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Transcript of Social Studies
Chapter 16 Sections 1-3
In 1861 seven states left the Union to join the Confederacy
The Confederacy chose Richmond, Virginia for their capital, the Union chose Washington D.C.
They were only about 100 miles apart.
The border states were Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, and Delaware.
The border states were the states who were having trouble choosing between the North and the South. They were on the brink of secession (or joining the South). That is why they are light blue on the map.
Loosing the border states would seriously damage the North
Lincoln had to move cautious so he wouldn't upset the border states. In some ways he acted boldly like when arresting people who supported the secession.
There were pockets in the South that still supported the Union. West Virginia was formed because they wanted to join the Union, and the rest of Virginia didn't.
Comparing North and South
*More abundant resources
*Better banking system
*Possessed more ships
Strengths and Weaknesses
*Larger and more efficient railway network
*Bringing southern states back into Union
*Military leadership at first
*Many people thought the weaker states would win like in the Revolutionary War
*Strong support in white population
*Fighting in a familiar territory
*Smaller population of free men
*Few factories to manufacture weapons
*With less railroad they South had difficulty delivering food, weapons, and other supplies to their troops
*The South's belief in strong states made it difficult for the government to fight the war effectively
War Goals and Strategies
Recognition as an Independent Nation
*Blockades to close ports
*Gain control of Mississippi to cut supply lines and split Confederacy
*Capture the capital (Richmond, Virginia)
*Defend the homeland to keep as much territory as possible
*Get Britain or France to persuade Union to stop fighting so they can have cotton
*Sometimes they took offense to try to get the North to think they will not win
American People at War
American Against American
*Families and friends were broken by the war
Who Were The Soldiers?
*They were young (the average was 25 years old)
*The Confederate soldiers were called rebels
*The Union soldiers were called Yankees
*Soldiers who joined the army thought the war would be over in a year
First Battle of Bull Run
*The Union army was lead by General Irvin McDowell
He attacked Confederate General Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson
-The Union attacked. They drove the rebels back. The rebels came at the Yankees using a strange unearthly scream . Then the Confederate reinforcements came. The Yankees freaked out and ran home in a stampede.
Surprise to the North
*The North were shocked when they lost
*Lincoln requested more soldiers
*He requested more volunteers
*He appointed a new general
War At Sea
* Before Bull Run, Lincoln issued the blockade of the Southern ports
*The North didn't have enough ships to blockade 3,500 miles of coastline
*There were rebels who were blockade runners
*The Merrimack was a naval ship (ironclad) the South salvaged from their defeat in Norfolk, Virginia
*In March of 1862 the confederate soldiers attacked a group of Yankee ships
*The North didn't stand a chance because all their bombs bounced off the shell of the ship
*The South had it's own ironclad called the Monitor
*The two ships fought in battle, the North scared the South by holding them back
War in the West
*The Battle of Bull Run put the East in a stalemate
Early Victories for the North
*The west was where the Union was trying to take control of the Mississippi
*The Union launched the operations where the Ohio and Mississippi River meet in Cairo, Illinois
*Grant attacked capturing Fort Henry, and later Fort Donelson.
The Battle of Shiloh
*Day 1 was called hornet's nest because everyone was unprepared and fired shots at random, and the Union almost came to surrender
*Additional Union forces joined Grant to defeat Confederates with 20,000 casualties
New Orleans Falls
*The Union received another victory under General Farragut who captured New Orleans
War in the East
*McClellan trained his troops well and hesitated to fight, he finally decided to try an capture the Confederate capital
*He slowly went to Richmond giving time for Confederates to prepare, and the confederates surrounded the army and pushed them to the James River
*The loss made Lincoln order McClellan to join Pope in Manassas against Lee to have the Second Battle of Bull Run, which ended in a Confederate victory
Battle of Antietam
*Lee was ordered by the Confederate President Jefferson Davis to attack the Union in Maryland
*The Union had a stroke of luck because they found a cigar with Lee's plans wrapped around it
*Both armies retreated from the bloodiest battle but union was considered to win
*McClellan didn't follow up his victory and Lincoln put Ambrose Burnside in command
African Americans in the War
*Lincoln's goal was to preserve the Union and prevent the expansion of slavery
*Lincoln once said...
to figure out that the
slaves in the South were helping with the dirty work
*As early as May 1861 salves were running to the Union territory
*On January 1, 1863 Lincoln signed the Emancipation Proclamation to free all slaves
Effects of the Emancipation Proclamation
*The proclamation made France and Britain withdraw from helping the South
*It didn't actually free any slaves (because it only applied to the area the Confederacy controlled)
*In 1865 Congress passed the Thirteenth Amendment to truly free the slaves
*Early in the war slaves couldn't join the army, but the Proclamation allowed them to
*At the beginning of the war 3.5 million enslaved people, and by the end of the war 1/6 had escaped to the North
*The South feared a slave rebellion and didn't allow the slaves to fight for the South
Desperate Times call for Desperate Measures
*Robert E. Lee became desperate near the end of the war and allowed slaves to enlist in the army
In the South
In the North
*At the start of the war African Americans couldn't serve in the army
*They found other ways to give the North some help, like Harriet Tubman
*Harriet Tubman was the women who created the Underground railroad and helped thousands of slaves to freedom
*She helped the Union by giving them a way to spy on the Confederates
*In 1862 they were able to join, but receive lower pay
*Protests led to equal pay in 1864
*Lincoln faced some criticism about letting them fight but he believed they would strengthen the Union
*37,000 African Americans lost their lives
1.What was the Confederate's nickname?
2.Who was the Union's president?
A) Abe Lincoln
B) Barack Obama
C) Hillary Clinton
3.Harriet Tubman lead the Underground Railroad.
4. The Confederates had a president.
5. There were two battles of Bull Run.
Battle of Bull Run:
Robert E. Lee