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World Geo Review
Transcript of World Geo Review
expressed by a coordinate system. Realtive Location: A location of a place
in relation to another, i.e. we live in the Midwest. Longitude: Also known as meridians. They run from the North Pole to the South Pole, but measure East and West (Prime Meridian and International Dateline.) Latitude: Also known as parallels. Lines that run East and West, but measure North and South (Arctic Circle, Tropic of Cancer, Equator, Tropic of Capricorn, and Antarctic Circle.) The Five Themes of Geography: An educational framework for teaching Geography. http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_are_the_five_themes_of_geography World Geography - Semester Review Chapter 1 - Studying Geography Symbols: Also known as a key or legand. A character, letter, or similar graphic representation used on a map to indicate some object. Compass Rose: A graduate circle indicating directions. Is used to determine directions. Cardinal Directions: North, South, East, and West Intercardinal Directions: NorthEast - NE, SouthEast - SE,
NorthWest - NW, and SouthWest - SW Secondary Intercardinal: NNE, ENE, ESE, SSE,
SSW, WSW, WNW, and NNW Map Projections:
1. A projection of a glode onto a flat map.
1. A misrepresentation of a shape or area.
2. The only accurate representation of the Earth is a globe.
3. The four distortions are: shape, area, distance and direction. Chapter 2 - Earth in Space Tropic of Cancer: 23 1/2 degrees North latitude Tropic of Capricorn: 23 1/2 degrees South latitude Summer Solstice:
1. Northern Hemisphere - it occurs when the sun directly hits the Tropic of Cancer - June 21
2. Southern Hemisphere - it occurs when the sun directly hits the Tropic of Capricorn - December 21 Winter Solstice:
1. Northern Hemisphere - it occurs when the axial tilt is farthest away from the sun - it occurs on December 21
2. Southern Hemisphere - it occurs when the axial tilt is farthest away from the sun - it occurs on June 21. Equinox: It occurs two times a year when the Earth's axis is equal - the two days are September 21 and March 21. Earth's Four Hemispheres:
Western Chapter 3 - Weather and Climate Weather: The state of the atmospere at a given time and place with respect to temperature, moisture, wind direction and velocity, and barametric pressure. Climate: The weather conditions prevailing
in an area over a long period of time. Climate Regions: Classifying Earth's regions according to similar climates. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Climate El Nino: Is defined by a prolonged difference in the surface temperature in the Pacific Ocean (South Dakota usually has warmer than average winters as a result.) Greenhouse Effect: The process in
which Earth traps heat energy. Rain Shadow (Orographic Effect): Is the dry area on the lee side of the mountainous area.
Windward: Is the sloped side of the mountain
that is colder and gets more rain.
Leeward: Is the opposite side of the mountain,
which is drier. Latitude Zones:
1. Low (Tropic) - the most consistant daily amount of sunshine
2. Middle (Temperate) - between the low and high zones and experience four seasons
3. High (Polar) - above the middle latitude and experiences the greatest extremes Global Wind Belts: Is the global wind pattern
and surface winds.
Three Surface Patterns:
1. Low latitude - Tropical Easterlies
2. Middle Latitude - Prevailing Westerlies
3. High Latitude - Polar Easterlies Chapter 4 - Landforms, Water, and Natural Resources Landforms: A natural feature
of the Earth's surface. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Landform Plate Techtonics: The Earth is covered by large
plates moving independently of each other. Earth's Four Spheres:
1. Atmosphere - gases that surround Earth (Nitrogen and oxygen are most gases)
2. Lithosphere - Earth's solid crust (Continents and Ocean Basins)
3. Hydrosphere - Earth's water (70% of Earth's surface - 97% Saltwater and 3% Freshwater)
4. Biosphere - Earth's lifeforms (includes all living things - people, animals, and plants) Types of Plate Movement:
1. Subduction (convergent) - plates colliding with each other
ex. Himalayan Mountains and Andes Mountains
2. Spreading - (divergent) - plates pulling away from each other
ex. Africa's Rift Valley
3. Translation - sliding alongside each other - ex. San Andreas Fault Four Major Types of Landforms:
4. Plateaus Climate Graphs: Is a chart that shows what the weather is like in a certain place. Groundwater: The source for most groundwater is rain filtering through the soil. Groundwater is freshwater. Water Cycle: Regular movement of water
from ocean to atmosphere to ground to ocean. Freshwater Supply - 3% of all water is freshwater Desalination: A very expensive process that
turns saltwater (ocean water) into freshwater. Desertification: The process of spreading desert(arid - less than 10 inches of rain) land caused by human activities and drought. Deforestation: The loss or destruction of forested
lands caused by farming, roads and wood products. Fossil Fuel: Is a nonrenewable resource
i.e. elements that are lost when they are used.
An example would be coal, oil or natural gas. Renewable Resource: Elements that are destroyed, but are capable of replacing themselves in a short time.
An example would be trees. Pollution: The release of unclean or impure elements into the air, water and/or land.
The main cause of of air pollution is the burning of fossil fuels. Glaciation: Most natural lakes have been
created as a result of glaciation (moving glaciers). Weathering: The breaking down of rock
material by chemical and physical actions. Erosion: The movement of weathered material.
Can be caused by wind, water and glaciers. Chapter 5 - Human Geography Current World Population: The world population
is currently growing larger due to higher birth
rates in many developing countries. The current world population is 7 billion. Rate of Natural Population Increase: The annual birth
rate is greater than the death rate. Zero Population Growth: The birth
rate is equal to the death rate. Population Density: The average number of people per square mile. Population Pyramids: A chart that shows age
and gender distribution for a country's population. Birth Rate: The number of live births
per thousand of population per year.
Death Rate: The number of deaths
per thousand of population per year. Migration: Is the movement of
people from place to place. First Civilization: Known as cultural hearths or early centers of civilization, usually located by a body of water. Mesopotamia (modern day Middle East) is one of the first. Culture: Is a way of life of a group with common traditions, interests and beliefs.
Language is the one common factor that ties a culture together. The most commonly spoken language is Mandirin Chinese. 1.4 billion people speak Mandarin Chinese. Culture Diffusion: The spreading of knowledge and customs from one culture to another. This could include people, ideas, practices and goods. World Religions: The major groups are Christianity,
Hinduism, Judaism, Islam, and Buddhism. Christianity: Follows the teachings of Jesus. Roman Catholic, Protestantism, and Eastern Orthodox are three main groups.
Jerusalum is considered to be the sacred city for Christianity.
It also has the largest number of followers. Hinduism: The largest number of Hindus are in the country of India. They believe in reincarnation. Judaism: Considers Jerusalum a holy city. Many of their followers live in the country of Israel. Their sacred book is called the Torah. Islam: The fastest growing religion in the world. It to believes Jerusalem is a holy city. The book of Qur'an is the sacred text for the followers of Islam. The five pillars of Islam are:
1. Allah is God
2. Daily Prayer
3. Fasting - Ramadan
5. Pilgrimage to Mecca - Hajj Buddhism: A religion based on the traditions, beliefs, and practices based
on the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama. Chapter 6 - Human Systems Traits of a Developed Countries:
1. Produces large quantities of goods and services
2. Low birth rate and death rate
3. An aging population - majority are 25 and older
4. Usually adequate food, clothing, and housing supply Economic Systems: There are three (four) main economic systems in the world. Traditional: The habit and custom determine the rules for economic activity. Individuals are not free to make decisions. Market(Capitalist): Individuals and private groups make decisons about what to produce. Command Economy(Communist): The government owns or directs the means of production and controls the distribution of goods. OPEC: Is an economic alliance that stands for Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries and was formed to control the production and price of oil.