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Aegyptus

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William Burke

on 18 January 2013

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Transcript of Aegyptus

The Egyptians marveled at the work of Imhotep. So in awe, they deified him. Mesopotamia Quiz II Why so different from Akhenaten? His soul is weighed against the feather of Maat.
Anubis leads him to a seated Osiris flanked by his sisters Isis and Nephthys preceded by Horus.
Thoth does the math.
His “Dead Book,” contained prayers and spells for a pleasant journey through afterlife... 1290 - 1280 Painting Intermediate period, then Persians, Alexander the Great and subsequent Ptolemaic line.... 30 B.C. Romans, then Arab Muslims Temple of Ramses II at Abu Simbel
Located in Nubia
1279 -1213
Colossal sandstone
65' high King Tutankhamen is almost certainly Akhenaten's son.
1323 B.C.
Canopic coffinettes are held his organs. In addition, jewelry, breast plates, benches, golden objects etc...
Found in 1922.
There seems to be an attempt to stylistically reinforce the old religious order. Thutmose
Bust of Queen Nefertiti
Painted Limestone
1349 – 1336
Beauty
1' 8'' Dynamic Tension 1350 BCE
1’ tall, sunken relief
Depicts Akhenaten and Nefertiti holding their children, their 3 daughters, typical Amarna style bodies with long necks and skulls, old linear style with sweeping curves, as opposed to the old canon with rigid solid forms.
The children are shown as full adults but smaller than their parents.
This shows a convention of the pharaoh’s family in an informed situation with the father kissing a child, a naturalistic narrative detail of real parents shown in the scene.
Made out of limestone.
Sun god gets central, upper location, beaming his rays down on the family as a sign of good grace. Pharaoh and Family Akhenaten statue: 1350 BCE
Free standing, sculpture in the round
New Canon of Proportionality: Elongated features, spindly round belly, wide hips, long prominent chin, wide ears, much less stylized features. Some medical historians thought he might have had some disease which caused him to look this way.
Art historians think that according to his new theology, based solely around Aten, that Aten was sexless, so as his heir he looks androgynous, and this marks a major change in the culture.
N.B. Hapy Akhenaten The Amarna Period Opening of the Mouth Funerary temple of Queen Hatshepsut 1550-1070 B.C.
Hatshepsut
Akhenaten
Tutankhamen
Ramses II The New Kingdom “First after the King of Upper and Lower Egypt.B.C
Architect and chief minister of Zoser, later deified.
Our first known artist/architect.
Designed the Stepped Pyramid of Zoser.
2630 – 2611 B.C.
The Old Kingdom (2649 – 2150 B.C.) Imhotep Preceded the PYRAMIDS
Means “Bench” in Arabic
It is a built up platform which has an underground passage containing the main tomb.
It is trapezoidal, the whole structure and the inner chapel; possible sign of continuity?
Made of stone or mudbrick.
Contained an open shaft to provide the Ka with access.
N.B. Mummification is not practiced systematically until the Fourth Dynasty – ca. 2649-2150 B.C. (3rd __ 6th Dynasties.) The 4 organs most subject to decay; stomach, liver, lungs, and intestines were placed in canopic jars in the tomb.
Brain? Heart? Mastaba Mastaba - Hypogeum
3100 BCE
Bas-relief
Two sided slate palette
On the back side:
Pharaoh Menes represented withWhite Hedjet crown of Upper Egypt
Emphasizes his strength in large arms and legs
Importance is shown through his overall size in comparison to the other figures—HP
Horus is depicted holding human-like head on rope.
Resting on papyrus plants

On the front side: Pharaoh w/ Red Deshret Crown of Lower Egypt
Palette for dark eye make-up (sun protection.)
Dead figures
Dead enemies Palette of Narmer clerestory The fenestrated part of a building that rises above the roofs of the other parts. In Roman basilicas and medieval churches, the windows that form the nave’s uppermost level below the timber ceiling or the vaults. Ramses II Temple of Amon-Mut-Khonsu
1279-1212
Court and Pylon of Ramses II More Architecture...
Tut’s Burial Mask and Canopic Coffinette Last Judgment of Hu-Nefer psychomachia or psychomachy (ˌsaɪkəʊˈmækɪə, ˈsaɪkəʊməkɪ)

— n
conflict of the soul

[C17: from Late Latin psӯchomachia, title of a poem by Prudentius (about 400), from Greek psukhē spirit + makhē battle] Fresco = Painting on plaster, either dry (dry fresco or fresco secco) or wet (true or buon fresco). In the latter method, the pigments are mixed with water and become chemically bound to the freshly laid lime plaster. Also, a painting executed in either method. Nebamum is depicted hunting birds. 1390-52
Possible allegory of Horus' hunt for Seth Nebamum's Fowling Scene Colossal statue that was destroyed and buried under the reign of Thutmose III
Careful reconstruction of the 8'6'' red granite Pharaoh.
Why break a statue?
N.B. 1473 -1458 B.C. Hatshepsut w/ Offering jars 2551 – 2528Largest Pyramid is that of Khufu.
2520 – 2494 Khafre possibly represented as Sphinx.
2490 – 2472 Menkaure's is smallest...? Great Pyramids at Gizeh V.S.N.S.
2254 – 2218 B.C. Symbols of Power Ch. 5
Canon of Proportionality
2649 – 2150 B.C. = Old Kingdom
1991 – 1700 B.C. = Middle Kingdom
1550 – 1070 B.C. = New Kingdom Egypt Head of Tiye
Wife of Amenhotep III
Mother of Akhenaten/Amenhotep IV
Hair has been refinished to cover references to deities preceding Aten.
3 ¾'' Age Colossal Statue of Khafre
Sphinx
2520 – 2494 B.C. Images of Pharaonic Supremacy Intermediate period, then Persians, Alexander the Great and subsequent Ptolemaic line.... 30 B.C. Romans, then Arab Muslims Temple of Ramses II at Abu Simbel
Located in Nubia
1279 -1213
Colossal sandstone
65' high King Tutankhamen is almost certainly Akhenaten's son.
1323 B.C.
Canopic coffinettes are held his organs. In addition, jewelry, breast plates, benches, golden objects etc...
Found in 1922.
There seems to be an attempt to stylistically reinforce the old religious order. His soul is weighed against the feather of Maat.
Anubis leads him to a seated Osiris flanked by his sisters Isis and Nephthys preceded by Horus.
Thoth does the math.
His “Dead Book,” contained prayers and spells for a pleasant journey through afterlife... 1290 - 1280 Painting Why so different from Akhenaten? 1350 BCE
1’ tall, sunken relief
Depicts Akhenaten and Nefertiti holding their children, their 3 daughters, typical Amarna style bodies with long necks and skulls, old linear style with sweeping curves, as opposed to the old canon with rigid solid forms.
The children are shown as full adults but smaller than their parents.
This shows a convention of the pharaoh’s family in an informed situation with the father kissing a child, a naturalistic narrative detail of real parents shown in the scene.
Made out of limestone.
Sun god gets central, upper location, beaming his rays down on the family as a sign of good grace. Pharaoh and Family Akhenaten statue: 1350 BCE
Free standing, sculpture in the round
New Canon of Proportionality: Elongated features, spindly round belly, wide hips, long prominent chin, wide ears, much less stylized features. Some medical historians thought he might have had some disease which caused him to look this way.
Art historians think that according to his new theology, based solely around Aten, that Aten was sexless, so as his heir he looks androgynous, and this marks a major change in the culture.
N.B. Hapy Akhenaten The Amarna Period Colossal statue that was destroyed and buried under the reign of Thutmose III
Careful reconstruction of the 8'6'' red granite Pharaoh.
Why break a statue?
N.B. 1473 -1458 B.C. Hatshepsut w/ Offering jars 1550-1070 B.C.
Hatshepsut
Akhenaten
Tutankhamen
Ramses II The New Kingdom 2551 – 2528Largest Pyramid is that of Khufu.
2520 – 2494 Khafre possibly represented as Sphinx.
2490 – 2472 Menkaure's is smallest...? Great Pyramids at Gizeh Preceded the PYRAMIDS
Means “Bench” in Arabic
It is a built up platform which has an underground passage containing the main tomb.
It is trapezoidal, the whole structure and the inner chapel; possible sign of continuity?
Made of stone or mudbrick.
Contained an open shaft to provide the Ka with access.
N.B. Mummification is not practiced systematically until the Fourth Dynasty – ca. 2649-2150 B.C. (3rd __ 6th Dynasties.) The 4 organs most subject to decay; stomach, liver, lungs, and intestines were placed in canopic jars in the tomb.
Brain? Heart? Mastaba Mastaba - Hypogeum
3100 BCE
Bas-relief
Two sided slate palette
On the back side:
Pharaoh Menes represented withWhite Hedjet crown of Upper Egypt
Emphasizes his strength in large arms and legs
Importance is shown through his overall size in comparison to the other figures—HP
Horus is depicted holding human-like head on rope.
Resting on papyrus plants

On the front side: Pharaoh w/ Red Deshret Crown of Lower Egypt
Palette for dark eye make-up (sun protection.)
Dead figures
Dead enemies Palette of Narmer Ch. 5
Canon of Proportionality
2649 – 2150 B.C. = Old Kingdom
1991 – 1700 B.C. = Middle Kingdom
1550 – 1070 B.C. = New Kingdom Egypt clerestory The fenestrated part of a building that rises above the roofs of the other parts. In Roman basilicas and medieval churches, the windows that form the nave’s uppermost level below the timber ceiling or the vaults. Ramses II Temple of Amon-Mut-Khonsu
1279-1212
Court and Pylon of Ramses II More Architecture... Thutmose
Bust of Queen Nefertiti
Painted Limestone
1349 – 1336
Beauty
1' 8'' Dynamic Tension Opening of the Mouth Last Judgment of Hu-Nefer Funerary temple of Queen Hatshepsut Colossal Statue of Khafre
Sphinx
2520 – 2494 B.C. Images of Pharaonic Supremacy “First after the King of Upper and Lower Egypt.B.C
Architect and chief minister of Zoser, later deified.
Our first known artist/architect.
Designed the Stepped Pyramid of Zoser.
2630 – 2611 B.C.
The Old Kingdom (2649 – 2150 B.C.) Imhotep V.S.N.S.
2254 – 2218 B.C. Symbols of Power
Tut’s Burial Mask and Canopic Coffinette Head of Tiye
Wife of Amenhotep III
Mother of Akhenaten/Amenhotep IV
Hair has been refinished to cover references to deities preceding Aten.
3 ¾'' Age psychomachia or psychomachy (ˌsaɪkəʊˈmækɪə, ˈsaɪkəʊməkɪ)

— n
conflict of the soul

[C17: from Late Latin psӯchomachia, title of a poem by Prudentius (about 400), from Greek psukhē spirit + makhē battle] Fresco = Painting on plaster, either dry (dry fresco or fresco secco) or wet (true or buon fresco). In the latter method, the pigments are mixed with water and become chemically bound to the freshly laid lime plaster. Also, a painting executed in either method. Nebamum is depicted hunting birds. 1390-52
Possible allegory of Horus' hunt for Seth Nebamum's Fowling Scene Temple of Ramses II at Abu Simbel
Located in Nubia
1279 -1213
Colossal sandstone
65' high King Tutankhamen is almost certainly Akhenaten's son.
1323 B.C.
Canopic coffinettes are held his organs. In addition, jewelry, breast plates, benches, golden objects etc...
Found in 1922.
There seems to be an attempt to stylistically reinforce the old religious order. Why so different from Akhenaten? Akhenaten statue: 1350 BCE
Free standing, sculpture in the round
New Canon of Proportionality: Elongated features, spindly round belly, wide hips, long prominent chin, wide ears, much less stylized features. Some medical historians thought he might have had some disease which caused him to look this way.
Art historians think that according to his new theology, based solely around Aten, that Aten was sexless, so as his heir he looks androgynous, and this marks a major change in the culture.
N.B. Hapy Akhenaten Last Judgment of Hu-Nefer Painting 1550-1070 B.C.
Hatshepsut
Akhenaten
Tutankhamen
Ramses II
http://www.odysseyadventures.ca/articles/thebes/thebesmap.htm The New Kingdom Preceded the PYRAMIDS
Means “Bench” in Arabic
It is a built up platform which has an underground passage containing the main tomb.
It is trapezoidal, the whole structure and the inner chapel; possible sign of continuity?
Made of stone or mudbrick.
Contained an open shaft to provide the Ka with access.
N.B. Mummification is not practiced systematically until the Fourth Dynasty – ca. 2649-2150 B.C. (3rd __ 6th Dynasties.) The 4 organs most subject to decay; stomach, liver, lungs, and intestines were placed in canopic jars in the tomb.
Brain? Heart? Mastaba Intermediate period, then Persians, Alexander the Great and subsequent Ptolemaic line.... 30 B.C. Romans, then Arab Muslims Meroë was the southern capitol of the Napata/Meroitic Kingdom, that spanned the period c. 800 BC - c. 350 AD. According to partially deciphered Meroitic texts, the name of the city was Medewi or Bedewi (Török, 1998). Meroe 650 B.C.

Karnak

Granite
4’ 5’’

Painted Relief Seti I from his Abydos Temple Temple of Amon-Mut-Khonsu
1279-1212
Court and Pylon of Ramses II More Architecture... 1350 BCE
1’ tall, sunken relief
Depicts Akhenaten and Nefertiti holding their children, their 3 daughters, typical Amarna style bodies with long necks and skulls, old linear style with sweeping curves, as opposed to the old canon with rigid solid forms.
The children are shown as full adults but smaller than their parents.
This shows a convention of the pharaoh’s family in an informed situation with the father kissing a child, a naturalistic narrative detail of real parents shown in the scene.
Made out of limestone.
Sun god gets central, upper location, beaming his rays down on the family as a sign of good grace. Pharaoh and Family The Amarna Period Opening of the Mouth Judgment scene from the Book of the Dead. In the three scenes from the Book of the Dead (version from ~1300 BCE) the dead man (Hunefer) is taken into the judgment hall by the jackal-headed Anubis. The next scene is the weighing of his heart, with Ammut awaiting the result and Thoth recording. Next, the triumphant Hunefer, having passed the test, is presented by the falcon-headed Horus to Osiris, seated in his shrine with Isis and Nephthys. (British Museum) His soul is weighed against the feather of Maat.
Anubis leads him to a seated Osiris flanked by his sisters Isis and Nephthys preceded by Horus.
Thoth does the math.
His “Dead Book,” contained prayers and spells for a pleasant journey through afterlife... 1290 - 1280 Funerary temple of Queen Hatshepsut Senusret III

1860 B.C. “About 2150 B.C., the Egyptians challenged the pharaoh’s power, and for more than a century the land was in a state of civil unrest and near anarchy. But in 2040, the pharaoh of Upper Egypt, Mentuhotep II, managed to reunite Egypt and establish the Middle Kingdom…” The Middle Kingdom Why SO different?
2551 – 2528 B.C.
Painted Limestone
Lifelike humanistic depiction…
a doctrine, attitude, or way of life centered on human interests or values; especially : a philosophy that usually rejects supernaturalism and stresses an individual's dignity and worth and capacity for self-realization through reason. Seated Scribe 2490 -- 2472 BCE
Almost life-size 4’-5’
Made of a slate
Conventions of this pose: stiff, clenched fists, arms down, with the men they usually have movement denoted by one foot forward (here they both do this, with the king’s foot further forward).
Totally frontal, free standing, connected to slab of rock behind them, designed to last for eternity. They wanted nothing to snap off, hence they keep the back connected; but we will call this sculpture in the round because this was intentional…
It was important that the figures be somewhat recognizable, yet we see here that they still clearly reflect the Canon of Proportionality Menkaure and Khamerernebty Statue Easily transferable proportions from figure to figure to give an ideal of beauty.
Everyone is made to look ageless, youthful, large and with compact, strong bodies.
They construct a grid with each part of the body relating to each other in a different way to create or represent perfection in a rationale mathematical way.
This allows the kings/pharaohs to look the same over the centuries, suggesting continuity, and showing that the rulers are connected with their predecessors: gives them authority physically. Canon of Proportionality Surface divided into grid
Each equivalent to width of figure’s fist
Distance from hairline to ground is 18 fists
From nose to shoulder, one fist.
Fingers of clenched fist to elbow 4.5
Heel to toe = 3.5 Canon of Proportionality Giza
Diorite 5’ 6’’
2520 – 2494
Sculptors created images of the deceased to serve as abodes for the Ka should the mummies be destroyed… Statue of Khafre 2551 – 2528Largest Pyramid is that of Khufu.
2520 – 2494 Khafre possibly represented as Sphinx.
2490 – 2472 Menkaure's is smallest...? Great Pyramids at Gizeh “First after the King of Upper and Lower Egypt.B.C
Architect and chief minister of Zoser, later deified.
Our first known artist/architect.
Designed the Stepped Pyramid of Zoser.
2630 – 2611 B.C.
The Old Kingdom (2649 – 2150 B.C.) Imhotep Mastaba - Hypogeum V.S.N.S.
2254 – 2218 B.C. Symbols of Power Ch. 5
Canon of Proportionality
2649 – 2150 B.C. = Old Kingdom
1991 – 1700 B.C. = Middle Kingdom
1550 – 1070 B.C. = New Kingdom Egypt n architecture, a hypostyle hall has a roof which is supported by columns, as in the Great Hypostyle Hall at Karnak. The word hypostyle comes from the Ancient Greek hypóstȳlos meaning "under columns" (where hypó means below or underneath and stŷlos means column).[1] The roof may be constructed of with bridging lintels of stone, wood or other rigid material such as cast iron, steel or reinforced concrete. There may be a ceiling. The columns may be all the same height or, as in the case of the Hypostyle Hall at Karnak, the columns flanking the central space may be of greater height than those of the side aisles, allowing openings in the wall above the smaller columns, through which light is admitted over the aisle roof, through clerestory windows. Pylon Temples clerestory The fenestrated part of a building that rises above the roofs of the other parts. In Roman basilicas and medieval churches, the windows that form the nave’s uppermost level below the timber ceiling or the vaults.
In architecture, a hypostyle hall has a roof which is supported by columns, as in the Great Hypostyle Hall at Karnak. The word hypostyle comes from the Ancient Greek hypóstȳlos meaning "under columns" (where hypó means below or underneath and stŷlos means column).[1] The roof may be constructed of with bridging lintels of stone, wood or other rigid material such as cast iron, steel or reinforced concrete. There may be a ceiling. The columns may be all the same height or, as in the case of the Hypostyle Hall at Karnak, the columns flanking the central space may be of greater height than those of the side aisles, allowing openings in the wall above the smaller columns, through which light is admitted over the aisle roof, through clerestory windows Ramses II
Tut’s Burial Mask and Canopic Coffinette Head of Tiye
Wife of Amenhotep III
Mother of Akhenaten/Amenhotep IV
Hair has been refinished to cover references to deities preceding Aten.
3 ¾'' Age Thutmose
Bust of Queen Nefertiti
Painted Limestone
1349 – 1336
Beauty
1' 8'' Dynamic Tension psychomachia or psychomachy (ˌsaɪkəʊˈmækɪə, ˈsaɪkəʊməkɪ)

— n
conflict of the soul

[C17: from Late Latin psӯchomachia, title of a poem by Prudentius (about 400), from Greek psukhē spirit + makhē battle] Fresco = Painting on plaster, either dry (dry fresco or fresco secco) or wet (true or buon fresco). In the latter method, the pigments are mixed with water and become chemically bound to the freshly laid lime plaster. Also, a painting executed in either method. Nebamum is depicted hunting birds. 1390-52
Possible allegory of Horus' hunt for Seth Nebamum's Fowling Scene Colossal statue that was destroyed and buried under the reign of Thutmose III
Careful reconstruction of the 8'6'' red granite Pharaoh.
Why break a statue?
N.B. 1473 -1458 B.C. Hatshepsut w/ Offering jars Found in his mastaba at Saqqara
2450 – 2350
Dynasty V
Wood
3’ 7’’
Compare to Royal Couple and Seated Scribe… Ka-Aper Colossal Statue of Khafre
Sphinx
2520 – 2494 B.C. Images of Pharaonic Supremacy
3100 BCE
Bas-relief
Two sided slate palette
On the back side:
Pharaoh Menes represented withWhite Hedjet crown of Upper Egypt
Emphasizes his strength in large arms and legs
Importance is shown through his overall size in comparison to the other figures—HP
Horus is depicted holding human-like head on rope.
Resting on papyrus plants

On the front side: Pharaoh w/ Red Deshret Crown of Lower Egypt
Palette for dark eye make-up (sun protection.)
Dead figures
Dead enemies Palette of Narmer
Full transcript