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Teaching Every Student

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Dilisha Amarasekera

on 15 October 2014

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Transcript of Teaching Every Student

Identifying Successful Teaching
Teaching Approaches
Differentiated Instructions
Lyn Corno Experiment;

~The idea of adapting teaching to the abilities and needs of the learner is an ancient one.

Research on planning
Objectives for learning
Flexible and Creative Plans
Planing from a Constructivist perspective
Chapter 14
Teaching Every Student
Ability Grouping
The First step: Planning
Intended Student Behavior
Describes
Criteria
for acceptable performance on tests
Conditions
Lists the
Mager:

Start With The Specific
Gronlund:
Start With The General
Goals:
general statements of desired learning
THE FIRST STEP:PLANNING
Teaching Approaches
Strategies for teaching explicit facts and concepts
I. DIRECT INSTRUCTION
II. SEATWORK AND HOMEWORK
III. QUESTIONING AND DISCUSSION
IV. FITTING TEACHING TO YOUR GOALS
Research on Planning
Flexible and Creative Plans-
Using Taxonomies
DIRECT INSTRUCTION
- Barak Rosenshine and Robert Stevens (1986) also called it
explicit teaching.
This approach uses systematic instruction for the mastery of basic skills, facts, and information.

- Tom Good uses the term
active teaching
(teaching characterized by high levels of teacher explanations, demonstration and interaction with students) to explain a similar approach.

- Direct instruction is more effective when its used to teach student basic skills (clearly structured knowledge and essential skills )


Research on planning
What have educational researchers found about teachers’ planning?
Planning will influence what students will learn

Time is the essence of planning

Planning done at the beginning of the year is important
Teachers involve in many levels of planning
Plans reduce uncertainty in teaching
Planning must allow flexibility

Plans are not made to be broken – but sometimes they need to be bent a bit”


Research on planning
To plan creatively and flexibly teachers should have:
Knowledge about students
Student interests
Student abilities
Subjects taught in class
Alternative ways to teach and assess
Apply and adapt materials and text
Use all knowledge to construct meaningful activities
Research on planning
Collaborative approach
to planning:
Working with other teachers and brainstorming ideas to teach better.
Used in Japan “kenshu” or “mastery through study”. It’s one of the reasons why Japanese students do really well on international exams.
Used in the United States “lesson study” As a group, teachers develop, test, improve, and retest lessons until they are satisfied with the final version.
Major components:
collaborative reflection and revising lessons
Franz Weinert and Andreas Helmke (1995) states that direct instruction consist of the following features:
1. The teacher’s classroom management is especially effective and the rate of student interruptive behaviors are very low

2. The teacher maintains a strong academic focus and uses available instructional time intensively to initiate and facilitate students’ learning activities

3. The teacher insures that as many students as possible achieve good learning progress by carefully choosing appropriate tasks, clearly presenting subject- matter information and solution strategies, continuously diagnosing each student’s learning progress and learning difficulties and providing effective help through remedial instruction.

Later, Xin Ma (2012) added another feature: moving at a brisk pace and having a warm and accepting classroom climate.

Research on planning
One size does not fit all
in planning
There is no one model for effective planning.
Planning is a creative problem solving process for experienced teachers
Experienced teachers:
Know how to complete many lessons
Teach parts of the lesson effectively
Know what to expect and how to proceed
Do not necessarily follow detailed lesson-planning models but base it as a foundation

ROSENSHINE’S SIX TEACHING FUNCTIONS
-These functions could serve as guidelines for teachers to use when teaching basic skills.

1. Review and check the previous day’s work
2. Present new material
3. Provide guided practice
4. Give feedback and correctives base on student answers
5. Provide independent practice
6. Review weekly and monthly to consolidate learning.

- These need not be followed in this order but they are all elements of effective instruction.

ADVANCE ORGANIZER
-
Advance organizers are the material presented
before new information is introduced.

-
Also can described as information that is presented prior to learning and that can be used by the teacher/learner to organize and interpret new incoming information.

Flexible and Creative plans-Using Taxonomies
The 3 purposes of using the advance organizer strategy:

1. They direct your attention to what is important to
the coming material.
2. They highlight relationships among ideas that will
be presented
3. They remind you of the relevant information
you already have.

Flexible and Creative plans-Using Taxonomies
In Bloom’s taxonomy, Memory and Reasoning objectives
The 6 basic objectives in Bloom’s taxonomy:

THE COGNITIVE DOMAIN

Advance organizer fall in to one of the two categories:

Comparative organizer:

This activates the students’ prior knowledge on the subject or already existing schemas. Helps students to compare and contrast information.

Expository organizer:
This provides unfamiliar information to the student in order to help understand the upcoming information. They are more abstract and straight forward.

What is Differentiated Instruction?
A flexible approach of teaching, that matches content, process, and product based on student differences in readiness, interests and learning needs.
WHY DOES DIRECT INSTRUCTION WORK?
-
Direct instruction methods use brief, clear presentations and guided practice which will avoid overloading the students’ information processing systems and taxing their working memories.

-
Therefore, it is effective when a teacher uses direct instruction method to introduce to new topics to the students.
EVALUATING DIRECT INSTRUCTION
Flexible and Creative plans-Using Taxonomies
THE COGNITIVE TAXONOMY that we use today:

Disadvantages of direct instruction:
1. Most of the teacher presentations are extended, so students may find difficulty in concentrating for a long time.

2. Teacher presentations do much of the cognitive work for the students preventing them from asking or even coming up with questions.
Table 14.3
To eliminate these disadvantages teachers use something called
scripted cooperation:

A learning strategy in which two students take turns summarizing material and criticizing the summaries
SEATWORK AND
HOMEWORK
SEATWORK:
Independent classroom work.
-
Workbooks and worksheets aren’t always helpful.
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Should be easy enough that students can succeed in their own, if its too hard students will try to copy or guess in order to get it done.


HOMEWORK:

-
The assignment should be understood by the
students for them to benefit from doing homework.

-
To keep students involved the teacher can hold them
accountable for completing the work correctly, not just for
filling in the page.

-
The work should be checked and corrected, and the students should be given the time to correct and revise the work which will later be counted toward the class grade.

-
Teachers often correct the students’ homework during the first few minutes of class by having them check each other’s or their own work.

Flexible and Creative plans-Using Taxonomies
Flexible and Creative plans-Using Taxonomies
Flexible and Creative plans-Using Taxonomies
Flexible and Creative plans-Using Taxonomies
Flexible and Creative plans-Using Taxonomies
Within-class and Flexible Grouping
THE AFFECTIVE DOMAIN

Objectives focusing on attitudes and feelings

Five basic objectives :
1.Receiving
2.Responding
3.Valuing
4.Organization
5.Characterization by value

Alternatives for workbooks and worksheets:
Reading silently and reading aloud to a partner
Writing for a ‘”real” audience
Writing letters or journals
Transcribing conversations and punctuating them properly
Making up problems
Working on long-term projects
and reports
Solving brainteasers and
puzzles
Computer activities

THE PSYCHOMOTOR DOMAIN

System of grouping in which students in a class are divided into two or three groups based on ability in an attempt to accommodate student differences.

THE PSYCHOMOTOR DOMAIN

THE PSYCHOMOTOR DOMAIN

Learning objectives:
specific statements of what students should know, be able to do and understand at the end of a lesson
Physical ability and coordination objectives

Objectives in the psychomotor domain (James Cangelosi,1990)
1.Voluntary muscle capabilities that require endurance, strength, flexibility, agility or speed
2.Ability to perform a specific skill


Objectives are important to educators in:

Fine arts
Vocational-teaching education
Special education
Chemistry
Biology
Physics

Objectives should be:

1.Student-oriented
2.Descriptive of an appropriate learning outcome
3.Clear and understandable
4.Observable

Guidelines for using instructional objectives:

1.Avoid “word magic”-phrases that sound noble but say very little

2.Suit the activities to the objectives

3.Make sure your tests are related to your objectives

Differences in students prior knowledge are a major challenge for teachers, especially in subjects that build on previous knowledge and skills. Eg: Math and Science.


Is “Ability Grouping” helpful or not?


*Grouping students according to their abilities in a classroom context.

Main problem faced:

For schools with low SES students, grouping often means that these students are segregated into lower ability tracks.
The point of any grouping strategy should be to provide appropriate challenge and support. That is, to to reach children within their
“Zone of proximal development”.
Lesson Study
: As a group, teachers develop, test, improve, and retest lessons until they are satisfied with the final version.
QUESTIONING AND DISCUSSION
-
Teacher asks question and then student answers  recitation
-
These questions help to form the framework for the subject matter that is involved.
-
The pattern in which this goes as:





Flexible Grouping
Students are grouped and regrouped based on their learning needs.

Assessment is continuous so that students are always working
within their zone of proximal development.

Flexible grouping approaches include high level instruction and high
expectations for all students, regardless of their group placement.





Cross age classes… Is it really effective?


The teacher’s point of view or question.
(Initiation)
Student answers.
(Response)

Praising, correcting, probing or expanding
(Evaluation/reaction)

Several roles questions play in cognition:
1.
They help students rehearse information for effective recall.
2.
They can work to identify gaps in students’ knowledge.
3.
Can provoke curiosity and long-term interest for the subject matter.
4.
Can initiate cognitive conflict and promote the disequilibrium that which will lead to a change in the structure of knowledge.
5.
Questions can serve as cues, tips or reminders during a learning experience.

Turning goals into

Standards

&

Indicators
KINDS OF QUESTIONS
Convergent questions:
These types of questions will only have one correct answer. (Eg: Who wrote Harry Potter?)

Divergent questions:
These types of questions can have many correct answers. They are more opinion based. (Eg: In this book, which character did you most like and why?)

Questions can be posed in a way that encourage thinking in every level of Bloom’s cognitive domain taxonomy.

Knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation

Research on Teaching
Characteristics of effective teachers
Knowledge for teaching
Recent research on teaching
FITTING THE QUESTIONS TO THE STUDENTS

For younger student and for lower-ability students of all ages:
The best pattern of questions are the ones that allow a high percentage of correct answers, ample encouragement, help when students do not have the correct answer and praise.
For high-ability students:
The best pattern includes harder questions at both higher and lower levels and critical feedback.

-
Whatever age or ability, all students should be exposed to thought-provoking questions and help in learning to answer them if necessary.
-
It is also important that teachers give the students time to think about their answers.
-
When given appropriate tie students tend to give longer answers, likely to participate, ask questions, volunteer appropriate answers and are more confident in their answers.
-
However, you should conduct your own evaluation of wait time and when selecting students to answer

Asking the right questions…
Intensive case studies
Observing classes
Rate different teachers based on their characteristics.


Train teachers to apply new strategies and videotape teachers and ask them to view (stimulated recall)
Responding to student answers
Student answers maybe correct, partially correct and wrong
If the answer is quick, firm and correct – accept the answer or ask another question
If the answer is correct but hesitant – give feedback about why it is correct
If partially or completely wrong – give clues, simplify question, reteach material
If careless and wrong – simply correct and go on

John Hattie and Helen Timperley research on feedback
1. “where am I going?” – goals and goal clarity
2. “How am I going?” – progress
3. “Where to next?” – improve understanding, moving towards goals
Adaptive Teaching
Characteristics of effective teaching
Focus on 4 levels of feedback: task, process, self-regulation, and self-feedback
Most important is process and self regulation feedback
The model is developed by Lyn Corno. (2008)
Talks about “Learner Differences”.
Adaptive teaching makes sure that every child is challenged, but provides support when needed.
However, all the support given is removed when the students are able to handle on their own.

The three main characteristics of an effective teacher
clarity
warmth
knowledge
But recent research has focused on knowledge.

Group discussion
Group Discussion:
Conversation in which the teacher does not have the dominant role; students pose and answer their own questions.

Clarity and organization
According to Barak Rosenshine and Norma Furst, they concluded that clarity is the most promising teacher behavior method on effective teaching
Disadvantages:
Exchange of ignorance
Lack of background knowledge for discussion
Some students might be anxious while others dominate

Research found increased comprehension abilities of below average students

Fitting teaching to your goals
Warmth and enthusiasm
As you all know some teachers are more enthusiastic than others.
They have found that there is a correlation between teacher’s enthusiasm for the subject and achievement gains.
When teachers are enthusiastic, they hold students attention.
And also attention, interest and engagement lead to learning
There is no one best way to teach
Different goals and student need require different teaching methods
Direct instructions lead to better performance on achievement
Open methods lead to better performance on creativity, abstract thinking, and problem solving.
Open methods also improve attitudes and stimulate student curiosity, cooperation among students, and lower absence rates.

As Tom Good conclude, teaching should become less direct as student mature
Instructional Objectivity
Clear statements of what students are intended to learn through instruction
Behavioral Objectivity
Instructional objectives stated in terms of observable behaviors
Cognitive Objectivity
Instructional objectives stated in terms of higher-level thinking operations
And when the goal involves development of critical thinking or problem solving
Reaching “EVERY” student 
The performances expected of students after instruction
Behavioral view focus on observable and measurable changes in the learner
Effective teaching for students with disabilities

Good Teaching Practices
Sensitivity

Knowledge for Teaching
Expert teachers have elaborate systems of knowledge for understanding problems with teaching.
Pedagogical content knowledge
- the unique type of teacher knowledge of how to teach the content also how to match instructions to differences in students.
Expert teachers are reflective.


One size does not fit all – they have to differentiate instructions according to student needs

Reaching “EVERY” student Cont…
What makes expert teachers successful
use terms such as list, define, add, or calculate
To integrate students with disabilities into their day to day life in classrooms, Marilyn Friend and William Bursuck (2002) recommended the “INCLUDE” strategy:

The academic subjects they teach
General teaching strategies that apply in all subjects
Programs appropriate for the grade level
Subject specific knowledge for teaching
The characteristics and cultural background of the learners
The settings in which students learn
The goals and purposes of teaching

I
dentify the environmental, curricular, and instructional demands of your classroom.
N
ote students’ learning strengths and needs.
C
heck for potential areas of student success.
L
ook for potential problem areas.
U
se information gathered to brainstorm instructional adaptations.
D
ecide which adaptations to try.
E
valuate student progress.
Emphasizes thinking and comprehension
Include words such as understand, recognize, create, or apply
Reaching “EVERY” student Cont…
Individualized Education Program. (IEP)

Knowledge for teaching
Do teachers who know more about their subject have a more positive impact on their students?
it depends on the subject

Knowledge is necessary for effective teachers because being knowledgeable helps to be more
clearer
more organized
and more responsive to students questions
Technology and Differentiation
IDEA requires that all students eligible for special education services must be considered for Assistive technology.
Assistive Technology is:
Devices, systems and services that support and improve the capabilities of individuals with disabilities.

Universal Design is:
Considering the needs of all users in the design of new tools, learning programs, or Web sites.
New research on teaching
Robert pianta and his colleagues identified three features of class room climate that related to development
affective
behavioral
cognitive dimensions

Robert Mager (1975, 1997)
Writing specific behavioral objectives
Objectives ought to describe:
What students will be doing when demonstrating achievement?
How teachers will know they are doing it?
A good objective has 3 parts




Students can teach themselves if they are given well-stated objectives
Mentoring students as a way of Differentiated Teaching.
Knowing our students
Develop trusting relationships with them

Gronlund & Brookhart (2009)
Used for writing cognitive objectives
Objectives should be stated in general terms
Next, the teacher should clarify the objective by providing specific examples
The knowledge we gain about the students should help us in
adapting our teaching methods, and the positive relationship
we establish will help the students to stay engaged in
learning! 
Planning from a Constructive Perspective
Constructivist approach:

Emphasizes the active role of the leaner in building understanding and making sense of information.
The planning is shared and negotiated
The teacher and students together make decisions about content, activities and approaches. (integrated planning)
Rather than having specific student behaviors as objectives, the teacher has outreaching goals
“big ideas” or themes
Write the name of the best teacher you had during school times…
What was his/ Her favorite quote?
A personal encounter with her…
what do you remember she said to you?
What did he/she know about you?
(your reputation)
I expect all of you to understand about the effect of the teachers expectation on poor performers and good performers.
Teacher expectations two types
Self fulfilling prophecy
A groundless expectation that leads to behavior

Research-Researcher randomly chose several students in a number of elementary school class rooms and tells the teachers that these students would make significant intellectual gains during the year….

Sustaining expectation

This talks about the level of expectation and knowing when to raise the level.

Appropriate high expectations.

Self fulfilling prophecy
Sustaining expectation

Sources of expectation. (why do they expect you to be better?)
Facts and Findings
Withdrawn children provide less information. (lack of new input)
Higher expectation by more socially competent students.
Immature and / or anxious children are underestimated.
It takes many instances to change teachers belief about your ability.
You are evaluated on the best available data about you and corrected as new information is collected.

Facts and Findings continued...
Students being less able and teachers lacking effective strategy
Double threat
This influences the teachers to focus more on work and
not on understanding.
The power of expectation depends on the age.
Teachers may use different instructional strategies and also have different relationships with students based on expectations.
Expectation differences build yearly with many teachers.

How to avoid negative effects of teacher expectations?
Use information about students very carefully.
Being flexible in grouping strategies.
Providing both challenge and support.
Being careful how you respond to low-achieving
students during class discussions.
Use materials that show wide range of ethnic
groups.
Make sure that your teaching does not reflect
racial ethnic or sexual prejudice.

How to avoid negative effects of teacher expectations continued..
Advantages:
Students are directly involved and have a chance to participate
Learn to express themselves clearly, justify opinions and to tolerate different views
Gives chance for clarification, examine their thinking, follow personal interest, and assume responsibility
Help evaluate ideas and synthesize personal viewpoints

Be fair in evaluation and disciplinary procedures.
Communicate to all students that you believe they can learn and mean it.
Involve all students in learning tasks and privileges.
Monitor your non verbal behavior.

Performance expected children receive..
Quantity and quality of teacher and student interactions.

Students expected to achieve asked more and harder questions
given more chances, longer time to respond and are interrupted less.

They are also given cues and prompts, are being smiled at and given positive feed back in the form of body language.



Poor performers receive….
Are asked easier questions, given less time for answering, less likely are given prompts.
They are responded with sympathetic acceptance, praised for inadequate answers.
They are also criticized for wrong answers, praised less than high achieving students
for similar correct students.
What would you feel if your wrong answers are some times praised, some times criticized, and some times ignored and your right answers are received little recognition?

Now evaluate yourself and your teachers on your reputation and their feed back.
To remember this lesson, you may go home and call your best teacher…………
You will remember the lesson.
The teacher will feel good about him/ her selves!

IQ tests
Gender
Notes from previous teachers
Medical/ psychological reports
Prior knowledge about siblings
Appearance
Previous achievements
Race/ ethnicity
Socioeconomic status
Behavior
Communication between you and the teacher
Your focus
Benjamin Bloom
Developed a taxonomy or classification system of educational objectives:
Cognitive
Affective
Psychomotor
In real life, behaviors of these three domains occur simultaneously

Group discussions gone wrong.. :P
Chapter Objectives
Identify the characteristics of effective teachers and effective classroom climates
Develop learning objectives using Bloom's taxonomy
Describe the processes involved in planning a lesson and differentiate among basic formats for putting plans into action.
Discuss the appropriate uses of direct instruction, homework, questioning, and group discussion.
Define differentiated instruction and adaptive teaching, and apply the approach to teaching a diverse group of students
Explain the possible effects of teacher expectations and know how to avoid the negative implications.
Sachini Dias - 2678
Sachini Ohara- 2579
Ronali B. - 2683
Keshiya B. - 2684
Pasan Oshadie - 2211
Dilisha A. - 2704

Thank You!!!
Full transcript