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Copy of http://thumbs.dreamstime.com/x/vintage-psychedelic-70s-party
Transcript of Copy of http://thumbs.dreamstime.com/x/vintage-psychedelic-70s-party
Watergate was a political scandal that forced President Richard M. Nixon to Resign the presidency. It changed the way Americans looked at politics. Nixon was a Republican. He wanted to be re-elected as President in 1972.
Nixon resigned on August 9,1974, when Congress prepared to vote for impeachment. Nixon was the first and only president to resign in the nation's history.
The president insisted he did not know about the break-in or any other illegal acts. But secret tapes made at the White House showed that he did. The president helped his aides cover up their actions.
During the 1972 election, a group of burglars was arrested for breaking into Democratic Party offices in the Watergate office building in Washington, D.C. The men were trying to "bug" the telephones. They wanted to hear what the Democrats were planning for the 1972 presidential election.
In the 1970's, the movement for women's rights began making the headlines. Women demanded equal rights with men in jobs, education, and family life. Groups like the National Organization for Women fought to change laws that were unfair to women. They also demanded equal pay for equal work.
In the 1970s, more women went to college and got jobs than ever before. Still, women continued to earn less than men. 1973, a woman earned less than $6 for every $10 a man earned, even when they did similar jobs.
Women began operating their own businesses. They started programs to help other women. They set up day care centers, battered women's shelters, and employment training programs. Sports programs like baseball and soccer were opened to girls for the first time.
In 1972, Congress passed the Equal Rights Amendment. The ERA would have made it illegal to discriminate against women. Women supported the bill in record numbers. Although the ERA did not become an amendment to the Constitution, many other laws were passed that opened up new opportunities for women.
"Save the Earth!" was the cry on the first nationwide Earth Day, held April 22, 1970. More than 20 million Americans showed they cared about the environment in many ways; picking up trash, planting trees, walking, and biking.
More than 5 million students, from grade school to college, participated. Earth Day was the greatest single display of student activism in the nation's history.
More than 1,500 college campuses and 10,000 schools participated in a nationwide "teach-in." Teachers taught students about possible solutions to problems such as air pollution and rapid population growth.
The oil shortage caused an energy crisis. Fuel prices sky-rocketed because gasoline and other fuels are made from oil. Americans waited in long lines at gas stations. To conserve energy, the speed limit on the nation's highways was dropped to 55 miles per hour.
In late 1973, the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) refused to sell oil to the United States. OPEC's Arab members were angry that the United States supplied Israel with arms during the Yom Kippur War. This embargo caused an oil shortage because the U.S. got most of its oil supply from OPEC.
The energy crisis also hurt the American economy. Oil was needed to manufacture products. When oil prices went up, so did the prices of American goods. Even though OPEC lifted the embargo in March of 1974, it continued to raise all the prices. This added to inflation in America. The government encouraged citizens to use alternative energy sources, such as solar power. New laws forced American automobile manufactures to make more fuel-efficient cars. In Alaska, a pipeline was built so that we could use more American oil.
Panda bears, Ping Pong, and Ronald Reagan helped open China after communist forces took control in 1949. The tension between the U.S. and communist China increased in the 50s when they battled each other in the Korean War.
In 1972, President Nixon visited the People's Republic of China. To celebrate the friendship, the chinese sent two giant panda bears to the U.S. The U.S. gave China two musk oxen.
In 1969 , China and the Soviet Union began having armed skirmishes on the border. Nixon though that creating a friendship with China then would help limit Soviet influence and force them to limit nuclear weapons. In 1979, Nixon announced he wanted to visit China. In 1971, the American table tennis team was invited to visit the People's Republic of China and U.S. and the Chinese diplomats talked secretly.
Opening of China
The Vietnam Conflict
Vietnam was the longest war in American history and the most unpopular American war of the 20th century. It resulted in nearly 60,000 American deaths and in an estimated 2 million Vietnamese deaths. Even today, many Americans still ask whether the American effort in Vietnam was a sin, a blunder, a necessary war, or whether it was a noble cause, or an idealistic, if failed, effort to protect the South Vietnamese from totalitarian government.
Between 1945 and 1954, the Vietnamese waged an anti-colonial war against France, which received $2.6 billion in financial support from the United States. The French defeat at the Dien Bien Phu was followed by a peace conference in Geneva. As a result of the conference, Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam received their independence, and Vietnam was temporarily divided between an anti-Communist South and a Communist North. In 1956, South Vietnam, with American backing, refused to hold unification elections. By 1958, Communist-led guerrillas, known as the Viet Cong, had begun to battle the South Vietnamese government.
To support the South's government, the United States sent in 2,000 military advisors--a number that grew to 16,300 in 1963. The military condition deteriorated, and by 1963, South Vietnam had lost the fertile Mekong Delta to the Viet Cong. In 1965, President Lyndon Johnson escalated the war, commencing air strikes on North Vietnam and committing ground forces--which numbered 536,000 in 1968. The 1968 Tet Offensive by the North Vietnamese turned many Americans against the war.
The next president, Richard Nixon, advocated Vietnamization, withdrawing American troops and giving South Vietnam greater responsibility for fighting the war. In 1970, Nixon attempted to slow the flow of North Vietnamese soldiers and supplies into South Vietnam by sending American forces to destroy Communist supply bases in Cambodia. This act violated Cambodian neutrality and provoked antiwar protests on the nation's college campuses.
From 1968 to 1973, efforts were made to end the conflict through diplomacy. In January 1973, an agreement was reached; U.S. forces were withdrawn from Vietnam, and U.S. prisoners of war were released. In April 1975, South Vietnam surrendered to the North, and Vietnam was reunited.
1. The Vietnam War cost the United States 58,000 lives and 350,000 casualties. It also resulted in between one and two million Vietnamese deaths.
2. Congress enacted the War Powers Act in 1973, requiring the president to receive explicit Congressional approval before committing American forces overseas.
The Vietnam war was much more publicized than any war had ever been. For the first time, cameras were allowed in the midst of the action. Photographs and video images from the war in Vietnam had a strong influence on the opinions of the American public. This caused the American culture to begin to change. America was now divided between the hawks that supported the war and the doves that opposed the war. The doves were a part of the counterculture movement that rejected traditional American values. They were sometimes referred to as "Hippies."
The Selective Service System was instated during the Vietnam conflict. The law required all men to register for the draft at age eighteen. Deferments were issued by draft boards to excuse certain people from military service. Full-time college students received deferments. Conscientious objectors claimed their moral or religious beliefs kept them from fighting in the war. Some enraged doves took to burning their draft cards.
Science and Technology Advances
In 1972, the Pioneer 10 spacecraft was launched. It was created to fly to Jupiter to collect scientific data. In 1973, it began sending the first close-up pictures of Jupiter to Earth. Ten years later, it flew past Neptune and Pluto. It became the first man-made object to travel outside the known boundaries of the solar system. When NASA ended the mission in March of 1997, it was about 6.2 billion miles from Earth.
In 1967, Congress passed a law that established the Corporation for Public Broadcasting. This paved the way for Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) and National Public Radio (NPR) to get its start in 1970. Since they received funding from the station, viewers, and CPS the stations did not have commercials.
The first successful videocassette recorders (VCR) for home use was Betamax, made by Sony Corporation. Betamax was introduced in 1975.
By the end of the 1970s, One million American households owned at least one VCR.
In the 1970's, many Americans began using two-way Citizen Band (CB) radios. With CBs, drivers could now talk to each other while on the road. The first CBs were mostly used by truck drivers to report accidents, road conditions, and other important driving information.
Soon almost everyone had a CB. They used it to help locate gas and avoid speed traps developed by the oil shortage.
The CB quickly developed its own slang. "Hey good buddy- what's your handle?" - means "CBer what's your name?" Speeding was called putting the "pedal to the metal." The police were referred to as "Smokey the Bear."
CAT scans were first introducd in 1972 . They were a big improvement over the regular X-rays. CAT scans make three dimensional images.
In 1977, the first picture of a person was made with MRI technology.
By 1979, almost half of all pregnancies and births were being monitored by ultrasound.
The Oakland A's won the World Series three years in a row in the 70's. The A's were the best team in baseball in 1972, 1973,and 1974. The team included players like Reggie Jackson, Bert Campaneris, Rollie Fingers, Vida Blue, and Jim "Catfish" Hunter.
The team owner Charles O. Finley helped change the way baseball was played. He fought for the designated hitter rule that took effect in 1973.
Many people took up tennis for the first time in the 1970s. Americans spent millions of dollars on equipment, clothing, and lessons. About 160,000 new tennis courts were built. People began wearing colorful clothes, and playing with metal rackets and yellow tennis balls. Many of the pros were young.
In 1973, Billie Jean King beat Robbie Riggs in a match called the "Battle of the Sexes." King won $100,000.
In 1975, Arthur Ashe, 31 became the first African American player to win at Wimbledon.
In 1979, Tracy Austin, 16, won the U.S. open and became the youngest women's singles champion. The same year, 20-year-old John McEnroe became the youngest men's champion since 1948.
In 1973, a racehorse named Secretariat won the "Triple Crown." To win the Triple Crown, a racehorse has to win three races in one year: the Kentucky Derby, the Preakness and the Belmount Stakes. Secretariat was the first horse to win a Triple Crown in 25 years. Secretariat retired after 16 months of racing and $1,316,808 of earnings.
In 1977, a racehorse named Seattle Slew won the Triple Crown and was followed by a horse named Affirmed in 1978.
Kids first became interested in soccer in a big way in the 1970s. In 1974, the United States Youth Soccer Association was formed. By 1978, more than 500,000 kids were playing soccer in the AYSO and USYSA leagues.
In the 1970s, the Steelers were the best team in professional football. The team was the American Football Conference champion four times during the 1970s. They won the Super Bowl in1975, 1976, 1979, and 1980. Until then, no other team had ever won four Super Bowls. Their defensive line full of new, young players was known as the "Steel Curtain." When the AFL and NFL merged in 1970 it brought lots of new, young players into the NFL.
During this decade, many Americans became interested in taking care of their health and getting in shape. Jogging became the most popular way to exercise in the 1970s. In 1975, more than 2,000 people entered the yearly Boston Marathon. In 1979, close to 8,000 people signed up.
In the 1970s, television executive producer Roone Arledge decided he was going to "add show business to sports." In September 1970, ABC introduced ABC's Monday Night Football. This program changed professional football. Before MNF, football games were primarily on weekends. MNF also used 12 cameras to show plays from different angles and give instant replays. This also allowed them to show the reactions of players, coaches, and fans.
Sesame Street debuts to children across the country. The show is still on the air after almost 40 years.
Nighttime broadcasts broke the traditional molds. Couples were now sleeping in the same beds, actresses could show their belly buttons and “All in the Family” and “MASH” are two of the most popular evening programs.
Although it wasn’t the first home video game, Pong became the most popular.
The average salary is $7,500 a year and the average price for a TV was between $400 and $700 dollars.
The first direct to broadcast satellite television was launched in 1972.
1978 was the last year large Black and White consoles were manufactured.
Television is changed forever by such ground breaking shows as All in the Family, M*A*S*H, The Mary Tyler Moore Show, Saturday Night Live and Monty Python's Flying Circus. Meanwhile gentle family shows like The Waltons, Little House on the Prairie and The Life and Times of Grizzly Adams found their own audience while The Fonz was ruling the kid's imagination while giving Robin Williams his big time start as the master comedian in Mork and Mindy. Meanwhile, Star Trek: The Original Series is Vindicated by Cable and develops a sizable fanbase, spawning a juggernaut franchise that would not die for... well, ever. While the kids have made the best of the Dark Age Of Animation with Saturday Morning Cartoons like Superfriends and Scooby-Doo, they at least had PBS's breakthrough kids shows, Mister Rogers' Neighborhood and Sesame Street in their vibrant glory of its youth before they graduated to The Electric Company, Zoom and The Big Blue Marble. Traditional TV genres like the variety show had their last hurrah like Sonny And Cher and Donny And Marie while The Muppet Show became a universally hailed worldwide success.
Platform shoes, "hot pants," and "leisure suits" were "far out" (cool) 1970s clothes. There were many styles for women. Some, like the "midi skirt," were long. Others, like the "hot pants," were very short. Some men liked there leisure suits. Leisure suits were usually top-stiched in a contrasting color. They had loose fitting jackets with large patch pockets and bell-bottom slacks. A polyester shirt with a big collar and platform shoes completed the look. Many of the fashions were "unisex." This meant that both men and women wore them. Unisex styles included, hip-huggers, platform shoes, bell- bottom jeans, T-shirts, and pant suits. Many clothes were made from synthetic fabrics like polyester double knits. These fabrics were easy to care for. Styles were casual and comfortable. There were many choices, reflecting the seventies slogan, "Do your own thing."
Long, layered hair was popular in the 1970s for both men and women. Blow drying added "lift." The "shag" and "gypsy" were popular. In 1976, many women copied Olympic figure skater Dorothy Hamill's short haircut. The Afro was popular among African Americans.
The 1970s was a decade rich in music from many genres, including jazz, funk, pop and rock. During the 70s, other styles become popular in America, including disco and reggae.
Both Bob Marley and Peter Tosh reached the top of the U.S. singles' charts during the 70s, creating a new audience for reggae music. However, the highest-charting reggae songs were compositions by Marley recorded by other artists, including "I Shot the Sheriff" by Eric Clapton and "Stir it Up" by Johnny Nash.
Disco music became widely popular in the dance clubs of America during the 70s. Disco is a blend of soul and funk music incorporating Latin beats and classical strings, according to Wisegeek.com. The Bee Gees were one of the most notable disco groups, creating the soundtrack to the popular film "Saturday Night Fever" in 1977.
Rock and Pop
The Beatles, who remained one of the most successful acts in rock and pop, released their final official album, "Let it Be," in 1970. New bands that embodied more 70s aesthetics, such as dance beats and synthesizers, emerged, such as Blondie and David Bowie. Blondie's "Heart of Glass" topped the charts in 1979, while Bowie's "Fame" was his first No. 1 hit in the United States in 1975.
Jazz and Funk
During the 70s, jazz began to incorporate elements of rock and funk music, relying on powerful electric rhythm sections instead of traditional acoustic instrumentation, which is now called fusion. Mahavishnu Orchestra, a popular jazz/rock group, released a string of albums in the 70s, including "Birds of Fire" and "The Inner Mounting Flame." More traditional funk bands such as Sly and the Family Stone enjoyed popularity with albums such as "There's a Riot Goin' On," and James Brown produced the popular "Get on the Good Foot" and "The Payback."
It's Time to Disco!