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Hall of Fame DBQ: Women
Transcript of Hall of Fame DBQ: Women
Analyzing the Documents
Chloe Blottman, Cathryn Kessler, Andrew Levey, Emily Miller, Andrea Morrello, & Kyle Wiatrak
To what extent did
as well as assumptions about the
nature of women
affect the position of American women during the period of
Use the documents and your knowledge of the history of the years 1890-1925 to construct your response.
*Formulate your thesis by using key points from the question. Categorize your body paragraphs from the the three topics mentioned in the question
(economic/ political developments & the nature of women). Focus on the time period (1890-1925).
Outside Information/ Key Terms
KW & AL
Nature of Women
The Progressive Era expanded the responsibility of females by employing a larger female workforce, encouraging political involvement, and challenging common stereotypes of women.
3 Categories to Classify the Documents
Nature of Women
Triangle Shirtwaist Factory
There was a horrible fire at the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory that caused the death of over 100 women.
Led to legislation about safety in Factoires
Women's Trade Union League
Organization of Working Class and wealthy women
Supported the efforts of labor unions
Women fought to legalize the distribution of Birth Control
Adkins v. Children's Hospital (1923)
Outlawed minimum wage for women
Muller v. Oregon (1908)
Upheld Oregon state restrictions on working hours for women
SCOTUS said that women were physically inferior and could only work during those restricted hours
Women's suffrage (19th Amendment)
Gave women the right to vote (1920)
Women who got involved in various progressive movements
Leading women's activist, suffragist, settlement worker
She was one of the main catalysts for social change and the status of women
One of the leading muckrakers during the progressive era
The History of the Standard Oil Company
and depicted Rockefeller as vicious monopolizer
Nurse and birth control activist
Established organizations that evolved into Planned Parenthood
She helped legalize contraceptives in America
Educator temperance reformer and women's suffragist
She was instrumental in passing the 18th and 19th Amendments
President of the WCTU
Leader of the Uprising of 20,000
Status of Women and Their Role in Various Movements
WCTU (Women's Christian Temperance Union)
Massive women's organization devoted to stopping the sale and consumption of Alcohol and linked their causes to Christianity
Uprising of 20,000
Also known as the New York Shirtwaist Strike of 1909
Primarily involved Jewish women that worked in Shirtwaist factories
Strikers settled with the factory owners and improved working conditions
The more priveledge
POV: Susan B. Anthony, female political leader, female suffragist, leading women's rights activist
Women have more industrial opportunities because of the evolving household work
female status and their capabilities have changed
"Old regime" is referring to the misogynist society which prohibited women from progressing; women have improved because now they have the freedom to so
The role of women would continue to change during the Great Depression, which began in 1929 and lasted about a decade. Women were taken more seriously, as they were responsible for budgeting, as well as housework and doing whatever they could to provide some income for their families. Many men, who were out of work, found the roles reversed as they were looking to their wives for help. Black women, especially were given opportunities during this time as domestic servants or textile workers. This empowered women and gave them more power and status in the household and society.
"women of leisure" began to realize that if they wanted equal rights as men, they would have to stop living of their husband's income and provide some economic stability for the family as well
if women wanted to be taken seriously by men and "supported" by their husbands, they had to have serious jobs and not just domestic work
POV: Edward A. Ross, the author of
The Social Trend
, was a progressive who supported the women's rights movement as well as other reforms like prohibition
The Female Liberation movement of the 1960s was a radical protest towards equal gender rights. Women opposed their denial of basic rights in employment and government. They fought for political and reproductive rights, while opposing the typical image of females. The Female Liberation Movement succeeded in getting the FDA to approve the birth control pill.
Similar to the women of the Progressive Era who protested females' status and employment opportunities, both of these groups of women aimed at expanding their rights while fixing society's image of them. Both groups of females wanted to protect birth control rights and create more gender equality.
POV: Speaker: Charlotte Perkins Gilman, a powerful feminist.
She says that women are just as powerful and smart as men are.
Women "will cease to be weak and ignorant and defenseless" (Doc D).
More and more women began working in factories
Especially in clothing factories and large cities such as New York
Historical context: This photo of women working in a clothing factory in 1915 was taken 4 years after the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire of 1911.
The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire occurred on March 25th, 1911 when due to unsafe working conditions a fire started and there were no emergency exits. The doors opened in instead of out so when women rushed to get out they only trapped themselves. 146 garment workers died in the fire or by jumping to their deaths.
led to the development of the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union
Political Cartoon regarding the birth control movement
The document portrays a woman being chained by unwanted children and it supported a woman's right to use birth control
Purpose: to advocate for the right of birth control
POV: Jane Addams, leading women's activist and proponent of settlement house movement
Women should expand their responsibilities while maintaining the home; however, few women have attempted to acquire the right to vote
Men only represent the industrial aspect of life, women can assist with the conditions of society if they vote
She says that if men want women to fulfill their duty as mothers and caretakers, they need to be given the right to vote.
This document shows women working at a ship's construction site in 1919
This includes both white and black women working in what seem to be the same job
In the Puget Sound, Washington (far west)
Purpose: displays the controversial idea that women are capable to complete physically demanding jobs that many refute in the east.
** Good segway into the Nature of women
However women had much mobility in society, and their voice as citizens in the government was still not heard.
Emphasizes that women still have very little political power
National, state and local politics skewed with only men voting while excluding women
"Kaiser Wilson" banner, compared the plight of german immigrants with the plight of american women
The rampant stereotype of women being inferior to men had women playing a secondary role on decisions having to deal with their life.
Though their role in the workplace was vastly increased, their role in politics and society as a whole was still not on par with men
Margaret Sanger was a supporter for this movement, and was an early activist for it
Focus on one or more of the following-
Women and the Gilded Age:
Women in the West= hard workers wanting to prove themselves but given very few opportunities in the "Wild West" besides prostitution
where the desire and push for women's voting rights were born
Women's movements in the East= organizations such as the Women's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) shows women (mostly middle class) joining together for a common cause laying the groundwork for later Progressive Movements.
Women and the Populist Movement:
Women's attendance in colleges are rising meaning more educated women. This leads to a large group of middle and upper class educated women working at home with a lot of time on their hands.
these women take up causes such as temperance and later the protection of lower class women and immigrants working in big cities (women's progressive movements)
Women are physically inferior to men
Motherly duties are of greater importance to female responsibilities in government
Women are supposed to be healthy mothers in order to produce strong future citizens
Females are not independent
With new opportunities, women won't reach the same level of competition as men
Women are in a different class from men, enforced by laws
Historical Context: Men thought of themselves as superior to women, courts tended to have larger male numbers=biased decision
*This political cartoon is from the National American Women Suffrage Association
*The cartoon shows a small group of crude-looking men watching a number of well-dressed women and girls entering the church
*One of the men comments "We got the votes in the law." This showed vulnerability in men as they noticed women were acquiring more prominent positions. In the past, women were held back from education, strength, and money in bank accounts. Women were able to see availability in education, social events, and jobs.
*Intended Audience: all Americans; men, women, blacks, immigrants
*Efforts to improve conditions for women had continued with "diminishing intensity." Improvements were being made progressively, but slowly (19th amendment, civil statues of women, political enhancements).
*Wages and the amount of hours a woman worked was observed more carefully
*Declared unconstitutional a minimum wage law for women on the grounds that it denied women freedom of contract.
*Historical Context: Women were viewed as inferior, they had less opportunities