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Art History Timline
Transcript of Art History Timline
The definition of art is the expression or application of human creative skill and imagination, typically in a visual form such as painting or sculpture, producing works to be appreciated primarily for their beauty or emotional power.
NEOLITHIC ART/PREHISTORIC (40,000 - 10,000 BC)
Reasons why society has devoted so much attention and resources to cave art is it has provided entertainment, excitement, spiritual relief, and added knowledge of prehistoric times. In a time period where few innovations were made, the development of art was proof that life was not frozen.
In each period of art, there are obvious similarities and distinguishable differences. No two artists were exactly the same, but many were classified as masters of there trade. A painting such as Napoleon Bonaparte being crowned can be just as famous as a painting of a mother and child.
ARCHITECTURE OF ANCIENT GREECE AND ROME
(900 BC to 1st century AD)
Cave art is engraved or painted works on rocks or floors, walls, and ceilings of caves. This is the first and longest lasting art humans have ever made.
Cave art can depict hands, animals of different species (some being extinct like the wholly mammoth), geometric figures, and signs.
One example of prehistoric art is Stonehenge, monument located in Salisbury, England. It was started 5,000 years ago and modified by ancient Britons over a period of 1,000 years.
No one knows why ancient people built Stonehenge, but it seems to have been arranged to face the midsummer sunrise and midwinter sunset.
There is a legend that the wizard Merlin cast a spell on the rocks to make them as light as feathers for easy transport
The name of AWLOLNATION's album was Megalitihic Symphony. Megalithic means relating to prehistoric monuments.
MIDDLE EASTERN TEMPLE ARCHITECTURE
Dome of the Rock is a muslim shrine in Jerusalem in 688-691 AD. It holds some of the oldest mosaics and mathematical rhythms. It is believed to be built over a sacred stone which is thought to be the place where the Prophet Muhammad ascended into heaven during his Night Journey. Others believe it is the temple of Solomon.
Asian Art (Beg. 10,000 BC)
The Renaissance (1400-1500)
The Minaret Tower is a tall building attached to a mosque which has projecting balconies to lead prayer.
The Virupaksha Temple is the oldest temple still used in active worship. Built by Lokamahadevi, the Queen of Vikaramaditya II in about A.D.740 to commemorate her husband’s victory over the Pallavas of Kanchipuram.
The Liurong Temple is 1400 years old and located in China. 17 story pagoda, the Hua Ta or Flower Pagoda which is 58 meters (190ft) high. The wooden pagoda was built in the 11th century and features beautiful carvings and balconies.
Calligraphy is decorative handwriting. Chinese Calligraphy is different because of its cultural arts; they emphasize motion and are charged with dynamic life.
Woodblock printing had been used in China for centuries to print books, long before movable type printing. To make the printing, first, the picture is drawn onto washi (Japanese paper), then glued face-down onto a plank of wood. After this, the excess wood is cut off. Then a barren is used to burnish the image onto the paper. At first, pictures would be monochrome, but over time, color has been added such as:
Sumizuri-e ("ink printed pictures")—monochrome printing using only black ink
Benizuri-e ("crimson printed pictures")—red ink details or highlights added by hand after the printing process；green was sometimes used as well
Tan-e —orange highlights using a red pigment called tan
Aizuri-e ("indigo printed pictures"), Murasaki-e (紫絵?, "purple pictures"), and other styles in which a single color was used in addition to, or instead of, black ink
The ancient socitey of China influenced art to help express their culture and heritage
Greek Society was split between free people and slaves. Slaves, sometimes prisoners of war, were used as servants and laborers, without any legal rights. Although many slaves lived closely with their owners, few were skilled or payed.
As society evolved, free men were divided into Citizens and Metics. The powerful group, the citizen, was born with Athenian parents. Citizens could take part in the government of the Polis. After service in the army they were expected to be government officials and take part in Jury Service. A Metic was someone who migrated to Athens, to either trade or practice a craft. A Metic had to pay taxes and sometimes required to serve in the army. But, Metics could never achieve full rights of a Citizen, or own houses, own land, and were not allowed to speak in law courts.
Women had no status.
Religion, such as greek gods helped influence Greek architecture. Many temples were built as a place for worship or offerings.
The Parthenon is the main temple of the goddess Athena; built on the acropolis in Athens more than 400 years B.C.; example of Doric architecture. Parthenon is regarded as an enduring symbol of Ancient Greece, Athenian democracy, western civilization, and one of the world's greatest cultural monuments
A frieze is a broad horizontal band of sculpted or painted decoration, normally found on the top of a wall.
The Romans were innovators who created things we still use today like aqueducts (an artificial channel for conveying water, typically in the form of a bridge supported by tall columns across a valley.), concrete, newspapers, welfare, bound books, roads and highways, arches, vaults, domes, the julian calendar, legal terms, and surgical tools.
The Colosseum is an amphitheatre in the center of the city of Rome, Italy. Built of concrete and stone, it was the largest amphitheatre of the Roman Empire, and is considered one of the greatest works of Roman architecture and engineering.
By Elshadai Smith-Mensah
In the Renaissance, there was a cultural movement towards the classical Greek and Romans. But jobs for most remained the same. Common people were farmers or craftsmen.
Jan van Eyck was a Flemish painter who is considered one of the most significant Northern European painters of the 15th century.
Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni was an Italian sculptor, painter, architect, poet, and engineer of the High Renaissance who influenced the development of Western art.
Filippo Lippi was an Italian painter of the Italian Quattrocento (15th century).
Leonardo da Vinci was an Italian Renaissance intellectual: painter, sculptor, architect, musician, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, geologist, cartographer, botanist, and writer. He is also known as the original Renaissance man.
Sandro Botticelli, was an Italian painter of the Early Renaissance. Botticelli was also the father of Filippo Lippi.
By Lenoardo Da Vinci
By Filippo Lippi
The 17th Century is the era of the Baroque style, characterized by energy, drama, and movement.
The Church remained a major patron of religious images, But in the Protestant Dutch Republic, artists painted an expanded range subjects like still-lifes, landscapes and genre paintings for the middle class.
Art from the Baroque Era were very elaborate. Techniques like chiaroscuro were being used. Chiaroscuro is the treatment of light and shade in drawing and painting.
Baroque Era (1600-1700)
Rembrandt van Rijn was a Dutch painter and etcher. He is considered one of the greatest painters and printmakers in European art and the most important in Dutch history.
Michelangelo Caravaggio was an Italian artist in Rome, Naples, Malta, and Sicily between 1592 and 1610.
Neo-Classical (18th century)
Neo-Classissm is a movement that started in France in the mid-seventeenth century. It was a backlash on the Renaissance
This time period was called the Age of Reason, limiting the aspirations of many. Both religious belief and morality were grounded on reason: revelation and grace were de-emphasized.
Neo-Classical artists expected people to conform to established social norms.
Jacques-Louis David was an influential French painter in the Neoclassical style. He was considered to be the outstanding painter of the era.
Founding father, Thomas Jefferson looked towards Neoclassism to build our new nation after the American Revolution. Washington DC is a perfect example of Neo-Classicism.
Romantic Era (18th Century)
The generation of revolution, wars, stress, and upheaval had produced doubts on the security of the age of reason. Hope and optimism of the 18th century came to replace it.
People started paying attention to libertarianism, nature, love, suspicion, and eternity.
Romanticism was a literary movement that swept through every country of Europe, the United States, and Latin America
John Constable was an English Romantic painter.
Francisco Goya was a Spanish romantic painter and print maker regarded both as the last of the Old Masters and the first of the moderns.
REALISM (mid-19th century)
Realism was a backlash on Romanticism.
Realism depicted "Real Life" such as laborers and ordinary situations.
After the French Revolution, people rejected the exotic and exaggerated drama of the Romantic movement. People now valued truth and accuracy, and did not overlook unpleasant aspects of life.
Realism showed all classes, and would present situations that affected everyone like the Industrial and Commercial Revolution
Gustave Courbet was a French painter who led the Realist movement in 19th-century French painting.
Édouard Manet was a French realism painter who painted modern life, and was a pivotal figure in the transition from Realism to Impressionism
Impressionists painted contemporary landscapes and scenes of modern life, especially of bourgeoisie leisure and recreation.
Impressionists paid attention to the fleeting effect of light, atmosphere and movement.
They painted en plein air (in the open air) and used a palette of pure colors
The term Impressionism is used to describe a group of painters living in Paris who worked between c. 1860 and 1900.
Post-Impression was the backlash of Impressionism rejecting concern with the spontaneous and naturalistic rendering of light and color, but favoring an emphasis on more symbolic content, formal order and structure
Claude Monet was a founder of French Impressionist painting, expressed one's perceptions before nature, especially as applied to plein-air landscape painting.
Mary Stevenson Cassatt was an American painter and printmaker impressionist. She lived much of her adult life in France, which influenced her art.
Vincent van Gogh was a post-Impressionist painter of Dutch origin whose work, notable for its rough beauty, emotional honesty and bold color, had a far-reaching influence on 20th-century art
Auguste Rodin, was a French sculptor. Although Rodin is considered the progenitor of modern sculpture, he did not go out to rebel against the past.
Dome of the Rock
MODERN EUROPEAN ART 1907-1960
Modern art began in the early 20th century. Normally called the era of experimentation leaning towards abstraction than narratives like centuries before.
was a modernist movement that presents the world solely from a subjective perspective, distorting paintings for emotional effect in order to express ideas. Expressionists substitute emotional experience rather than physical reality.
has been considered the most influential art movement of the 20th century. In Cubism, objects are analyzed, broken up and shown in an abstract form—instead of showing the subject from one viewpoint, the artist depicts the subject from many viewpoints.
work revolved around rejecting prior art standards through anti-art cultural works. Many techniques used were collages, postmontage, assemblage, and readymades.
's goal was "resolve the previously contradictory conditions of dream and reality." These works feature the element of surprise, brings together opposite things, and quirkiness.
Egon Schiele was an Austrian figurative painter. His work is noted for its intensity, and the many self-portraits the artist produced
Ernst Ludwig Kirchner was a German expressionist painter and printmaker and one of the founders of the artists group Die Brücke or "The Bridge", a key group leading to the foundation of Expressionism.
Jean Metzinger was a major 20th-century French painter, theorist, writer, critic and poet who developed the art style known as Cubism
Robert Delaunay was a French artist who, with his wife Sonia Delaunay created the Orphism art movement, noted for its use of strong colors and geometric shapes. His later works were more abstract.
was a well known Spanish painter born in Figueres, in the Catalonia region of Spain.
Dalí was a skilled draftsman, known for the striking and bizarre images in his dada and surrealist work.
Francis Picabia was a French painter, poet, and typographist, associated with Cubism, Abstract art, Dada and Surrealism.
René Magritte was a Belgian surrealist artist. He became well known for a number of witty and thought-provoking images that fall under the umbrella of surrealism.
André Breton was a French writer and poet. He is known best as the founder of Surrealism.
MODERN AMERICAN ART (1920- present)
American artists now favored works for mixed media.
Pop artists reproduced popular, everyday items.
Realism is still popular (city streets).
Frank Lloyd Wright, from Richland Center, WI, was an American architect and interior designer who designed more than 1000 structures and completed 532 works. He was known for incorporating nature into his unique architectural designs.
Dorothea Lange, from Hoboken, NJ, was an influential American documentary photographer and photojournalist, best known for her Depression-era work for the Farm Security Administration.
Roy Lichtenstein, from Pittsburg, Pa, was an American pop artist. He was known for his style of pop culture, comic books, and advertising
Andy Warhol, from Pittsburg Pa, was an American artist who was a leading figure in the visual art movement known as pop art. He is known for his artistic expression, celebrity culture and advertisement.
Jacob Lawrence, from Atlantic City, New Jersey, is among the best-known 20th-century African-American painters. He is known for his set the Migration Series.
Georgia O'Keeffe was an American artist. Born near Sun Prairie, Wisconsin, he gained attention in New York and is known as the Mother of Modern Art.
Women would either help her father or husband, be a servant, or apprentice another trade.
The upper class would marry young, mostly due to arranged marriages.
Unlike the Medieval ages, kids were being taught to appreciate the arts.
Art served a specific purpose. Artists would look for rich patrons to paint for whether it was the church or the upper class.
Through history, people have created art as a tool, whether it be a way of survival, communication, persuading a cause, or just a creative way of documenting an event.
In this presentation, we will see how art has managed to evolve through history and discover the result of human creativity.