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Psyc Project- 1900s-1960s mental institution
Transcript of Psyc Project- 1900s-1960s mental institution
Brianna Diassi Mental Institution
1900s-1960s 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 Created a more domestic feel, beds, pictures and decorations replaced shackles, chains and cement cells. It was thought that recovery would more likely occur if conditions and surroundings resembled the comfort of home. The 1940's & 1950's brought about the development of tranquilizers for use in the mental health field. During this time Psychiatric journals were being published that included new information regarding mental health practices and care guidelines for the mentally ill. The year 1907 brought about standards of care for nurses when working with the mentally ill. Doctors were now in control of the care over mental health and mental health nurses instead of untrained personnel. The 1930's produced changes in the treatment and care of the mentally ill. New treatments being explored used insulin and electro-shock therapy as a treatments process for mental health.
Drugs, electro-convulsive therapy, and surgery are used to treat people with schizophrenia and others with persistent mental illnesses. 1946 marked the passing of the National Mental health Act which established Mental Health treatment Institutions across the USA. Federal funds for mental health care, mental health research, and mental health education were becoming available across the nation. Between 1955 and 1957, the hospital began using dramatic new drugs, including Thorazine, to treat the mentally ill. But huge deficits continued, and by the 1960s, the philosophy for treating the mentally ill began to change. President John F. Kennedy, whose sister Rosemary functioned at the level of an infant after undergoing a lobotomy, pushed for a new approach to establish a community-based system of helping the mentally ill. 1949Australian psychiatrist J. F. J. Cade introduces the use of lithium to treat psychosis. Prior to this, drugs such as bromides and barbiturates had been used to quiet or sedate patients, but they were ineffective in treating the basic symptoms of those suffering from psychosis. Lithium will gain wide use in the mid-1960s to treat those with manic depression, now known as bipolar disorder. •1900s-1920s: Psychiatrists sought to re-establish their medical credentials and adopted an aggressive therapeutic stance. •1909: The National Committee for Mental Hygiene (NMCH) was founded and its headquarters established in Manhattan. The NCMH spearheaded the mental hygiene movement, which was pessimistic about curing mental illness but convinced that it could be prevented. •Patient numbers had doubled from 13,434 in 1890 to 31,280. New York State now had the largest number of institutionalized people with mental illness in the nation. •1920s-1930s: Over-crowded institutions. The Great Depression plunged state hospitals further into the custodial mode. Great numbers of indigent and aged people entered state hospitals. •1920's: Fever therapy was introduced in mental hospitals.Creation of an artificial fever which elevates the body temperature which are used to treat disease. Sometimes they are followed with the Cold Sock Treatment. 1927: The New York State Mental Hygiene Law is enacted. The DMH is given almost all responsibility for the care and treatment of the mentally ill, the developmentally disabled, and epileptics. •1930's: Insulin shock and metrazol shock therapies and surgical technique of lobotomy were developed. •1930's- 1945: Conditions in state mental institutions deteriorated as a result of Great Depression, financial hardships and the resource and personnel demands of the war. Extreme overcrowding was common. •Late 1930's-Early 1940's: Electroconvulsive therapy, which replaces insulin and metrazol shock therapies, was introduced into the United States. •The federal Hill-Burton Act, which allocated monies for state hospital renovation and construction, was enacted.
•Mental Health Act of 1946. Provided funding for research into causes, prevention and treatment of mental illness. 1946 •"Social Milieu Therapy" became increasingly popular. It represented a move away from surgeries. The institution once again became the focal point of therapy. Milieu therapy called for developing a permissive and rich social environment for the chronically mentally ill. It emphasized personal hygiene, attractive surroundings, bright colors, light, attractive meals, group activities (poetry, music, singing, and discussions). Music therapy preceded ECT. Superficially, milieu therapy resembled nineteenth-century moral treatment; however, it lacked its predecessor's emphasis upon self-discipline. The development of psychiatric drugs such as Thorazine and new tranquilizers reinforce psychiatric confidence in the effectiveness of outpatient treatment and their ability to cure mental illness. Less need for shock treatment, restraints and seclusion rooms. Able to begin to develop and sustain intensive individualized treatment programs. Nation’s mental health inpatient population was reduced by the drugs. The community mental health movement was boosted by successes of drug treatments. •1965: Medicare and Medicaid were established. Both contained provisions for mental health treatment. Early 1900s-The primary treatments of neurotic mental disorders, and sometimes psychosis, are psychoanalytical therapies ("talking cures") developed by Sigmund Freud and others. Society still treats those with psychosis, including schizophrenia, with custodial care. A series of successful anti-psychotic drugs are introduced that do not cure psychosis but control its symptoms. Studies show that 70 percent of patients with schizophrenia clearly improve on anti-psychotic drugs. Mid-1950s A new type of therapy, called behavior therapy, is developed, which holds that people with phobias can be trained to overcome them. 1962- Counterculture author Ken Kesey's best-selling novel, One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest is based on his experiences working in the psychiatric ward of a Veterans' Administration hospital. Kesey is motivated by the premise that the patients he sees don't really have mental illnesses; they simply behave in ways a rigid society is unwilling to accept. In 1975, Kesey's book will be made into an influential movie starring Jack Nicholson as anti-authoritarian anti-hero Randle McMurphy. Mid-1960s: Many seriously mentally ill people are removed from institutions. In the United States they are directed toward local mental health homes and facilities. The number of institutionalized mentally ill people in the United States will drop from a peak of 560,000 to just over 130,000 in 1980. Some of this de-institutionalization is possible because of anti-psychotic drugs, which allow many psychotic patients to live more successfully and independently. However, many people suffering from mental illness become homeless because of inadequate housing and follow-up care. Early Twentieth Century: Progressive Reform
Progressive Era reformers believed that mental illness was the product of environmental factors and that it was both preventable and progressively serious. These beliefs gave rise to the Mental Hygiene Movement, which as characterized by the psychopathic hospital, child psychiatry and outpatient clinics. All of these innovations were intended to prevent the emergence of mental illness or to provide early treatment designed to avert serious mental disorder. Around the turn of the 19th century, Europeans introduced a new approach to the treatment of the mentally ill known as “Moral Management.” This approach was based on the belief that the environment played a vital role in the treatment of the mentally ill. In 1900, Clifford Beers, a Yale graduate and young businessman, suffered an acute breakdown brought on by the illness and death of his brother. Shortly after a suicide attempt, Beers was hospitalized in a private Connecticut mental institution. At the mercy of untrained, incompetent attendants, he was subject to degrading treatment and mental and physical abuses. Beers spent the next few years hospitalized in various institutions, the worst being a state hospital in Middletown, Connecticut.
In 1908, Beers changed mental health care forever with the publication of A Mind That Found Itself, an autobiography chronicling his struggle with mental illness and the shameful state of mental health care in America. The book had an immediate impact, spreading his vision of a massive mental health reform movement across land and oceans. Nation's Mental Health 1951 - Mental institution Straitjacket were used to "control" the patients.