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All about Cells

Cells
by

chris ledbetter

on 25 October 2013

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Transcript of All about Cells

Cells
Q1 Benchmark Review
SB1a.
Explain the role of cell organelles for both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, including the cell membrane, in maintaining homeostasis.
The Basic Unit of Life
Prokaryotes vs Eukaryotes
*Single Celled/Unicelluar
*
NO
membrane bound organelles
*
NO
membrane bound nucleus,DNA floats free in cytoplasm.
*Include ONLY Bacteria (Eubacteria/Archeabacteria)
Prokaryotes
Structures
GPS-SB1. Students will analyze the nature of the relationships between structures and functions in living cells.
*Unicellular & Multicelluar
*
CONTAIN
membrane bound organelles
*Examples: Animals, Plants, Protists & Fungi
Eukaryotes
Animals
and
plants
share many organelles,
but there are some
key differences
:
*
centrioles
are only found in
animal cells
*
plants
have
cell walls
,
chloroplasts
, and a
large central vacuole
, animal cells do not
Structures
Video Review
Q1 Benchmark Prezi Quiz 1 – SB1a - Prokaryotes vs Eukaryotes
1. Why are cells small?
 
2. What are the differences between optical and electron microscopes?
Optical –
Electron –
 
3. Do prokaryotes or eukaryotes lack a membrane bound nucleus?

4.
What type of organisms have prokaryotic cells?
E
ukaryotic cells?

5. Are prokaryotes smaller or larger than eukaryotes?

6. What 4 major things do prokaryotes and eukaryotes have in common?

7. Do prokaryotes or eukaryotes have membrane bound organelles?

8. Which structures do plant cells have that animal cells lack?
In the Venn Diagram below, list the structures that prokaryotes and eukaryotes share under BOTH and list the types of organisms and structures specific to each under either prokaryote or eukaryote:

DNA, Cytoplasm/Cytosol, Cell Membrane, Ribosomes, Nucleus, Mitochondria, Lysosomes, Golgi, Smooth ER, Rough ER, Vesicles, Bacteria, Archaea, Protists, Fungi, Plants , Animals
List the major functions of the organelles in a eukaryotic cell below?
Quiz
Cool Cell Size Animation
http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/begin/cells/scale/
http://www.wisc-online.com/objects/ViewObject.aspx?ID=ap1101
Cell Membrane Animation and Quiz
Membrane Structure

*Found in
ALL
cells
*Selectively Permeable
*Regulates what enters and exits cells to maintain
homeostasis (balance)
*Called a Fluid Mosaic Model
Cell/Plasma Membrane
Cell Membrane Video
Phosphate
2 fatty acid tails
glycerol
Enzymes
SB1b.
Explain how enzymes function as catalysts ( a substance that increases the rate of a reaction without being used up/consumed in the reaction).
*
SOME WORK AT SPEEDS OF
40 MILLION
REACTIONS PER SECOND
!!!
Structure & Function
*
Enzymes:
-are proteins that
lower
activation
energy
of reactions
-are
catalysts
that
speed up
reactions...the
higher
the
concentration
of enzymes the
faster
the rate
(
think about how the # of cash registers open at walmart affects how fast line moves
)

-are
lock & key
, bind to specific substrates
-require
correct pH
and
temperature
to function properly...will change shape and become
denatured
without correct pH and temp.
-can be
used over and over
.
..are not used up in reactions.
-end in "
ase
"

(amyl
ase
, catal
ase
, lact
ase
)
Video
Enzymes and Energy
Reaction
WITHOUT
Enzymes
Reaction
WITH
Enzymes
It takes
LESS
energy to turn reactants/substrates into products
when
enzymes are present
!
Quiz
True or False?
1.Enzymes speed up reaction rate.
2.Enzymes can only bind to specific substrates.
3.Enzymes require correct ph & Temp?
4.Enzymes can be used more than once.
5.Enzymes end in "ose"
6.Enzymes increase reaction energy.
7.Enzymes are a type of carbohydrate.
Key: 1-4 TRUE, 5-7 FALSE
Enzymes and pH
Different enzymes require different
pH
s to function. When the
pH is
correct/
optimal
, enzyme
activity
is
high
because the shape of the enzyme fits the substrate. When the
pH
is
not
optimal
, enzyme
activity
is
lowered
because t
he enzyme shape is changed (denatured) and the substrate can no longer fit on the enzymes active site for the reaction to take place.

*
The pH in our mouths is 7. Amylase is an enzyme found in saliva in our mouths that breaks down starches. Our stomachs have a pH of 2. Pepsin is an enzyme that breaks down proteins in our stomachs.
Notice how the optimal pH for Amylase and Pepsin differ in the graph below!
When we swallow
amylase
in our saliva, does it continue to break down starches in our stomachs?
Why
or
Why

not
?
Enzymes and Temperature
Enzymes require
specific temperatures
to function. Enzymes become denatured (or change shape)
in the
wrong
temperature.
This prevents the substrate from being able to bind to the enzymes active site to make products.
*
Can you think of an organism that may contain enzymes that work best at
cold
temperatures?

*
What would the
relationship
be among having a
fever
,
lack of energy
, and
enzymes
?
SB1c.
Identify the function of the four major macromolecules (i.e., carbohydrates, proteins,
lipids, nucleic acids).
ALL CONTAIN CARBON:)
Organic Macromolecules
SB1d
. Explain the impact of water on life processes (i.e., osmosis, diffusion).
Water
Properties of Water
Video Review
*
Diffusion
-Movement of Molecules from HIGH to LOW Concentration
*
Osmosis
- Diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane.
Active vs Passive
Transport
Osmosis & Cells
Polarity
Unequal sharing of electrons between Hydrogen and Oxygen leads to water having a Positive End and a Negative End called Poles. In a sense, it makes water behave like mini-magnets and gives water special properties that make life as we know it possible:)
Water...
the Universal Solvent
*
Because of its polarity,
water
is able to dissolve substances so they can be
transported in our bodies to where they are needed.
*
For example, when salt (
Na
CL
) is added to
water
(
H
2
O
) it dissolves because the
O-

end of
water
is attracted to
Na+
and the
H+
end of water is attracted to
CL-
.

Other examples may include hydrolysis of proteins to amino acids or starches into simple sugars.
In the diagram, water molecules are the big red dots (
O
-) with attached white dots (
H
+)
Notice how how water
molecules separate
Na+
from
Cl-
to dissolve it!
Cohesion vs Adhesion
High Specific Heat
Less Dense as a Solid
Water
resists rapid changes in temperature because of the
hydrogen bonding
between water molecules as a result of its
polarity
. Remember...water molecules are sort of like little magnets and are attracted to each other.

Energy is required to break apart these "magnetic" hydrogen bonds before water molecules are able to

heat up, spread out, diffuse, and evaporate.
So.... it takes a lot of energy to change the temperature of water which helps regulate extreme temperature changes in the environment.
*
Don't forget
...organisms must have the
correct temperature for enzymes to function...
AND
...organisms like us are
over 60% water.....
SO
...water helps regulate
our temperature so our enzymes can work
to carry out reactions in our bodies:)


*
Adhesion involves the attraction of water molecules to other substances because of a greater force of attraction.
*
Cohesion involves attraction of water molecules to other water molecules because of its polarity.
Cohesion
Adhesion
BOTH
Water is more attracted to the sides of the graduated cylinder than it is to itself so it "climbs" up.
Creates
surface tension
allowing insects and
small objects to skim
on top
of
water
.
Also explains why
water
beads up...it is more attracted to itself than what it is on.
Because of its polarity, as water turns from a liquid to a solid, it becomes
less
dense...this means ice floats, making organisms that live in lakes and oceans very happy:)
Why?
Because
water

expands
when it
turns to ice
, bottles filled with water in the freezer will burst. In nature, the expanding of water
as it freezes
in the cracks of rocks
contributes to erosion
which
helps create soil
and the
cycling of nutrients
into the
ecosystem
.
Quiz
Movement of water into and out of cells depends on the concentration gradient
or difference in the concentration of solutes on either side of the cell membrane. As a result of osmosis, Water moves from high to low concentration.
Hypertonic = Higher
Solutes

Isotonic = Equal
Solutes

Hypotonic = Lower
Solutes
Animal Cells in Hypertonic Solutions shrink.
Animal Cells in Isotonic Solutions remain the same.
Animal Cells in Hypotonic solutions expand and
may possibly lyse(burst).
Isotonic
is
best
for
animal cells.
Similar events happen in plant cells, but the cell wall prevents the plant cell from lysing/bursting...AND...
Hypotonic
is best
for
plants
.
Why
?
Plants need
turgor pressure
to push on the cell walls to provide support to the plant...they do not have skeletons for support. This is why plants that are wilted or limp stand up after being watered:)
*
Notice the
NUCLEUS
&
MEMBRANE BOUND ORGANELLES
IN EACH TYPE OF
EUKARYOTIC CELL
!!!
*
Nucleoid is
made of free floating DNA
&
is
NOT
membrane bound.
*
Ribosomes
are organelles, but they are
NOT
membrane bound.
Carbohydrates
Lipids
Proteins
Nucleic Acids
*
ENERGY
-Sugars & Starches
*
Also used to make plant cell walls (Cellulose) and DNA nucleotides)
*
Contain
C
,
H
, &
O
*
end in
-ose
*
4
calories per gram
Monosaccharides
Disaccharides
Polysaccharides
*
Formula - C
6
H
12
O6
*
Examples

-
Glucose
&
Fructose
*
Small
enough to pass through cell membrane when cells need
energy
.
*
Formula - C
12
H
22
O
11
*
Examples -
Sucrose
&
Lactose
*
Must be broken down by
hydrolysis
&
enzymes
into monosaccharides to pass through cell membrane to be used as energy.
People that are lactose intolerant have enzymes that do not function properly so they are not able to break down lactose found in milk/dairy products!
Sucrose is common table sugar!
*
Formula - C
?
H
?
0
?
Number depends on size of starch.
*
Examples -
Starch
,
Cellulose
(plant cell walls/fiber),
Glycogen
(animals)
*
Must be broken down by
hydrolysis
&
enzymes
into monosaccharides to pass through cell membranes for energy
.
Hydroysis &
Dehydration Synthesis
http://nhscience.lonestar.edu/biol/dehydrat/dehydrat.html
*
Each of the 4 major macromolecules is a
polymer

made of
monomers
.
Carbs
are polymers made of
monosaccharide
monomers,
lipids
are polymers made of
fatty acids
monomers,
proteins
are polymers made of
amino acids
monomers, and
nucleic acids
are polymers made of
nucleotide
monomers.

*
Depending on the needs of our bodies, the polymers are either broken down by
hydrolysis
(w
ith water) in the presence of enzymes
OR
the monomers are linked together in the presence of enzymes by
dehydration synthesis
.

*
Example - When you need energy, polysaccharides are broken down by hydrolysis using enzymes into monosaccharides so they are small enough to be absorbed by cells. If cells are not in need of energy, monosaccharides are linked together by dehydration synthesis to make them too large for cells to absorb so they can be stored for later use.
Animation - Hydrolysis & Dehydration Synthesis
*
Long Term
Energy
Storage/Protection & Insulation of Organs - EX:
Triglycerides
*
Makeup

of

Cell Membranes -
Phospholipids
&
Cholesterol
*
Contain C, H, & O, but less O than carbs
*
9
calories per gram
Triglycerides
*
made of
3
fatty acids attached to a
glycerol
*
Can be saturated OR unsaturated
*
Saturated
- all carbon
-
carbon
single
bonds, solid at room temperature, can be
unhealthy
and
can

cause heart disease.
*
Un
saturated
- contain carbon
=
carbon
double
bonds, are liquid at room temp, and are
healthier
.
FATS - OILS - WAXES - CHOLESTEROL
Is this triglyceride Saturated or
Un
saturated?
Fatty Acids -->
Phospholipids
& Cholesterol
*
Phospholipids
form a
bilayer
because the polar phosphate heads are attracted to water and the lipid tails are not, creating a membrane that separates the inside of the cell from the environment.
*
Cholesterol

stabilizes
and
strengthens
the membrane.
Phospholipid
Cholesterol
Beginnings of a Phospholipid Bilayer
Notice that
Proteins
are also a
MAJOR
component of

the cell membrane...but proteins are a separate macromolecule and will be discussed in another section.
MacromoleculeVideo Review
*
Structural
Proteins include
muscles
,
tissues
, etc.
*
Functional
Proteins include
hormones
,
antibodies
,
enzymes
,
channel
and
receptor

proteins
in cell membranes, etc.
*
ALL proteins are made of
AMINO ACIDS.
..we require
20
different
kinds
of amino acids.
*
The
number
and
sequence
of amino acids
determines the type of protein
that will be formed....very similar to the way all the words we use are made from the 26 letters in the alphabet.
(DNA "tells" the amino acids the order they need to get in to form the protein your body needs at a particular time
...we will cover DNA later:
)
*
Contain C, H, O, N, S
*
4
calories per gram...our body will only use protein for energy after using all available carbs and lipids.
*
Formed by
dehyration synthesis
and broken down by
hydrolysis
.
Protein Formation
Amino Acids Structure
Examples of 4 of the 20 different Amino Acids
Carbon is GREAT backbone molecule and helps form a wide variety of molecules because it can form up to 4 separate bonds which allows it to form chains, branches, and rings.
*
Examples:
DNA
&
RNA
*
DNA

stores
genetic information to build proteins
*
RNA
helps
translate
the information in DNA into proteins.
*
Passive Transport
: NO ENERGY - molecules are moving
DOWN
a concentration gradient from
HIGH
to
LOW
concentration.
Examples
- Diffusion, Facilitated Diffusion & Osmosis.

*
Active Transport
: REQUIRES ENERGY - molecules are moving
AGAINST
a concentration gradient from
LOW
to
HIGH
concentration.
Examples
- Endocytosis, Exocytosis, & the Sodium Potassium Pump.
Facilitated Diffusion
True/False 1-10 Short Answer 11-12
1. Water is polar because of the unequal sharing of electrons between hydrogen and oxygen,
2. Hydrogen bonds are weak bonds that from between water molecules because of polarity.
3. Water is not a good solvent.
4. Water is not able to resist changes in temperature because of its polarity.
5. Ice is able to float because liquid water is less dense than the ice.
6. Animal cells will burst or "lyse" in a hypertonic solution.
7. Plasmolysis in plants cells takes place in hypotonic environments.
8. Tugor pressure increases inside plant cells in hypotonic environments.
9. Movement down a concentration gradient involves passive transport.
10. Endocytosis and facilitated diffusion require energy.
11. Explain what would happen to your cells if you were stranded in a raft in the ocean and you drank the ocean.
12. Explain why a unicellular animal like protist that lives in freshwater would need to have special organelles called contractile vacuoles that pump water?
KEY: 1
T
, 2
T
, 3
F
, 4
F
, 5
F
, 6
F
, 7
F
, 8
T
, 9
T
, 10
F
11. The ocean water would surround your cells with a hypertonic solution causing the water in your cells to move out leading to dehydration.
12. A protist in freshwater is surrounded by a hypotonic environment so water is constantly moving into its body by osmosis. Since it is animal like, it does not have a cell wall to keep it from bursting/lysing, so it has contractile vacuoles to pump out the excess water to keep it from bursting/lysing.
CELL THEORY:

1)
All life forms are made from one or more cells.
2)
Cells only arise from pre-existing cells.
3)
The cell is the smallest form of life.
For fast & efficient exchange of nutrients and wastes
Use light, can view living as well as dead specimens
Use electrons & magnets, can only view dead specimens,
HUGE magnification power
Prokaryotes
Prokaryotes - Bacteria & Archea (also called Archeabacteria)
Eukaryotes - every living thing that is NOT a bacteria
Much SMALLER
Cell membrane, cytoplasm, ribosomes, DNA
Eukaryotes
Cell Wall made of cellulose, large permanent central vacuole, plastids such as chloroplasts
Cell Membrane
Cytoplasm/sol
Ribosomes
DNA
Nucleus
Mitochondria
Lysosomes
Golgi
Smooth ER
Rough ER
Vesicles
Bacteria
Archaea
Protists
Fungi
Plants
Animals
NOTICE THAT
EUKARYOTES
ARE MUCH
MORE COMPLEX
AND ARE FOUND IN MANY MORE LIVING THINGS THAN PROKARYOTES.
Full transcript