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Archetypes in Hamlet
Transcript of Archetypes in Hamlet
Archetypes as a Literary Criticism
"The Mystery of Hamlet: Notes Toward an Archetypal Solution" by Robert Ornstein
What is an Archetype?
Archetypal literary criticism examines how text rely on archaic patterns for their meaning.
Aristotle`s View of Tragedy
“A tragedy is the imitation of an action that is serious and also, as having
magnitude, complete in itself; in appropriate and pleasurable language;...
rather than narrative form; with incidents
arousing pity and fear
accomplish a catharsis of these emotions.”
The Road Back
The hero has served his purpose for the journey but must now make the decision to complete it for a higher cause; returning to the ordinary world or for personal cause; staying in the special world .
Tests, Allies, Enemies
“Ay, sir, that soaks up the king’s countenance, his rewards, his authorities. But such officers do the king best service in the end. He keeps them, like an ape, in the corner of his jaw, first mouthed to be last swallowed. When he needs what you have gleaned, it is but squeezing you and, sponge, you shall be dry again.” (IV.ii.16-22)
The hero has overcome the great ordeal and has avoided evaded death or failure. For this the hero earns reward which comes in various forms. The manner in which this reward is claimed might have consequences.
“If your mind dislike anything, obey it: I will forestall their repair hither, and say you are not fit.” (V.ii.208-209)
Refusal of the Call
The refusal of the call is when the hero may question or refuse to answer the call due to many reason such as uncertanty, fear, and insecurity.
“To be ,or not to be: that is the question” (III.i.57)
The ordinary world is the situation and the environment that the hero is living in.
Meeting the Mentor
This stage is where the hero comes across an elder who would provide assistance or knowledge to the hero.
It can also be the hero finding wisdom within themselves.
"The serpent that did sting thy father's life
Now wears his crown." (I.v.39-40)
The Hero faces the Resurrection, his most dangerous meeting with death.
By the hero’s action, the polarities that were in conflict at the beginning are finally resolved.
Call To Adventure
The call begins in the ordinary world and the hero receives a piece of information from a source which will lead to take on an adventure or quest.
"Let not the royal bed of Denmark be/A couch for luxury and damned incest./But, howsoever thou pursuest this act,/Taint not thy mind, nor let thy soul contrive” (I.v.82-93)
Crossing the Threshold
Crossing the threshold is when the hero takes action and commits to the journey.
"How now! a rat? Dead, for a ucat, dead!" (III.iv.25)
Approach to the Inmost Cave
“Let the king have the letters I have sent; and repair thou to me with as much haste as thou wouldst fly death. I have words to speak in thine ear will make thee dumb; yet are they much too light for the bore of the matter. These good fellows will bring thee where I am. Rosencrantz and Guildenstern hold their course for England: of them I have much to tell thee. Farewell. He that thou knowest thine, HAMLET.” (IV.vi.21-30)
Return With the Elixir
The hero returns home or continues the journey, bearing some element of the treasure that has the power to transform the world as the hero has been transformed.
The hero engages the ordeal that started this long journey. Here great challenges and life or death experiences must be met in which the hero is on the brink of failure.
“Here, thou incestuous, murderous, damned Dane, Drink off this potion. Is thy union here? Follow my mother.” (V.ii.317-319)
The 7 Archetypes of The Hero`s Journey
C. G. Jung
“My lord, I think I saw him yesternight” (I ii L189)
“Do not forget: this visitation is but to whet thy almost blunted purpose” (III iv L112-113).
“Sir, I lack advancement” (III iii L331)
“My words fly up, my thoughts remain below: words without thoughts never to heaven go” (III iii L99)
“These tedious old fools!” (II ii L218)
Hamlet is an example of the Juvenile Delinquent Archetype
: Conversations, Asides, Soliloquies
: Iambic Pentameter
Melody and Spectacle
: Trupet Flourishes, Enterences, Exeunts
: "Character should act apppriately...have believable personality [and] act consistently" (Dernbach, 3)
: Peripety, Discovery, Evil Deed
Characteristics of a Tragic Hero
He is a Prince
: Hamlet's melancholy causes him to procrastinate “I have of late –wherefore I know not –lost all my mirth, forgone all custom of exercise” (II ii L295-297).
: to avenge Old Hamlet
The Punishment Exceeds the Crime
: Ophelia, Rosencrantz, Guildenstern, Gertrude & Laertes
The Hero has Increased Awareness
: after Hamlet is injured “the king, the king’s to blame” (V ii L313)
Produces Catharsis in Audience
:audience xperiences the emotions of the tragic action.
The Hero’s journey, formally known as monomyth is an archetype in literature developed by Joseph Campbell. This archetype comprises off 17 steps but, there are many variations.
-model and pattern that are seen in literature that can be seen in older text
-Different literary criticisms have been used
-7 different archetypes of the hero's journey
-12 different stages of the hero's journey
The 12 Steps