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DNA, RNA and proteins

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on 11 January 2017

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Transcript of DNA, RNA and proteins

DNA, RNA and proteins
What is the 'transforming principle'?
DNA replication
chromosomes
genes
If the old DNA strand contains the following sequence:
GGCTAATTCAT
How would the new DNA strand be?
DNA
RNA
Similarities

They are nucleic acids.
They are made of nucleotides.
The have sugar-phosphate backbones.
They are found in the nucleus.

DNA and RNA
Differences
DNA is double-stranded while RNA is single-stranded.
DNA has T while RNA has U.
RNA is also found in the cytoplasm as well as the nucleus while DNA is not.

Composed of subunits called amino acids.
The sequence of amino acids determines the shape of the protein.
They are synthesized at the ribosomes.
Proteins are important for diverse functions in the body including hormones, enzymes, and transport.
They can denature (by heat, changes in pH, etc), causing a loss of function.

PROTEINS
How do we get proteins from genes?
We need a code
TRANSCRIPTION
TRANSLATION
Bases act as a code for amino acids used in translation.
Every 3 bases of the mRNA is called a codon; a typical codon specifies a particular amino acid in translation.

The genetic code
3 types
ribosomal
messenger
transfer
Full transcript