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2013 IB 12 Advertising (Selling Stuff)

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Nicole Kronzer

on 23 May 2018

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Transcript of 2013 IB 12 Advertising (Selling Stuff)

"Magnavox gives you more." More what?
"Coffee-mate gives coffee more body, more flavor."
(Also note that "body" and "flavor" are weasels.)
"You can be sure if it's Westinghouse." Sure of what?
"Ford LTD--700% quieter."
(When the FTC asked Ford to substantiate this claim, Ford revealed that they meant the inside of the Ford was 700% quieter than the outside.)
Weasel Words: Unfinished Claims
“helps” (the champion weasel)
“like” (used in a comparative sense)
“virtual” or “virtually”
“acts” or “works”
“can be”
“up to”
“as much as”
“come on”
“the feel of” or “the look of” or “looks like”
“fortified” or “enriched” and “strengthened”
Weasel Words
Weasel Words
These are words or phrases advertisers use that appear to be significant, but on closer inspection, they are empty and meaningless.
Unfinished Claims
The unfinished claim is one in which the ad claims the product is better, or has more of something, but does not finish the comparison.
Weasel Words:
Pathos: Fear
This appeal creates fear within consumers about a problem or issue, and then offers a solution to that problem. This technique creates a need and quickly solves it for consumers.
What is the Unique Claim here?
(What are we being primed for?)
This appeal gets you to associate the good feelings shown in the ad with the product itself. This then transfers the good feelings to you when you buy the product.
A commercial that shows a happy family gathered around a bowl of Mac & Cheese wants you to think of yourself like that happy family of you buy the Mac & Cheese.
This is the appeal that everyone is buying this product so you better buy it too.
Advertising Appeals
Pathos: Nostalgia
This technique calls back to the “good ol’ days” and how things used to be. In our memories things often are better than they actually were, and this technique counts on romanticizing of the past and how “simple” and “wholesome” life used to be.
Pathos: Humor
This appeal uses comedy to place the product in consumer’s mind. Often time poking fun at characters in the ad or even rival products.
“There’s no other mascara like it.”
“Only Doral has this unique filter system.”
“Cougar is like nobody else’s car.”
“Either way, liquid or spray, there’s nothing else like it.”
“If it doesn’t say Goodyear, it can't be polyglas.”
(“Polyglas" is a trade name copyrighted by Goodyear. Goodrich or Firestone could make a tire exactly identical to the Goodyear one and yet couldn’t call it “polyglas”--a name for fiberglass belts.)

Unique Claim
This kind of claim states that there is nothing else quite like the product being advertised
Weasel Words:
Advertising cannot create a need for a product or service because all humans have the same basic needs for food, shelter and clothing.
BUT… advertising can create a desire for certain products or services through the appeals they use to get you to part with your money.
In some cases a product is shown in a movie or TV show being used by actors or characters that we like. Or a product is created with a tie-in to a popular movie.
The goal of ads is to create discontent that can be satisfied only by using the product.

There are several different ways to do this.
Ethos –
This appeal supposes an ethical approach. The seller has done research and is to be found credible and trustworthy.
Logos –
This appeal uses logic, statistics, experts, facts and evidence.
Pathos –
This is an emotional appeal. It uses pity, anger, fear, patriotism, love, loneliness, boredom, sex, humor, etc.
Problem & Benefit
Ted Talk: Life Lessons from an Ad Man
Many ads try to send an image, brand or feeling. Some ads, however, actually try to sell you something you need. Good advertising knows how to blur the line between needs and wants. Identifying a problem and offering a solution is an age-old advertising technique.
Testimonials are statements from ordinary people, recommending a certain product. The main point is that you too, could enjoy the benefits of the product.
Also called endorsement. This advertising technique operates because people want to identify with the famous individuals they see in ads. Lebron James wears Nike, you want to be like Lebron, you should also wear Nike.
Problem and Benefit
By going against typical ad conventions, these ads draw attention to themselves, potentially creating more buzz to the product or service than would normally be attained through a conventional ad campaign.
Anti-ads AKA Shock ads
Ad Analysis Project:
Now, it's your turn!
(Selling Stuff)
Then propaganda!
Why does this matter?
What's the takeaway? (Discuss for a minute in pods)

The work of ads is to answer the question, "How can we solve problems by altering PERCEPTION instead of reality?"
This is also good advice for us--be thankful for the intangibles in our lives (love, friendship, happiness) instead of focusing on money, and as Rory Sutherland says, "You'll find you're much wealthier than you originally thought."
What happens when the lines blur between
info texts and advertisements?
(A weasel will suck out the inside of an egg, leaving it appear intact to the casual observer. Upon examination, the egg is discovered to be hollow. Words or claims that appear meaningful at first but are actually hollow on analysis are weasels.)
They create the
of ethos, pathos, and logos.
First, "Killing Us Softly" https://docs.google.com/presentation/d/1-AsQpAZ3v7w-QJxp63wpo1z2GBBDyxQAAB_b-kJ_sro/edit#slide=id.p

So how do ads work?
They appeal to our senses, tapping into the limbic system in our brains. Even though we aren't in the ad, through an arrangement of words & images & associations, we are compelled to engage with the ad as though we were there. Over time, we accept the "truths" these ads display, so we buy certain products, believe certain ideas, and think certain thoughts--sometimes to our detriment.

Most people believe advertising "doesn't work" on them.
Advertising is a $70 billion business in the U.S. annually--think they'd spend that much money on something that didn't work?
Priming is a
form of human memory concerned with the association of words and objects.

It refers to activating particular representations or associations in memory just before carrying out an action or task.

For example, a person who sees the word "yellow" will be slightly faster to recognize the word "banana." This happens because yellow and banana are closely associated in memory.
Additionally, priming can also refer to a technique in psychology used to train a person's memory in both positive and negative ways.
Ex: grocery store flowers, Apple v. Microsoft
So how does Priming work with Advertising?
By using certain combinations of words & images, over time, ads PRIME our brains to feel a certain way when we see a product, or associate an idea/feature with a product.
How might this negatively affect how we feel about ourselves and particular groups of people?
When Beyonce's hair & skin was lightened for this
beauty ad, now what features do we associate with being beautiful?
One ad doesn't make a big difference--but over time,
these little things add up & affect how we all perceive
beauty or masculinity or older people or people of color.
So here's Cindy Crawford drinking a Pepsi. What are we being primed for?
"Magnavox gives you more." More what?
"Coffee-mate gives coffee more body, more flavor."
(Also note that "body" and "flavor" are weasels.)
"You can be sure if it's Westinghouse." Sure of what?
"Ford LTD--700% quieter."
(When the FTC asked Ford to substantiate this claim, Ford revealed that they meant the inside of the Ford was 700% quieter than the outside.)
And what happens when advertisements ride on the backs of social movements? Can it be harmful? Can it be helpful?
Proctor and Gamble--"The Talk" (on the back of 3rd wave feminism)
Pepsi/Kendall Jenner--(on the back of the Black Lives Matter movement)
Targeted Marketing

Advertisements are targeted for specific audiences, but they didn't used to be. In the 1960s, Tom Burrell was the first African American "ad man," and took issue with ads like this-------->

Can you see why this ad might not
have gone over so well in

Tom Burrell spent his career demonstrating why
representation is so important-- & when different kinds of people are in a room making decisions, important perspectives are shared.

(here's an article on Tom Burrell if you're interested:

Full transcript