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APUSH Chapter 7 Acts Project

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Rachel Nash

on 29 September 2014

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Transcript of APUSH Chapter 7 Acts Project

ACTS Project
By Rachel Nash, Leela Wissmann, Delaney Welsh, Morgan Kleinhandler, Maddie Gillman, Brandon Plaster, Maxwell Cole, Maddie Laporte, and Ryan Wallace
Currency Act 1764:
This is a law made by Britain that forbade colonists from printing currency or having lenient laws about bankruptcy. Before this act, the colonies attempted to create their own forms of currency in response to the trade deficit they had with Britain. This led to many different forms of currency being used throughout the colonies, and confusion. The currency Act was established in response to British disapproval of currency made in the colonies. The British government nullified the colonial production of currency, and nullification of colonial laws was used a total of 468 times by Britain. This act was also put into place to directly affect colonies like South Carolina who tried to end International Slave Trade to ruin Britain’s economy. The fact that the slave trade was forced into the New World for the benefit of the English economy was written into the Declaration of Independence, but was removed because of the negativity it brought to the use of slavery. Because of the Currency Act, the colonists had a constant shortage of hard currency and the trade deficit with Britain continued.
Navigation Acts (1650- 1776 and strictly enforced after 1763)

The Navigation Acts, 1650- 1776, are laws passed by Parliament to regulate the mercantilist system which sought to keep all the benefits of trade inside the Empire, and minimize the loss of gold and silver to foreigners. Mercantilist policies had a positive impact on Britain, helping turn it into the world's dominant trader, and the global hegemon. They expelled foreign merchants from England’s domestic trade and restricted the use of foreign ships. The nation aggressively sought colonies and once under British control, regulations were imposed that allowed the colony to only produce raw materials and to only trade with Britain. They prohibited the colonies from trading directly with the Netherlands, Spain, France, and their colonies. Generally, the Acts were obeyed. One exception to this was the Molasses Act of 1733 which led to extensive smuggling do to the fact that no real enforcement was provided until the 1750s. This led to friction with the inhabitants of these colonies. The Sugar Act of 1764 was especially a source of resentment by merchants in the American colonies against Great Britain. This was because there was stricter enforcement after 1763 including on this Act. Mercantilist policies (such as forbidding trade with other empires and controls over smuggling) were a major irritant leading to the American Revolution.
Proclamation of 1763

The end of the French and Indian War in 1763 was a cause for great celebration in the colonies, for it opened up new opportunities for the colonists. From the perspective of the settlers, the french played the "Indians" against them. The first thing on the minds of colonists was the great western frontier, that had been opened up to them due to the french surrendering the territory to the british. The royal proclamation of 1763 did much to dampen that celebration. The proclamation, in effect, closed off the frontier to colonial expansion. The King and his council presented the proclamation as a measure to calm the Indians, who felt that the colonists would drive them from their lands as they expanded on the western frontier. Lots of colonists felt that the object was to pen them in along the Atlantic seaboard where they would be easier to regulate. No doubt there was a large measure of truth in both of these positions. However the colonists could not help but feel a strong resentment when what they perceived to be their prize was snatched away from them. The proclamation provided that all lands west of all rivers which flowed into the Atlantic Ocean from the west or northwest were off-limits to the colonists; which prohibited them from rich opportunities in the Ohio river valley. The proclamation also established or defined four new colonies, three of them on the continent proper. Quebec, which was of course already well settled, two colonies to be called East Florida and West Florida. The proclamation also required that all lands within the "Indian territory" occupied by Englishmen were to be abandoned. It included a list of prohibited activities, provided for enforcement of the new laws, and indicted unnamed persons for fraud practices in acquiring lands from the Indians in the past. In this proclamation the King sided with the Indians, against the perceived interests of the settlers. Parliament soon after executed, British royal posts along the proclamation boundary; parliament was under no illusions about relations between the Indians and the colonists. Parliament understood that the colonists would not respect the boundary without some enforcement. Finally, the English were interested in improving the fur trade, which involved the Indians and independent trappers who lived out on the frontier.

Sugar Act 1764
When Prime Minister, George Grenvile come to power in 1763, he enforced many acts for the purpose of raising tax for the New Colonial Policy. On of these acts includes the sugar act of 1764. The sugar act was one of the first acts passed by parliament and increased tax revenue in colonies. if this act was violated the Admiralty Court tried the violator but they had no juries and proof on accused, they were assumed guilty.The angry colonies began to boycott british goods on reaction to the passing of the sugar, stamp and navigation act.


Stamp Act 1765
The Stamp Act put a tax on every piece of paper colonist purchased, including everything from document paper to playing cards. The money collected from this tax was for used to fund new troops that were stationed in the colonies. The Stamp Act angered colonists because Britain was implementing taxation without colonial representation. Because of the huge disapproval of the stamp act and colonial boycotts to British paper products, no tax was ever collected.




Admiralty Courts (created 1764-65)

The Admiralty courts were created to put the people who didn’t follow The Sugar and Stamp Acts on trial. Colonist hated these courts because they “jeopardized their basic rights” and all the proof was from the defendants. Juries were not allowed either and you were guilty unless proven innocent (opposite of what they were used to). Colonist believed it was unfair and continued to go against The Stamp and Sugar Acts anyway.
Quartering Act 1765
This act required all colonists to provide food and shelter for British troops. Colonists did not agree with this act because they did not believe in taxation without representation. New York legislature refused to follow the Quartering Act, and in response the British established the NY Legislature Suspension Act, 1767.
NY Suspending Act 1766
The New York Suspending Act of 1766 is also known as The New York Restraining Act, which according to historian Robert Chaffin was officially a part of the Townshend Acts and suspended the power of the Assembly until it complied with the Quartering Act. The Restraining Act never went into effect because, by the time it was passed, the New York Assembly had already appropriated money to cover the costs of the Quartering Act. The Assembly avoided conceding the right of Parliament to tax the colonies by making no reference to the Quartering Act when appropriating this money; they also passed a resolution stating that Parliament could not constitutionally suspend an elected legislature.
Declaratory Act 1766
After battling for almost a year for the repeal of the Stamp Act, the second it was repealed a new law was put in place, the Declaratory Act. This stated in essence that Britain had absolute power to decide taxes in America as it did in Great Britain. Britain placed this law in hopes that America would understand that it wasn’t it’s own country, rather just land claimed for the crown. The british saw nothing wrong with the taxation considering the war was fought on the American’s soil. Since America had already stated it wanted partial sovereignty and was being promptly ignored, the need for a revolution was becoming more apparent than ever. More and more people were beginning to see the true colors of their former homeland, and knew this wouldn’t be the last oppressive bill to be put into place.
Townshend Acts 1767
In 1767 Champagne Charley Townshed replaced the Prime Minister Grenville, who enforced the Navigation act. Champagne continues the New Colonial policy, which makes colonists help pay for the debt of the french and indian war, and forces a tighter grip on the colonies. But unlike grenville, Champange takes a different approach and starts the ides of an “Internal Tax”, which pays indirectly. The Townshed Acts were paid on glass, white lead, paper, paint, and tea. the money made became a collection of this internal tax that would be used to pay Royal Governor and Judges in America. the colonists reacted with a non-importation agreement. This was less effective and they began smuggling tea. Because of the tea smuggling, the british sent more to Boston in 1768. Conflicts between the troops and colonists caused The Boston Massacre on March 5th in 1770. This was one of many the internal conflicts between the colonists and british soldiers in America.
Tea Act 1773
The Tea Act of 1773 the colonists were paying taxes on tea, which was cheaper than tea smuggling. The London Government was going to give the tea trade monopoly to the British East India Company, so the tea would be even cheaper in america. But the colonists responded to this act as a trick to pay more tax on tea, which the colonists thought they were already paying. they saw this as a violation in their principle. This opposition of the tax made the British Colonial Officials enforce the tax without thinking of the consequences. Because of this, the colonists protest In Boston, Philly, NYC, Annapolis, Charleston, and other colonies. These protest became very forceful. Cargoes were burned and ships retreated back to england. they boycotted tea and not one chest of tea was sold.
Intolerable/Coercive Acts 1774: as a reaction to the Boston Tea Party, British parliament passed a series of repressive acts in 1774 which had a main objective to punish the colonies (esp. Massachusetts). Colonists were outraged and reacted by summoning a Continental Congress. This Continental Congress was majorly significant because it eventually becomes the governing body of the United States during the time of the revolution. These acts were the final straw that consequently started the American Revolution.

Boston Port Act
On this day in 1774, British Parliament passes the Boston Port Act, shutting down the port of Boston and making the city residents pay for the nearly 1 million dollars worth of tea that was disposed of during the Boston Tea Party of December 16, 1773. The crown appointed General Thomas Gage as the governor of Massachusetts to help enforce this act with the help of the British navy. This caused merchants to fear the port of Boston which ceased almost all imports and exports though the port. This act had an opposite effect that the British hoped for, the colonies helped out Boston by sending them much needed goods that they would not be able to get without outside help.

Massachusetts Government Act
This act puts an end to the constitution of Massachusetts and takes away the colonists of Massachusetts Bay colony’s rights to elect town officials. Town officials now become appointed by the royal governor who is also appointed by Great Britain. The executive council also was appointed by the king under this act. Colonists were extremely upset because the royal government was taking away their rights again, and practicing total control which was opposite of the ideas the colonists had taken in response to salutary neglect and the enlightenment period. Tensions between Great Britain and the colonies were further raised.

Administration of Justice Act
This act allowed the newly appointed military governor to send rebellious colonists for trial in other colonies or even in Great Britain. This act denied colonists in the Massachusetts colony the basic right of trial by peers. Naturally, the colonists were upset and felt even more restrained by their mother country.

(New) Quartering Act
This quartering act was exactly the same as the previous one except for the addition that gave the governor, rather than the assembly, the power to enforce arrangements to make sure British troops were sheltered. The whole point of this act was to take power from the rebellious colonists and give it back to Great Britain. This enraged the colonists and led to the creation of the first continental congress, which eventually caused the American revolution.
Quebec Act 1774
In 1774 Parliament passes the hated Quebec Act. The Act replaced oath of allegiance with one that no longer made reference to the Protestant faith, guaranteed free practice of the Catholic faith, restored French civil law for private manners and English common law for public administration, and also extended the boundary enlarging it considerably all the way to the Ohio River. The Quebec act was a concern due to the extension of Catholicism, French Autocratic Government, and taking the land away from settlement in the Ohio Area (an area colonists saw as a place to expand. The provisions of the Quebec Act were seen by the colonists as a new model for British colonial administration, which would strip the colonies of their elected assemblies and as a threat to their liberties. The Americans were especially angry that the act established Catholicism as the state church in Quebec. The Americans had fought hard in the French and Indian War, and now they were angry that the losers (the French in Quebec) were given all the rewards including western lands claimed by the 13 colonies.

Lexington and Concord 1775
April 19, 1775, ignited the Revolutionary War which occurred during the years of 1775-1783, started at Lexington and Concord. The tension between the british and the colonists had been growing in it had finally reached a breaking point in Boston Massachusetts.Paul Revere and others rode to sound the alarm, the colonial militiamen began mobilizing to intercept the Redcoat force. The night of April 18, 1775, hundreds of British troops marched from Boston to Concord in order to seize an arms cache. An argument between towns men of Lexington with the british coats on the town green sparked the fighting, soon after the British were retreating under intense fire. More battles followed, and in 1783 the colonists won their independence.

Lord Dunmore's Proclamation 1775

November 7, 1775 Lord Dunmore’s Proclamation was issued on board a British warship off the coast of Norfolk, Virginia, by John Murray, Earl of Dunmore. Who offered the first large scale emancipation of slaves and indentured servants in the history of colonial British America. Wanting to gain a force in the form of armed slaves and servants in order to counter an attack on his capital of Williamsburg by patriot militia in the spring of 1775. Within a couple weeks several hundred slaves and their families had joined this cause. Its purpose was strategic, to disable rebellion, but this had a reversed effect which caused southern colonist to oppose the crown. Southern colonist believed the proclamation was inciting slave insurrection.
THANK YOU (:
The end of the French and Indian War in 1763 was a cause for great celebration in the colonies, for it opened up new opportunities for the colonists. From the perspective of the settlers, the french played the "Indians" against them. The first thing on the minds of colonists was the great western frontier, that had been opened up to them due to the french surrendering the territory to the british. The royal proclamation of 1763 did much to dampen that celebration. The proclamation, in effect, closed off the frontier to colonial expansion. The King and his council presented the proclamation as a measure to calm the Indians, who felt that the colonists would drive them from their lands as they expanded on the western frontier. Lots of colonists felt that the object was to pen them in along the Atlantic seaboard where they would be easier to regulate. No doubt there was a large measure of truth in both of these positions. However the colonists could not help but feel a strong resentment when what they perceived to be their prize was snatched away from them. The proclamation provided that all lands west of all rivers which flowed into the Atlantic Ocean from the west or northwest were off-limits to the colonists; which prohibited them from rich opportunities in the Ohio river valley. The proclamation also established or defined four new colonies, three of them on the continent proper. Quebec, which was of course already well settled, two colonies to be called East Florida and West Florida. The proclamation also required that all lands within the "Indian territory" occupied by Englishmen were to be abandoned. It included a list of prohibited activities, provided for enforcement of the new laws, and indicted unnamed persons for fraud practices in acquiring lands from the Indians in the past. In this proclamation the King sided with the Indians, against the perceived interests of the settlers. Parliament soon after executed, British royal posts along the proclamation boundary; parliament was under no illusions about relations between the Indians and the colonists. Parliament understood that the colonists would not respect the boundary without some enforcement. Finally, the English were interested in improving the fur trade, which involved the Indians and independent trappers who lived out on the frontier.
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