of England; this isolation aided in the eventual development of a truly English identity.
The takeover of England by William the Conquerer in 1066 resulted in the unification of parts of the British Isles as well as continental Europe under single rule. This was continued by his successors; King Henry II was duke of Normandy, Count of Anjou, Duke of Maine, Count of Nantes, and Duke of Aquitaine following his marriage with Eleanor. His vast territories included nearly 60% of "France." The Angevin dynasty (named because of Anjou) ruled for more than 300 years. Henry relied on his sons Richard I ("Lionhearted"), Geoffrey, and John I ("Lackland") to help administer the empire. Richard was a capable leader and warrior, but John was incapable to effectively rule and abused his power as king. His opponents formed groups that later became the English Parliament, which provided checks and balances on Royal power. Under the system of feifs in England, the king was allowed to take control of feifs whose lord had died leaving a minor son or only an unmarried daughter as heir. The king was then to return the feif to the vassal lord once the heir was eligible to again take control. However, John did not return the feifs and gained control of much land by dispossessing vassal lords of their feifs. The Barons eventually rebelled, and took London as well as the regions of Lincoln and Exeter. John met them at Runnymede (Meadow of meeting), where he signed the Magna Cart in 1215. - one of the great political documents in history. The Magna Carta stated that the kings was not above the law and was not above the oaths he made to his vassals. Although John did not honor the charter, it was reinstated following his death. It is cited as the source of the Great Writ, the English claim to the writ of Haeas Corpus, a guard against illegal imprisonment. It was during the reign of John I that the institutions and government of England took on a nascent national character. The Magna Carta was an important source of constitutional principles, which further cemented a common English identity.
Paris
Rhine River
London
Thames River
Aachen
Bayeux
Low countries
Champagne
Muhammed lived from AD 570-632. He was orphaned at a young age and lived with his grandfather and his uncle Abu Talib. He was known as a diligent worker. As a young man he began working for a trade caravan owned by Khadija, who later proposed marriage to him although she was 15 years his senior. Throughout his life, Muhammed was always concerned with the disparity he saw between the poor and the rich who gained their wealth through the polytheistic pilgrimage made to the ka'aba each year. He began to pray and meditate regularly. In AD 610, while meditating in a cave near Mecca, Muhammed experienced a vision in which the fundamental truth of Islam was revealed to him: the singularity and uniqueness of Alah. This night is referred to as the Night of Power. Khadija, Muhammed's first convert, insisted that the vision was from God and that Muhammed had a duty to proclaim it. The monotheistic message of Islam was strongly opposed by the wealthier citizens of Mecca because it threatened the thriving trade associated with the polytheistic pilgrimage to the Ka'aba. Following the death of Khadija and Abu Talib in 617, persecutions to the Muslims prompted what is known as the Hijra (the Flight) in 622. Muhammed left Mecca for Yathrib, where he and his followers could relocate. Yathrib was later renamed Medina (city of the prophet). Muhammed became a political leader as well as a religious leader in Medina. There was continued persecution from the citizens of Mecca, but after Muhammed was successful in several battles against them, a truce was formed in 628 between them which was to allow the Muslims to worship at the Ka'aba in Mecca without opposition. In 630 he entered with his forces and took over Mecca in an essentially bloodless coup. He destroyed the idols in the Ka'aba, and the Meccan population essentiall converted to Islam. Muhammad died in 632. Following his death, disputes arose concerning succession between his friend Abu Bakr and his son'-in-law Abu. The Muslims elected Abu Bakr as the leader of the umma, and his followers later became the Sunnis, while the followers of Ali became the Shi'ites..
The papacy gained power and prominence throughout Europe following the Donation of Pippin in 750 and the grant of Italian lands to the Papacy by Charlemagne. The rulers in Europe had grown accustomed to having the privilege of appointing bishops and abbots within their realms, a procedure called "lay investiture." This privilege was cherished by the rulers given the amount of productive land owned by the monasteries and the services they provided. It was also coveted by the popes. The Investiture controversy was a conflict in which the popes sought to terminate lay investiture and was particularly active from AD 1075-1122. It began when Pope Gregory VII issued a declaration calling for the independent "papal" appointment of Bishops. However, King Henry IV of Germany appointed the bishop of Milan in 1076, inducing the pope to excommunicate Henry. Henry later personally asked for forgiveness in 1077 at Canossa, dressed in a hairshirt and standing barefoot. Henry then appointed Clement III to be the true pope and invaded Rome. The conflict was eventually resolved in 1122 with the signing of the Concordat of Worms. Pope Calixtus II presided over the signing of the concordat, which greatly expanded the power of the popes, allowing them to appoint bishops freely with input from the monarchs. Kings no longer could claim the right to appoint popes, and papal authority was recognized in all spiritual matters. Papal power reached its height during the time of Pope Innocent III. He consolidated papal power throught he acquisition of lands and through increased involvement in the management of kingdoms by means of Decretals (letters instructing rulers or anyone involved in ecclesiastical issues). The Pope was also able to annoint the Holy Roman emperor. The conflict between the power of kings and popes was one of the factors that contributed to disequilibrium during the Middle Ages.
Cluneic Reforms
Mid-10th Century
During the 10th century, influential monks including Odo (878-942) argued that the monasteries had fallen from the ideal Benedictine Rule. They accused the monks of corruption of office (simony, or selling church offices for a bribe) and concubinage. The concluded that the source of the problem lay in the monasteries' close association to manors, so they separated the two. In 910, Odo secured the establishment of a monastery at Cluny which would answer directly to the Pope rather than to the local lord of a manor. He also ensured that the parent house at Cluny would oversee the management of all "daughter houses."

1054
Great East-
West Schism
1054
Great East-
West Schism
Alexandria
Jerusalem
Baghdad
Damascus
Arabian Peninsula
Red Sea
Persian Gulf
Mecca
Medina
Late Abbasid Caliphate
1187
1202-1204
1099
Turkish
Migration
1071
Battle of
Manzikert
Muslims
Retake
Jerusalem
Fourth
Crusade
Jerusalem
Captured
by the
Christians
(Battle of Ayn
Ayn Jalut: 1260)
1280's
Origins of
Ottoman Empire
Caliphate
Ends: Sack of Baghdad

Doctrinal and dogmatic feuds emerged between the bishops of Rome and Constantinople during the 11th century. These controversies came to a head in 1054 when a delegation traveled to Constantinople to demand that the patriarch in Constantinople recognize Rome as the mother church. The patriarch refused, and was excommunicated by the Roman delegation. He, in turn, excommunicated the members of the Catholic delegation.
1648
Treaty of
Westphalia
Recongnized territories, boundaries, and the sovereignty of countries. Key in development of national states in Europe
In the 1170s following the 2nd Crusade, a new Muslim leader arose named Saladin. He emerged out of Egypt, and it was under his leadership that Islam recaptured Jerusalem in 1187. Saladin fought against Richard the Lionhearted in the Crusades. Even though they were enemies, they were able to have mutual respect for each other. Saladin considered Richard to be an incredible warrior, while Saladin was known for his fairness and chivalry.
This warmer climate produced the context which promoted several factors of disequilibrium in the High Middle Ages. A warmer climate was more suitable for growing food, and a lot of it. Consequently, Europe's population increased, families were larger, and families were bigger. Agricultural techniques also improved: the "Three-field" system was developed, which allowed them to have two-thirds of their cultivable land constantly under cultivation. This allowed them to more easily recover from any single disastrous year. The padded horse collar was also invented and allowed them to replace the ox with the stronger and more efficient horse as the primary draft animal. Farmers began using heavier iron plows, which turned over more soil and improved crop yields. Heavier draft horses were used to pull these plows, and iron horseshoes were developed. Blacksmithing and mining were improved and became more widespread as horseshoes, plows, and building materials came to be in higher demand. The Europeans turned increasingly to the use of machinery: enormous amounts of grain were being produced in this climate, and the vertical waterwheel was developed which allowed them to mill the grain much more efficiently as it could run nearly year-round. Finally, the improved climate resulted in agricultural surplus, which led to increased trade throughout Europe.
Cistercian Reforms
By the end of the 11th century, a growing number of monks accused the monks of Cluny of corruption due to their expanded land holdings and impressive revenue gained form a pilgrimage. In 1098, Robert of Molesme founded a new Benedictine Abbey at Citeaux. In 1119 revised Benedictine rule was written, known as the Charter of Charity. Under this new order, lay members were allowed at the monastery. It was so successful that daughter houses spread throughout most of Western Europe. Bernard of Clairvaux was the most famous Cistercian monk. He was the founder or the order of the Knights Templar (a lay military order), wrote many sermons and also the hymn Jesus the Very thought of Thee. He was arguably the most influential man of his time, simply through the power of his good example.
The Black Plague was helpful to the Ottoman Turks under Osman I. He had become an ally of the Byzantine emperor Cantacuzenus, thereby establishing a permanent bridgehead into Europe. The Byzantines were further weakened by the plague, allowing the Turks to get a better hold on the Balkans.
1412-1430
Joan of Arc
Following the Investiture Controversy (1075-1122, Popes became much more powerful than they had been previously. They were given the power to appoint bishops and abbots, and were basically given authority in every spiritual matter. During the time of Pope Innocent III, popes were given the power to annoing the Holy Roman empire, and they became more involved in the affairs of the land through the use of Decretals, which were instructions given to any person involved in a religious matter. During the 14th century, Popes became even more involved in the administration of kingdoms; they began acting like princes and kings, and they began exercising authority in increasingly secular domains. They intervened directly in the affairs of principalities and monarchies, and this naturally caused tension between monarchs and ecclesiastical leaders, such as between Pope Boniface VIII and King Philip IV of France. The pope attempted to coerce Philip, and in response, Philip kidnapped the entire papacy and relocated them to Avignon in "France." The next eight Popes were French, appointees of the French crown. This served to diminish the credibility of the papacy outside of France, and caused a crisis of spiritual authority. Petrarch called this the "Babylonian Captivity of the Papacy," and even claimed that the Black Death (1347-1349) was God's punishment and a sign that God's authority was not working at that time.
Bay of Bengal
Bangladesh
Deccan Plateau
Indus River
Himalayas
Hindukush
Brahmaputra
Delhi
Jaipur
Amritsar
Varanasi
Sri Lanka
Ganges River
Following the first 4 caliphs after Muhammad, known as the Rashidun or the "rightly-guided" caliphs, members of the clan of Umayya from Mecca came into power in 661 and established a new capital in Damascus. They expanded their empire to North Africa and Central Asia. For example, in 711 under a commander named Tariq (whom Gibraltar is named after - Jabal Tariq) made his way to the Iberian Peninsula and defeated the Visigoths. Their Westward expansion ended in 732 when they fought Charles "The Hammer" Martel in the Battle of Tours and were defeated. By that time, their empire was larger than the Roman empire had been. This expansion is often thought to have involved forced conversion to Islam. However, this was rarely the case. Often, conquered peoples would voluntarily convert to Islam, and there was even a time when conversion to Islam was discouraged because of the source of income non-muslims were to the dynasty. All non-muslims had to pay a tax, called the Jizya tax, which ensured the well-being of any people living among the Muslims who had not converted. The tax was created by Umar, one of the "rightly guided" Caliphs, following Islamic expansion into Syria and Egypt. These places were before this time under the control of the Byzantine empire, and the Islamic conquest of these areas signified the first time Jewish and Christian peoples were under Islamic rule. Umar had to find a way to deal with so many non-Muslims, and so he issued the Pact of Umar which gave them protection in return for a tax, among other things. The Ummayad Dynasty continued until 750, when the dynasty suffered under political strife because non-Muslims who converted to Islam were still being forced to pay the Jizya tax. One main group of these converts who were not pleased with having to pay the tax were the Persians. The Ummayad Dynasty fell in 750 when the Abbasids took advantage of the political weakness of the Ummayads and took over.
The Great East-West Schism was a conflict between Rome and Constantinople concerning who was in charge. Matters came to a head in 1054, when a Roman delegations sent to Constantinople in order to demand that they recognize Rome as the mother church. However, the Greek patriarch refused to comply, which caused the Romans to excommunicate him. In response to that, the patriarch simply returned the favor and excommunicated the members of the Roman delegation. This solidified the wedge in place between the east and the West, and this Schism would have a lasting impact on Europe's history. In 1071, the Seljuk Turks living in Asia Minor defeated Byzantium and took the emperor captive in the Battle of Manzikert. In response, the Byzantines were so desperate for help that they called upon the pope in the West for assistance. This "assistance" took the form of the Crusades, which ultimately culminated with the Christian forces taking over Byzantium in 1204.
1453
Fall of Constantinople
to Ottoman Turks

India
1206
998
1151
Ghazni
Destroyed
1025
Mahmud of Ghazni
succeeds his father
Mahmud destroys Shiva
temple at Somnath
China
Agra
(Taj Mahal)
1000
1500
Tang Dynasty
Han Yu
819
In 819, a Tang official named Han Yu went in front of the imperial throne to address the issue of the introduction of a relic, Buddha's finger bone, into the palace. Han Yu argued that Buddhism was a cult of the barbarians; it could only date back to the late Han dynasty and the ancients knew nothing of it. He argued that if the emperor didn't forbid Buddhism and did Buddha honor by keeping the relic, soon the people would neglect their duties. They would instead flock to the temples and even be willing to mutilate themselves as an offering to God. Then their Chinese customs and traditions would be injured by this new religion. Han Yu also argued that Buddha was a barbarian: he didn't speak Chinese, his clothes were of an alien cut, he did not conform to Chinese custom, and he did not appreciate the relationship between prince and minister, nor between father and son. (Confucianism was a very important part of Chinese civilization at this time. Two essential aspects of Confucianism are the Rectification of names, which means that you act appropriately according to your title, and the Five Relationships, which means that you show proper respect to others according to your relationship with them. Buddha had violated both of these principles when he left his role as a prince against his father's will to become an ascetic.)
Finally, Han Yu simply states his disdain for the thought of allowing this foreign relic into the imperial palace. He quotes Confucius as saying, "Pay all respect to spiritual things, but keep them at a distance."
618
906
The early Tang dynasty had a fascination for all things foreign. They were characterized by their military tradition as well as sports such as hunting, physical exercise and martial arts.6 However, the later Tang Dynasty (as well as the Song dynasty) in which Han Yu lived turned away from these things. They developed a contempt of all things foreign and returned to their native Chinese roots. They valued scholarly pursuits such as poetry, fine arts, polite learinng, and belles lettres. Their leaders of policy gained their position through scholarship. It was these developments that brought China out of its Medieval age and into its modern age; the essential parts of Chinese civilization which were laid down in the Tang dynasty persisited during the remainder of the Chinese empire
960
Zhao Kuangyin,
founding of the
Song Dynasty
In 960, a Chinese general named Zhao Kuangyin was sent by the last of the Five dynasties, the Later Zhou, to ward off a northeastern nomadic threat: the Khitan. However, Zhao instead was able to gain power in the north and successfully form the Song dynasty. He conquered the south soon after. He did not form a soldier's dynasty. Instead, following the pattern of the late Tang dynasty, officials were recruited by examination and earned their positions through scholarly pursuits. The examinations were held every three years at three levels: one at the prefecture, one at the capital and one in the palace. The passing rate for the first two levels was usually not more than 10%. This system has been criticized for possibly favoring the sons of officials, but actually more than 50% of the candidates came from new families who had not been in office before. These scholar officials enjoyed more influence during the Song dynasty than during any other period of Chinese history. They prevented imperial relatives and eunuchs from taking power.
Song Dynasty
Tang government was very satisfactory. It consisted of a council of less than ten ministers who advised the emperor, a secretariat in charge of ministries and boards, a privy council in charge of military affairs, and a finance commission which was able to build up a considerable reserve. However, they began to once again be troubled by nomadic peoples: the Khitan of the northeast and the Xia of the Northwest. The Khitan expanded rapidly and made Beijing one of their capitals. They called themselves the Liao dynasty. At their height, they controlled Manchuria, part of northern China, and Korea. The Song dynasty was able to regain most of northern China, but in 1004 under the peace of Shanyuan, they were compelled to pay an annual tribute to the Khitan of 100,000 ounces of silver and 200,000 rolls of silk. This was raised in 1042. The Liao dynasty was so powerful that they were in contact with Japan in the east and the Abbasids in the west. In fact, Khitan became synonymous with China, which is why Marco Polo would refer to China as Cathay. The Khitan were defeated by the Jurchen in 1125. The other source of pressure on the Song dynasty were the Xia, a mixed people from the northwest who raised livestock. They forced the Song dynasty to pay a costly annual tribute of gold, silk, and tea. They were ultimately defeated by Ghengis Khan in 1227. The expense of maintaining mercenary armies gradually exausted the reserve that the Song dynasty had built up. Their economic and military needs gave rise to proposals of reform.
1021-1086
Wang Anishi
and Reforms
Because of pressures by the nomadic Khitan and Xia peoples, the Song dynasty found itself in finanacial trouble due to the burden of maintaining a mercenary army for defense as well as the burden of paying costly annual tributes to these peoples. This gave rise to proposals of reform by certain ministers, and particularly by a man named Wang Anishi. Under the support of the emperor, Wang Anishi implemented reforms that were astonishingly similar to modern economic control devices. He developed the Green Sprouts act. This act allowed farmers to take out loans at 20% interest. They could then borrow for planting grain in the spring and repay their loan after harvest in the fall. Provision was also made for the loan to be pushed back a year in the case of a bad harvest or natural disaster. Wang Anishi also instituted price controls and extended credit to small businesses. he rationalized taxes (paid in kind) by selling goods on the spot or having them transported to needy areas. That way he sent only the proceeds to the capital. He altered the rate of the land tax in order to distinguish between fields of high and low yield. He tried to enable the peasants to protect themselves by encouraging them to form militias under local leadership and offering prizes for skill in archery and drill. He arranged for farmers to have state-owned horses quartered on their farms with the understanding that a member of the household would report for duty with the horse if they were needed in an emergency militia call. Some of these reforms were new and some of them were old ones more radically applied. However, he received strong opposition. One of the criticisms was that Wang Anishi made the emperor peddle like any other merchant. Most of his reforms, instituted in 1069, were abolished on the death of emperer Shen Zong in 1085.
960
1126
Jin Dynasty
The formers of the Jin dynasty were originally a nomadic people called the Jurchin. They came to power in 1125 when they conquered the Liao (Khitan) dynasty. They then proceeded to take over Kaifei, the capital of the Song Dynasty. This caused the end of the Song dynasty and the beginning of the Southern Song dynasty, with a capital in Hangzhou. From this point on, the Jin and the Southern Song were able to exist fairly peacefully, although there was occasional conflict and the Southern Song created a war fleet.
1127
1271
Southern Song Dynasty
The Southern Song Dynasty was formed in 1127 after the Song dynasty was conquered by the Jurchen in 1126. Their capital at Kaifeng was overrun by the nomads, and they moved to a new capital at Hangzhou in southern China. The Southern Song dynasty and the Jin dynasty were able to stay fairly peaceful, although there were occasional conflicts and the Southern Song formed a war fleet which added to their military expenses. They were pretty safe in their southern kingdom, which was protected by a profusion of lakes and rivers which made a large scale nomadic attack impossible. Their rice economy prospered, and during this dynasty an urban society developed. Their economy and lifestyle was much more free than the cities of the Tang dynasty, which were strictly regulated. In Hangzhou, a capitalist society formed rather than a manorial one, and there was a diversity of both rich and poor. Innumerable workshops formed, and a higher standard of living developed.
1126
1234
There were many new technologies developed during the Late Tang and Song dynasties. Paper and printing came into very general use during this time; They invented a mechanical water-powered clock that was able to keep very accurate time and also made astronomical measurements. They also invented an oil burning flamethrower that could manage continuous discharge. They developed a ship called a Junk that was the most sophisticated of its time and the envy of the arabs. It had 4-6 masts, 4 levels, and could hold 1000 men. It had triangular cloth sails that enabled them to sail into and against the wind. They also invented paddle boats which were run by manpower through either cranks or paddles and could reach considerable speeds. Some of their most important inventions were the mariner's compass and the sternpost rudder. The compass was a floating needle. They also made innovations in firearms; in addition to fireworks they developed exploding hand grenades.
Landscape Painting:
Despite the disturbances during the Song Dynasty, the scholar class did not lose interest in its scholarly pursuits. There were many different Chinese art forms, including sculpting, bronze casting, jade carving, architecture and the painting of birds and flowers. However, landscape painting came to occupy the highest position among Chinese art.
Comparison to Western Art:
Western Art tends to focus on the human form, such as in Greek sculpture, Renaissance paintings of the Holy Family, and the portraiture of 16th and 17th century France and England. Landscape in Western art emerged later. Chinese art, on the other hand, includes man only as an element of nature as a whole. Man is present, but his role is greatly diminished. The Chinese artist saw the totality of nature - her moods and shifts between seasons, the balance of high mountains and low streams, etc. as a clue into the harmony of the universe, or the dao.
The viewpoint of a Western artist is from about 5 or 6 feet above the ground, at about the viewpoint of a regular person. The Chinese artist, however, took a much higher viewpoint, as if he were standing on a distant hill so that he can gain an overview of the whole picture.
Unlike Western art, Chinese paintings do not have a single viewpoint. Each element of the painting is equally important so that there is no fixed viewpoint and the viewer's gaze can roam at will. An example of this is Li Cheng's "Buddhist temple in the Hills after Rain." Every individual part of the picture can be viewed alone with satisfaction; yet the picture is a whole. This painting is done on a vertical scroll. Some paintings were also done on horizontal scrolls and were meant to be viewed in about two-foot sections at a time. (e.g. "Fishing in a Mountain Stream" by Xu Daoning). The scroll technique could not be used by a Western artist who has in his painting a single viewpoint.
Western and Chinese art also varies in technique and medium. Western art is done on a canvas with colorful oil paints that can be painted over and fixed. Chinese art is done with water-soluble ink on silk or highly absorbent rice paper. A line, once drawn, could not be recalled. Artists would practice over and over before putting their drawing down; they would practice with stereotyped ways of drawing objects until they mastered them and could go on to their own techniques. A chinese artist was never drawing a specific scene; they would get inspiration from nature and then retire to their studio to create their masaterpiece from memory.
Song artists were affected by both Daoist and Buddhist thought. Daoist influence is shown through their fascination with the totality of nature as well as with their emphasis on the use of empty space. Buddhist influence is shown through the subordination of man to nature in their art. It emphasizes the fact that everything is ultimately all part of one being (Brahma.)
712
In 712 AD, the first Arabs established a bridgehead in India under the command of Muhammad Ibn Qasim. The King of Sri Lanka had sent a ship of Muslim orphans to the governor of Iraq, but the ship was captured by pirates from Sind (at the mouth of the Indus river). The raja of Sind refused to punish the pirates, so the governor of Iraq launched several punitive attacks against Sind. Finally the governor's son in law (Ibn Qasim) was able to conquer most of Southern Sind. He had the support of the caliph until a new caliph took the throne and had Ibn Qasim executed.
conquest of Sind
In 1000 AD, Mahmud of Ghazni waged a war of destruction and conquest against India. From that year until 1025, he carried out a total of 17 campaigns. His father had been a Turkish slave who had conquered much of central Persia with a capital at Ghazni, so Mahmud already had a strong power base to work from. He always carried out his campaigns in the dry season so that his soldiers would be able to carry their loot back before the monsoon began. He was able to defeat the Indian Gurjara Pratiharas, who had previously prevented the Arabs from conquering Northern India. He destroyed Hindu places of worship, most famously the Shiva temple at Somnath in 1025. 50,000 Hindus lost their lives defending this temple, but Mahmud still defeated them and returned to Ghazni with 6.5 tons of gold. Mahmud's desire was not to rule over India; it is possible that he merely used it as a treasure trove to strengthen his empire in central Asia.
Some of Mahmud's success was due to the fact that conflicts within India had weakened it so that a determined invader could come in and take it over.
Sidenote: Weaknesses of India and Indian Military:
Following the death of Mahmud of Ghur, India had more than a century of relative peace. However, they did no take advantage of this peace to strengthen their military. The various rulers of India jealously guarded their respecitve territories and did not coordinate their efforts against the Islamic invaders. Indian soldiers were not good at following orders, whereas the Islamic soldiers were generally slaves who had been trained as soldiers from a very young age and who were subject to constant drilling. They were also skilled at outwitting the strategy and tactics of the Indian military.
Another factor was the social structure of Indian culture: The caste system caused a wide separation between the rulers of India and the rural commoners. The commoners saw war as a pasttime of the leaders. Fighting against the invaders would be both dangerous and unprofitable. The Muslims, on the other hand, lived in a much more egalitarian society. Generals in their armies gained their position through military skill and merit rather than through dynastic rights. Their leaders were often slaves who had proved their loyalty and skill and moved up in the ranks. The soldiers were also motivated by the thought that they were fighting a "holy war" against the infedel Hindu society.
Another struggle for the control of India began in 1151 AD when Ghazni was destroyed and the rulers of Ghur emerged as the new power. Muhammad of Ghur conquered Multan in 1175, and he defeated Mahmud of Ghazni's last successor in 1186. He therefore went began a campain against India. Unlike Mahmud, Muhammad desired to rule over India rather than just plunder it. In 1191-1192, he fought two decisive battles at Tarain, Northwest of Delhi. He lost the first, but returned the next year with 100,000 archers on horseback and emerged victorious. He was then able to conquer the remainder of Northern India within just a few years. Much of his success was due to his slave-general, Qutubuddin Aibak. Muhammad was murdered in 1205. the following year, Qutubuddin declared his independence from the people of Ghur and founded the Mamluk dynasty (mamluk meaning "owned man") and the Delhi Sultanate.
Muhammad of Ghur
1175-1205
Founding of the
Delhi Sultanate
1290
Mamluk Dynasty
1320
Khilji Dynasty
The Mamluk Dynasty (mamluk meaning "owned man" because Qutubuddin was a slave) began in 1206 following the murder of Muhammad of Ghur in 1205. Qutubuddin Aibak was a slave general of Muhammad of Ghur. He declared his independence in 1206 and founded the Delhi Sultanate. He ruled until 1210, when he was succeeded by his son-in-law Iltumish. Iltumish gained the throne after defeating other relatives, colleagues, and generals who were in control of most of northern India. In 1229, an official from the Abbasid Caliphate in Baghdad was sent to consecrate him as sultan of Delhi. Additionally, Iltumish was faced with defending his empire against the Mongols, who arrived at the Indus in 1221. The Muslims were much more adept than the Indians at keeping the Mongols at bay, but the Mongols were able to capture Panjab, and forces remained there until they were defeated in 1279 by Muhammad, son of Balban. Following Iltumish's death, there were three decades of incessant struggle. His daughter Raziyyat reigned for three years, but was deposed and killed. Following her, a member of the influential "Group of 40" named Balban took the throne. He was known for his cruelty. Following his death in 1286, a member of the Turkish Khaljis named Jalaluddin emerged victorious from the struggle for the throne, establishing the Khilji Dynasty.
The Khilji Dynasty lasted from 1290-1320. Its founder was a man named Jalaluddin, who took the throne following a struggle after the death of Balban, the last sultan of the Mamluk Dynasty. Jalaluddin was eliminated by his nephew, Alauddin, who took the throne in 1296. He was a mighty warrior and powerful administrator. He invaded southern india, defended the country against the Mongols and instituted administrative reforms
Alauddin - takes control of Southern India and Administrative Reforms:
Alauddin came into power after removing his uncle Jalaludddin from the throne in 1296. He was a very powerful military leader; from 1296-1309 he led several successful campaigns throughout central India, and in 1309 he began his conquest of Southern India. Within just a few months, he had gained complete control of the South. At the same time, he had to fight against the Mongols who had gained control of the Panjab in Northwestern India and continued their campaigns of plunder from 1296-7. Alauddin was successful against the Mongols, even though the Mongols came against him in 1299 with 200,000 men and again in 1303 with 120,000 men. Alauddin was able to match the Mongols in both cruelty and methods of warfare.
Alauddin's success as a war leader was due in large part to his efficient administration. During his reign, he instituted several reforms which secured his continued rule.
The Muslim leaders had to rely on taxes for a large part of their income. However, sometimes this revenue was not paid very regularly. The rural Hindu villages were controlled by the village headmen through whom Alauddin worked to control the rural people. However, these Hindu middlemen often refused to pay the taxes, even directly resisting Alauddin's orders. This would be similar to a vassal refusing to give his goods or services to his Lord under the European feudal system. The hereditary system of these middlemen caused them to gain so much power over time that they could actively rebel against the sultan. Alauddin considered these men to be the main obstacle besetting his rule. He was not exaggerating when he said that he could not enforce his orders beyond 100 miles outside of the capital at Delhi.
Another problem was the constant forming of conspiracies against him by his own courtiers. Alauddin felt this was aided by the many private feasts and drinking bouts his courtiers participated in.
To solve these problems, Alauddin instituted te following reforms:
- all landed property was confiscated from Alauddin's officers and courtiers
- Revenue assignments were cancelled and revenue was collected by the central administration
- The sale and consumption of alcohol was strictly prohibited
- His courtiers were no longer allowed to hold private feasts or parties
- Spies were posted to ensure these reforms were carried out
- Rules and regulations were developed which were designed to deprive the Hindus of the land and wealth which fostered rebellion; they were treated mercilessly by Alauddin's officers.
- He began a new revenue survey of land (a cadastral survey in which the tax varied based on the value of the land)
- Decreed a uniform rate of assessment for all rural classes - one half of the standing crop.
Additional reforms were put into place to aid with the necessity of maintaining a standing army. Alauddin lowered the pay of soldiers so that he could afford to have a larger army, and then he put fixed low prices on products so the soldiers could still make ends meet.
Tughluq Dynasty
Alauddin died in 1316. In 1320, Ghiyas-ud-din Tughluq was appointed by the courtiers to be the new sultan. Following some military campaigns in the South, Ghiyas returned to a new reception hall built by his son, Muhammad Tughluq. He was killed in this reception hall, which had been specially designed to collapse on him. Muhammad Tughluq then took the throne, but his rule would contribute to the fall of the Delhi sultanate. Unlike Alauddin, Muhammad Tughluq was not satisfied with simply subjecting the kings of the south; he wanted to annex their territory as well. In order to rule from a more central location, Tughluq moved the capital of the sultanate from Delhi to Daulatabad. Many people were forced to leave their homes in Delhi to go to the new capital. As soon as he did this, Tughluq lost control of the north. However, when he moved the capital back to Delhi, the people of the south saw it as a sign of weakness and several independent states arose.
Tughluq also attempted to institute administrative reforms similar to those of Alauddin. However, he insisted that the revenues be paid in cash rather than in kind and issued copper coins for that purpose. Because the coins were cheap and easily counterfeited, this reform was a disaster. He had to recall his currency within just three years.
After his ambitions failed, Tughluq's reign degenerated into a reign of terror. He was succeeded in 1351 by his cousin Firoz Shah.
(Ghiyas made sultan by courtiers)
1351
(Muhammad Tughluq succeeded
by Firoz Shah)
1398
(Timur destroys Delhi)
1451
Sayyid Dynasty
1414
1526
Lodi Dynasty
Delhi Sultanate
Kublai Khan
takes over all
of China
1368
Yuan Dynasty
The Yuan Dynatsy is the dynasty of Mongol Domination. The Mongol empire was begun by Temuchin/Ghengis Khan in 1206 when he was voted by the tribes to be the Great Khan. Kublai Khan (1215-1294) was the leader in charge of conquering China. This region took longer to conquer than other regions because of the damp landscape. However, in 1260, Kublai Khan was made the Great Khan, and in 1275 he took on the title of Emperor of China and formed the Yuan Dynasty (Yuan meaning "Original"). The Yuan Dynasty lasted until 1368 when rebel forces such as the Red Tu
1206
Temuchin Unites
the Mongol tribes and
becomes Ghengis Khan
The Mongols were a nomadic people who were largely independent. They depended heavily on animals such as sheep for clothing, felt for tents, and food, and horses for transport, leather and mare's milk. However, they still required contact with other, more settled peoples so that they could obtain metal for weapons, grain for their diet and other luxuries such as tea and silk. The Mongols were highly mobile - they were accustomed to the saddle from a very young age. They lived in tents called yurts which could be rapidly dismantled. Sometimes the yurts would be transported exactly as they were on huge wagons with axles as big as ships' masts. At the camp of Batu Khan, there was a wagon such as this one for each of his twenty-six wives, along with 100-200 other carts for equipment and provisions.
Temuchin was born in 1167 to a family of hereditary leaders. His mother was a Nestorian Christian. Because his father died when he was very young, Temuchin had to fight in order to gain power. He apparently enjoyed this, though, as he is reported to have said that the greatest joy of existence comes from defeating ones' enemies and taking their possessions, wives and daughters. He rose in power to the point that in 1206 the scattered Mongol tribes united under him and gave him the title of Ghengis Khan, or "Universal Ruler." This began the famous Mongol Conquest across Asia and Europe, in which the Mongols were thought to be unstoppable, a viewpoint that continued until the battle of Ayn Jalut, when the Mongols were defeated by Hulegu Khan of the Mamluk Dynasty.
Ghengis Khan's success was due in part to his ability to attract and hold followers, through both fear and favor. In this way, he built a united Mongol nation out of scattered clans and tribes. They employed extremely efficient and successful military techniques. For example, they used the iron stirrup, which provided a firm base from which they performed their famous Parthian shot in which they shot, which is shooting from the rear. Their bows could pierce armor and kill from a distance of 200 yards. Ghengis Khan also employed a highly efficient communication system on the battlefield which involved smoke signals, flares, colored flags and messengers. The latter were given priority even over Mongol princes when they had to deliver a message. They were bound tightly in cloth to reduce the strain of riding, and if they rode their horses to the point of exhaustion, they could ride up to 300 miles in a day.
Ghengis Khan also made his bodyguard into an officers' training school. He made it an honor for the leaders of the clans to send their sons to enlist in the bodyguard, and then he had the double advantage of securing the loyalty of the clans and having hightly trained soldiers.
He also instituted a code of laws called the "yasa," which remained in force even after his death.
The myth of mongol invincibility was due in part to Genghis Khan's ability to employ psychological warfare against those he conquered. He told the people that if they willingly submitted to the Mongols, they would not be harmed. However, if they resisted, the policy of the Mongols was to completely destroy a city to the point that a horse could gallop across the city in the dark and not stumble over a single brick. Ghengis Khan died in 1227. Due to his conquests and rapes, as well as those of his descendents, it is estimated that today 1 in 200 Chinese are descended from him.
1271
Kublai Khan becomes
emperor; beginning of
Yuan Dynasty
During the Mongol conquests, Kublai Khan was the leader who engaged the conquest of China. Although Conquest in the east was noticably slower than it was in the west, Kublai was able to become the Great Khan in 1260, and in 1271 he took the title of Emperor of China, calling his new dynasty the Yuan or "original" dynasty. By 1279, he completed taking over the entire country of China when he conquered the remainder of the Song dynasty in the South. Kublai Khan was distrustful of the Chinese people; he made sure that all important offices were held by Mongols, and intermarriage between the Chinese, the Mongols, and other peoples was forbidden. However, Kublai Khan was an admirer of Chinese literature and history. He formed translation bureaus which translated Chinese histories and classics so that they were available to the Mongol people. In 1267, Kublai moved the capital from Karakorum to Beijing, and he established maritime transport from the Yangze river estuary to around the Shandong coast. He created an imperial library and issued universal paper money. Trade increased once again along the Silk Road, as did contact with Europe. Embassies were sent back and forth between Europe and China, and many products and processes traveled westward, such as gunpowder, paper, playing cards, medicinal knowledge, pasta, oranges, and other influences in art and design. The most famous of the travelers to China during Kublai's reign was Marco Polo. He stayed in the service of Kublai Khan for 17 years, from 1275-1292. He wrote the most comprehensive and accurate account of the Chinese people at this time, although many considered it to be exaggerated. Marco Polo was extremely impressed with Kublai, both because of his social concern and unlimited power. Kublai had 4 principle wives, each with up to 10,000 attendants. He regularly chose 30-40 concubines out of 500 women brought from throughout the country. He rode on an elephant. His koumiss was made from the milk of 10,000 mares. The Pax Mongolica (pax meaning peace) extended from the Pacific Ocean to West Asia. The movements of caravans were checked and governors were responsible for their safety. It was said that a woman could walk through the empire of Kublai Khan with a nugget of gold on her head without being bothered. Marco Polo was especially impressed with the amount of organization within the Mongol empire.
During this time the fields of mathematics, astronomy, cartography and water conservation were expanded, as were creative endeavors such as theater, folk tales, and the chinese novel. Plays and operas with accompanying song and dance flourished.
Kublai Khan died in 1294, and his empire went into rapid decline. Rebellion groups such as the White Lotus, the White Cloud and the Red Turbans (who worked in conjunction with Zhu Yuanzhang) contributed to the downfall of the Mongol empire and the restoration of chinese rule under the Ming dynasty and Hong Wu.
Fall of the
Mongol Empire
1368
Hong Wu becomes
emperor
Following the death of Kublai Khan in 1294, the Yuan dynasty under the Mongols quickly began to decline. From the years 1320-1329, there were no less than 4 different emperors. The Chinese people began forming rebel groups, such as the White Lotus, the White Cloud, and the Red Turbans. The latter worked in conjunction with Zhu Yuanzhang, who later became Hong Wu and formed the Ming ("Brilliant") dynasty. Zhu Yuanzhang was born in 1328 to a landless farmer and was orphaned at a young age. He was forced to beg for a short time before entering a Buddhist monastery for both physical and spiritual sustenance. He soon left the monastery and formed his own rebel group which worked along with the secret society known as the Red Turbans. He gained power and in 1364 took over the Nanjing province. In 1368, he was proclaimed emperor of China after subduing his enemies. In the same year he recaptured Beijing and drove out the last Mongol emperor, but he kept his captial at Nanjing. One of his first priorities was to restore the economic situation within China. Dikes and Canals were repaired, and land that had been abandoned was once agian put under cultivation. Even land in the emperor's own province of Anhui had been completely depopulated. For a time, peasants were offered tax exemption in order to encourage them to move into these areas. Hong Wu retained the basic structure of administration from previous dynasties, which included the Six ministries, the army staff, and the bureau of the Censorate. However, he eliminated the office of Prime Minister as well as the body of officers who worked under the Prime minister. This led to a much more personal and centralized rule under Hong Wu. He died in 1398 and was replaced by his grandson, who was just 16 years old.
1644
Downfall of the
Ming Dynasty
Ming Dynasty
1403-1424
Yong Le
After Hong Wu died in 1398, his grandson ascended the throne at the age of 16. He attmpted at that time to reduce the power of his relatives who held military positions. This was resented by an experienced uncle who was in charge of the Beijing frontier. With the help of his army and the palace eunuchs, this uncle was able to take control of the throne. He reigned as Yong Le from 1403-1424. His rise to power was costly in military damage to Northern China, and his subsequent actions and policies gave rise to the phrase "Ming Despotism." His new enemies were the Oirats in the northwest and the Tatars in the northeast, both of which were of Mongol descent. Yong Le personally led five expeditions against these peoples, defeating the Tatars in 1410 and the Oirats in 1414. Yong Le is most known for his rebuilding of the city of Beijjing and the Forbidden City and for his maritime trade expeditions. He once again moved the capital of his empire from Nanjing north to Beijing. Historians have questioned the merit of this move; Yong Le was now unable to have much contact with the southern part of his empire. He built a magnificent palace called the Forbidden City, begun in 1421, which is surrounded by 40-foot walls. This city is dominated by horizontal lines, which stand in stark contrast to the vertical linesof Western skyscrapers and the heaven-seeking spires of Gothic cathedrals. The palace evokes a sense of awe, dignity and stability. Unlike the European, who seeks to gain higher levels of wealth and prosperity, the Chinese have arrived. When an individual becomes emperor, it is because he has been placed there by Heaven's will rather than because he has gained that position. We can see Daoist principles within the Forbidden city: In the perfect symmetry of the palace we can see the search for balance between the forces of yin and yang. Additionally, the stability of the palace as represented by the dominance of horizontal lines demonstrates the Daoist principle of Wu Wei in which an individual yields their ego to the Dao and stops resisting and trying to gain and become something they are not supposed to be.
Yong Le also carried out several maritime expeditions. Seven expeditions were carried out from 1405-1433. Six of these were within Yong Le's lifetime. It is possible that one aim of the planting of 50 million trees during the reign of Hong Wu was to provide timber for the building of ships. The Junks used by Yong Le were up to 400 feet in length. They used compasses and navigated with the aid of accurate sailing instructions. The first, fourth and seventh expeditions were the most important:
The first expedition took place from 1405-1407. 28,000 men went on this expedition, and they traveled to Ceylon, Java, and other locations along the Western side of South India. The fourth expedition took place from 1413-1415. They traveled to the Persian Gulf, and a separate flotilla traveled 3700 miles to Somalia in Africa. This was long before a voyage of that magnitude was attempted by any Europeans. The seventh expedition took place from 1431-1433. Some ships of this expedition were able to reach Jedda in the Red Sea, the port for Mecca.
The reasons for these maritime expeditions are unclear; it is likely that the reasons are rooted in national and political prestige. Yong Le was able to extend the Chinese tribute system, in which regions would pay tribute to China in return for political and commercial prestige. In this way, China was able to receive many exotic gifts, such as zebras, ostriches and giraffes.
This maritime trade stopped just as abruptly and inexplicably as it had started. The reasons for this are unclear, although their treasury was becoming depleated by 1433. China left the domination of the seas to Europeans.
1549
Francis Xavier
lands in Japan
Matteo Ricci
1552-1610
In the 16th century, Jesuit missionaries began arriving in China as propagators of the Christian faith. The first was a man named Francis Xavier (the founder of the Society of Jesus), who landed in Japan in 1549 and, after having great success there, attempted to go on to China. However, he died on an island just off the south coast. He was followed by many Jesuit missionaries, the most prominent of which was an Italian priest named Matteo Ricci (1552-1610). Ricci first arrived in Beijing in 1582 and then lived there permanently from 1601 to his death in 1610. He initially dressed in Buddhist attire, but soon realized that in order to gain the favor of the Chinese gentry, they would have to adopt the dress and customs of the Confucian literati. He did so, and also became extremely conversant in the Confucian classics. In this way he worked his way into the upper levels of Chinese society. Unlike the protestant missionaries who would come later, the Jesuits focused on teaching and converting the wealthy and powerful Chinese. They took advantage of the Chinese fascination with western scientific knowledge and technology. Ricci was able to ingratiate himself at the imperial court by presenting the emperor with chiming clock. In order to retain his influence there, he cleverly kept the key to the clock so that he would have to be summoned weekly to wind the clock. Ricci subsequently became the chinese deity of clock makers and was worshipped up through the nineteenth century.
The Jesuits advanced the Chinese knowledge in the fields of astronomy, cartography and mathematics. Some of the Chinese converts translated works on these subjects from the 7,000 books brought to the China by the missionaries. They also made the Chinese calendar more accurate, procured cannons from Portugal, and landscaped the summer palace of the emperor.
For the most part, missionary work in China operated through a system of exchange. The Chinese permitted the missionaries to remain at court so that they could receive the scientific knowledge provided by the missionaries, and the missionaries were willing to give scientific knowledge so that they could spread their doctrine. However, those missionaries who sent reports of their work back to Europe were exceedingly optimistic. They stressed the similarties between Christianity and Confucianism, and they presented Confucianism as a preparation for Christianity.
Babur conquers India
for the Mughals
1555
Akbar becomes
emperor
(Ibrahim Lodi defeated)
(Buhlul Khan forms
the Lodi Dynasty)
1627-1658
Shah Jahan
"Ruler of the World"
1658-1707
Aurangzeb
Mughal Empire
1526
1857
Renaissance &
Reformation

1453
Ottoman Turks
Capture Constantinople
The fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks in 1453 guaranteed Muslim/Turkish domination of the Asian trade routes. This prompted the western European countries to search for alternate sources and markets that wouldn't require them to work through the Middle East. They began explorations well beyond the Mediterranean Basin, beginning with Prince Henry of Portugal ("The Navigator," 1394-1460). They acquired domains in Africa, the Americas, the Pacific, and other locations, and they gained resources such as raw materials, slave labor, and tax revenues. Europeans colonized these new areeas, thereby spreading Western civilization, religion, and culture abroad. However, native peoples were often forced to choose between adapting to western civilization or leaving their homelands.
1271
1295
Marco Polo
Marco Polo went on the most famous of the Italian trade expeditions which took place between 1254 and 1324. He traveled to Beijing and lived there for nearly twenty years with the famous Kublai Khan of the Yuan dynasty. He returned from China in 1295, bringing with him such things as pasta, oranges and playing cards. Following his return, he published a record of his explorations, the Book of the Marvels of the World. His extensive travels made him one of the best geographers in history. Although his expedition did not result in direct trade with East Asia, his book was read with great interest by a later Italian trade explorer: Christopher Columbus.
Dante - The
Divine Comedy
The European Renaissance
1450
1650
The Renaissance ("rebirth") was a period of time in which the people looked back to acient Greece and Rome in their art, architecture, and intellectual pursuits. The Period of time known as the European Renaissance went from 1450-1650. The term "renaissance" was originally used in the 1820's to describe the art and architecture of this time. Jacob Burckhardt began in 1860 to use the term to describe the scope of human endeavor in general, often juxtaposing this time period with the earlier "dark ages" and representing the Renaissance a burst of intellectual and cultural light. Many historians disagree with the idea that the Renaissance was a complete break from the Middle Ages, and argue instead that it represented a continuation and a restructuring of the civilization of the High Middle Ages. This time period embodied several attitudes that would eventually become modern Western attitudes: INDIVIDUALISM - The state and society existed to promote the potential of the individual, intellectually, artistically, culturally, spiritually, and materially. The Ideal Man/l'uomo universal/Universal Man/Renaissance man was culturally, intellectually, and professionally adept. These men were "many-sided men" - they were skilled at multiple pursuits. Leonardo daVinci is the ultimate example of a Renaissance Man. CLASSICISM - The Ideal man was versed in the history of both Greece and Rome. He was able to speak both Latin and Greek. He was widely read in classical literature. Because of this, he was known as a Classicist. During this time, it was common for a man to read his children the classic literature. Private education for both males and females became an important endeavor. The Florentines also began the Platonic Academy of Florence. The efforts of the Carolingian Renaissance of the ninth century paid off as the preserved classic liturature was recovered from monasteries and added to a classical textual canon referenced by all participants in the Renaissance. HUMANISM - participants in the Renaissance sought to defHuman individualism in rational terms. These explanations were often made in addition to or in connection with existing religious beliefs. Giovanni Pico della Mirandola wrote the "Oration on the Dignity of Man," in which he described everything as being made up of both spiritand matter and as bein part of a great Chain of Being. Things such rocks, which had no spirit were at the bottom of the chain of being, followed by lower life forms, higher life forms, humans (who had both mobility and reason), then finally heavenly beings and ultimately God. By means of their reason, Giovanni said that humans were able to move upward in the chain of being. It was reason which separated humans from lower life forms.
Leonardo da Vinci - 1452-1519
- Typified Renaissance man - polymath - Vitruvian Man - Mona Lisa - Last Supper - flying machines - tank - anatomy - double-hulled ship - nearly any material challenge overcome by human reason.
Michelangelo - 1475-1564
Became wealthy by doing art - biography written during lifetime - art influenced all subsequent Western artists - pieta, influenced by Dante - statue of David = commoner bringing down a tyrant - Sistine Chapel, depicting Biblical events from the creation of the world, the power of God, the greatness and depravity of mankind - Adam reaching out to God - he saw men as "a little lower than the angels" - most influential work of art - bridged the Renaissance and Baroque artistic periods - designed the dome of St. Peter's Basilica
1314-1321
Petrarch - 1304-1374
Renowned Classicist - Father of Humanism - laid foundation for modern Italian by writing vernacular literature - climbed Mt. Ventoux and was inspired by a page in Augustine's Confessions - wrote his secretum ("my secret book") in which his life is examined by Augustine in presence of Lady Truth - attempt to reconcile admiration of the classics with Christian Faith - rediscovered writings of Cicero and created a "critical edition" which led to the study of history becoming a standard discipline of education - became poet laureate & received laurel wreath at Rome
Gutenberg Press
1439-1460
Sir Thomas More 1478-1535
"The most saintly of humanists, the most human of saints" - son of a lawyer - studied in London and at Oxford - rose to political prominence - chancellor of King Henry VIII - refused to endorse the king's divorce and subsequent break from the Catholic church - beheaded by King Henry - wrote Utopia - fictional story about an island and its people - allegorically addressed current issues - communal ownership of land, no private property, education for men and women, tolerance for religious differences - involved in responding to writings of Luther and Tyndale - helped Henry write a defense of the Catholic faith to Luther - wrote Dialogue Concerning Heresies as a response to Tyndale - eventually elected to stand by faith rather than Monarch.
Erasmus - 1466-1536
Personal friend of Sir Thomas More - made a latin translation of the New Testament - put his latin translation and a new Greek translation in a single volume - used by Tyndale and Luther in their English and German translations of the Bible - advocate of religious freedom like More - strong opponent of the Protestant Reformation - disagreed with Luther in his book On Free will - most famous work is In Praise of Folly - didn't achieve purpose of remedying political and ecclesiastical abuse - Pope Leo X throught it was funny.
William Shakespeare 1564-1616
England's greatest author - world's greatest playwright? - 38 plays, 154 sonnets - excelled at comedies, tragedies, and histories - created the dramatic genre of histories - secured construction of outdoor Globe theater, took over operation of indoor Blackfriar theater - profound influence on English language - "One fell swoop," "Off with his head," "In the twinkling of an eye" - plays addressed social, theological, and philosophical problems - effected introspection and profound emotion within audience.
Also the End of the
Hundred Years' War
1492
Columbus' first expedition;
Jews forced to convert in Spain;
Last Muslim kingdom in Spain is conquered
1517
Luther nails 95 Theses to door on Wittenberg church
Madrid
Granada
Venice
Florence
Prague
Vienna
Berlin
North Sea
Baltic Sea
Stockholm
1000
Council of Trent
1545-1563
1648
Peace of Westphalia
Counter-Reformation
1536
1648
1200
1700
1270 - 1295
1265-1321
Petrarch
1304-1374
Renowned Classicist - Father of Humanism - laid foundation for modern Italian by writing vernacular literature - climbed Mt. Ventoux and was inspired by a page in Augustine's Confessions - wrote his secretum ("my secret book") in which his life is examined by Augustine in presence of Lady Truth - attempt to reconcile admiration of the classics with Christian Faith - rediscovered writings of Cicero and created a "critical edition" which led to the study of history becoming a standard discipline of education - became poet laureate & received laurel wreath at Rome
1588
Spanish
Armada
1491-1556
1453
Ottoman Turks
Capture Constantinople
1492
- Columbus
- Last Muslim Kingdom defeated in Spain
- Jews in Spain forced to convert to Christianity
Ignatius Loyola
1517
Martin Luther nails
95 Theses to Wittenberg
1545-1563
Council of
Trent
1648
Peace of
Westphalia
1536
1648
Counter-Reformation
The Renaissance ("rebirth") was a period of time in which the people looked back to acient Greece and Rome in their art, architecture, and intellectual pursuits. The Period of time known as the European Renaissance went from 1450-1650. The term "renaissance" was originally used in the 1820's to describe the art and architecture of this time. Jacob Burckhardt began in 1860 to use the term to describe the scope of human endeavor in general, often juxtaposing this time period with the earlier "dark ages" and representing the Renaissance a burst of intellectual and cultural light. Many historians disagree with the idea that the Renaissance was a complete break from the Middle Ages, and argue instead that it represented a continuation and a restructuring of the civilization of the High Middle Ages. This time period embodied several attitudes that would eventually become modern Western attitudes: INDIVIDUALISM - The state and society existed to promote the potential of the individual, intellectually, artistically, culturally, spiritually, and materially. The Ideal Man/l'uomo universal/Universal Man/Renaissance man was culturally, intellectually, and professionally adept. These men were "many-sided men" - they were skilled at multiple pursuits. Leonardo daVinci is the ultimate example of a Renaissance Man. CLASSICISM - The Ideal man was versed in the history of both Greece and Rome. He was able to speak both Latin and Greek. He was widely read in classical literature. Because of this, he was known as a Classicist. During this time, it was common for a man to read his children the classic literature. Private education for both males and females became an important endeavor. The Florentines also began the Platonic Academy of Florence. The efforts of the Carolingian Renaissance of the ninth century paid off as the preserved classic liturature was recovered from monasteries and added to a classical textual canon referenced by all participants in the Renaissance. HUMANISM - participants in the Renaissance sought to defHuman individualism in rational terms. These explanations were often made in addition to or in connection with existing religious beliefs. Giovanni Pico della Mirandola wrote the "Oration on the Dignity of Man," in which he described everything as being made up of both spiritand matter and as bein part of a great Chain of Being. Things such rocks, which had no spirit were at the bottom of the chain of being, followed by lower life forms, higher life forms, humans (who had both mobility and reason), then finally heavenly beings and ultimately God. By means of their reason, Giovanni said that humans were able to move upward in the chain of being. It was reason which separated humans from lower life forms.
1450
1650
The European Renaissance
30 Years' War
The Thirty Years' War occurred mainly within the Holy Roman empire. It completely wrecked France and Germany. It was Europe's first continent-wide war and arguably europe's bloodiest. It began in 1618 when rebels in Behemia sought to make the country Protestant. It continued when, following a victory at the Battle of White Mountain 1621, the Holy Roman Emperor tried to force re-Catholicization. The Protestants refused to comply, and gathered Protestant allies from Scandinavia, Germany and elsewhere. It became a civil war btween the Catholic imperial armies on one hand and the Lutheran/Calvinistic armies on the other. By the 1640s, France and Spain had joined the struggle in support of the emperor, and Holland joined in support of the Protestants. This was not simply a religious conflict. Politically, it served to restructure the boundaries of Germany and to weaken the power of the Holy Roman Empire. Socially, it served to settle old scores, restructure society, and indulge in ethnic cleansings. Communities took matters into their own hands and would eliminate entire groups of people by methods such as defenstration (throwing people out of high windows to their death). This, with the added use of gunpowder weapons, caused the 30 Years' War to be Europe's bloodiest. Finally, famine, plague and pestilence finished the work of destruction and death. In the end, regional Germany lost 1/3 of its population, matching the decrease that occurred in Europed during the Black Plague. The 30 Years' War ended with the Peace of WEstphalia.
The 30 Years' War ended in the peace "Treaty" of Westphalia. The winners of the war aguably included France and Sweden, which suddenly found itself a world power. The losers included Spain and the Habsburg Emperors. Spain was nearly bankrupt, and its financial reserves continued to decline steadily. The Holy Roman Empire was even worse off; several new "micro-states" emerged as part of the confederation, usually sharply defined along Protestant/Catholic lines. Some of these states were just a few miles across. The region of Germany did not recover economically or demographically for nearly two centuries. The Treaty of Westphalia was the first in Europe in which sovereign states rather than sovereing rulers participated. For example, "France" rather than "King Louis XIV, king of France" was party to the treaty. This was the culmination of the development of national identity and Nation-States (a system of government operated by a particular people).
Age of Absolutism/Age of Reason 1600-1750
Age of Absolutism/Age of Reason
1600
1750
"The King shall from this day forth be revered and considered the most perfect and supreme person on the earth by all his subjects, standing above all human laws and having no judge above his person, neither in spiritual or temporal matters, except God alone."
Thomas
Hobbes
1588-1679
1478-1535
Sir Thomas
More
Elizabeth I
of England
1558-1603
James I
1603-1625
James I succeeded Elizabeth I and riegned from 1603-1625. He was also James VI, King of Scotland and Son of Mary, Queen of Scots. He arrived in England fully intending to rule as an absolutist monarch; in 1608 he published The True Lawe of Free Monarchies, which outlined his concept of "The Divine Right of Kings." This was the idea that a king was subject to no earthly power, but to God alone. James was a Roman Catholic, which gave hope to his persecuted CAtholic subjects. However, when they attempted to openly declare their religion once again, hoping for royal support, English administrators became alarmed and once again resorted to persecution. In response, some prominent catholic citizens attempted to assassinate the king in the Gunpowder Plot in 1605. James was increasingly challenged by members of Parliament and the gentry. When he claimed the right to try his subjects without appeal to the courts, Edward Coke (a member of Parliament and the king's chief justice) opposed him. The King claimed that since he had appointed the judges and since they only practiced law on the basis of reason, he could logically take their place. He also declared it treason to say that the king had to be subject to any form of law. Coke, on the other hand, claimed that practicing law required particular training which the King did not possess. He refused to back down, saying that "the King should be subject to no human being, but should be subject to God and the law." James also faced opposition from the House of Commons, who from the 1370s claimed the right to impeach corrupt leaders, control all taxes, and regulate royal expenditures. Essentially, they claimed the right to regulate the "power of the purse." They despised James and his claims to absolute authority.
Oliver
Cromwell
1599-1658
1689
English Bill
of Rights
1643-1715
Louis XIV
1543
Copernicus publishes
on Heliocentrism
John Locke
1632-1704
1588-1679
Thomas Hobbes
1751
1st Volume of the
Encyclopedie Published
1776
Adam Smith and
Edward Gibbon
publish
"The goal of an Encycolpedie is to assemble all the knowledge scattered on the surface of the earth...to transmit it to the people who will come after us, so that the work of centuries past is not useless to the centuries which follow, that our descendants, by becoming more learned, may become more virtuous & happier, that we do not die without having merited being part of the human race."
The French
Revolution
1789-1815
4 Phases:
1. The convening of the Estates General (1789-1791)
2. The National Assembly and the Reign of Terror (1791-1795
3. The Directory (1795-1799)
4. The Napoleonic Era and the Congress of Vienna (1799-1815)
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