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Transcript of The women
Anglo Saxon Religion and Culture
Norse Mythology and Gods
Christian Influences and Connections
Monsters/ Green Men/ Dragons
There are two tribes of Gods in the Nordic Polytheism, The Aesir and The Vanir
Odin: The Allfather
Thor: God of Thunder
Loki: Trickster God
Hel: Goddess of Death
Frigg: Wife of Odin
Heimdal: Bifrost Gatekeeper
Baldur: The Beloved God
Bragi: The Wise Poet God
Tyr: Minor War God
Ragnarok: Mythical Cycle
The Anglo Saxons believed that the fate, which they called Wyrd, decided who was going to live and who was going to die.
In a world full of blood feuds and wars death was more than just a fact of life; it was a way of life. Anglo Saxons believed the dead needed to be buried with some of their worldly possessions, they believed these would be needed in the afterlife.
-they were near equal companions to male
In old Norse the word “rune” means “letter” or “text” but in Old Germanic can mean “mystery” or “secret”.
• There are some ideas on the origin of runes, these include:
The alphabet was created independently rather than evolving from some other alphabet.
Runic writing was probably first used in southern Europe and was carried north by Germanic tribes.
The runic alphabet is thought to have been modeled on the Latin and/or Etruscan alphabet.
jobs: little physical work
ex: cheese makers, dairymaids, bakers(not cooks)
-female slaves were corn grinders, serving maids, wet nurses, weavers and seamstresses
-woman ladies and queens always serve drinks for company and family while the men prepared the food
Types of Inscriptions
The earliest runic inscriptions date from the 1st century AD but most date from the 11th century. These inscriptions are found in Balkans, Germany, Scandinavia, and the British isles.
The direction of the letters in the runes differ, later on the eventually lead to a left or right pattern.
Word divisions are not regularly used but one or more dots are occasionally seen.
Graffiti and rude messages can be seen on cliff walls, large rocks and, buildings saying things like “Beowulf was here” .
Grave stones can have inscriptions left by the carver and who was buried. Later these stones had Christian texts carved in.
Economic and trade runes, often written on sticks would talk about stock orders, description, excuses for not having paid, tags for certain things etc. There too were political scribing things of intrigue such as secret messages between historical figures.
Love letters, proposals, greetings.
On art written by goldsmiths, blacksmiths, wood carvers, church builders. Would have their name or the objects name written on it.
Types of Inscriptions
-gender was influenced by status,religion, sexuality and solid stance in society.
sexual assaults where penalized based on your status.
-being abused by your husband was normal it was a way to show who was still in charge of the family.
He is a "lone-walker" -- not part of a comitatus.
He kills and he uses no weapon in battle -- while all other warriors practically have names for theirs.
He has no father -- while everyone else introduces himself as "son of" someone.
He is described repeatedly in terms of deprivation and negatives.
In the fight between Grendel and Beowulf, confusing pronouns as to who is gripping whose arm suggest a döppleganger effect -- a doubling. These two are two sides of the same coin, and the coin is "warrior." In other words, Grendel represents everything a warrior should not be, or functions as the cumulative opposite of all Anglo-Saxon warrior virtues.
We hear some material after the battle with Grendel that introduces the female perspective.
We also hear about a grieving woman whose offspring have been murdered. So Grendel's mother's perspective is alluded to very obliquely.
Captures Hrothgar's favorite warrior so however arbitary that seems to have been in terms of her attack, she is functioning essentially in a blood-feud. Beowulf becomes the invader into her hall just as Grendel was in Heorot.
We hear a term for 50 years especially in reference to Beowulf's kingship and to the time the dragon has guarded its hoard.
Beowulf is the king -- the "ring-giver" who distributes treasure captured in battle to his thanes in accordance with their deserts.
Good kings are ring-givers and bad kings are miserly.
The dragon functions then as the opposite of a good king because it guards the trreasure but can do nothing with it. It represents malice, destruction, and greed -- the dark side of kingship.
So it's another döppleganger situation in effect. Both the dragon and Beowulf die in this final battle, and the last images are those of waste and desolation.
When Beowulf is defending his reputation from Unferth's accusations in front of Hrothgar and the rest, he mentions having to fend off "niceras" -- sea-monsters.
Barghests (or black dogs) are evil creatures who appear as huge black dogs or hounds, as large as a calf. They can move silently in the night, some can shape-shift and appear as different creatures. These terrifying dogs are often linked to certain roads, gates or locations near water.
Dweorgar ( or dwarves or dwarfs) are usually described as ugly, often bad tempered and occasionally evil.
Dwarves are talented at making magical items and artifacts.
They created many of the powerful artifacts made by the gods such as the Brisingammen of Freya.
Hospitality come with reciprocity which is the practice of exchanging things with others for mutual benefit. Also celebrated with public celebrations where food, drinks, and words are shared and exchanged.
Asgard: Enclosure of the Aesir
Midgard: Middle Enclosure
Vanaheim: Home of the Vanir
Alfheim: Home of the Elves
Svartalfheim: Home of the Dwarves
Jotunheim: Home of the Giants
Niflheim (Niflhel): Land of Ice
Muspelheim: Land of Fire
Hel: Home of Goddess Hel and Land of the Dead
Reputation: the beliefs or opinions that are generally held about someone or something.
Reputation is a big issue because, it represents on who you are and how people look at you.
Having a good reputation ensured that long after you die the birth name will be an official heroic figure in history.
they had a bible that only educated members of the clergy
they had a bible that only educated members of the clergy were able to have and get. it was writen in latin or old english. it began in AD 597 influenced by celtic christianity from the north west and the roman church from the south east.
Having an outstanding reputation was important in aspect of life.
they were christians