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the body response to long term exercise

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Max Meunier

on 19 June 2013

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Transcript of the body response to long term exercise

Chronic exercise
Cardiovascular system
Skeletal system
Respiratory System
Energy Systems
Musculoskeletal system
The musculoskeletal system is made up of muscles, bones, cartilage, ligaments and tendons, which all come into play when someone exercises. The main function of the musculoskeletal system is for movement, but also for structure and protection of the body. There are lots of chronic responses that happen to the musculoskeletal system which are an increase in hypertrophy, increase in tendon strength, increase in myoglobin stores, increased number of mitochondria, increased storage of glycogen and fat, increased muscle strength and increased tolerance to lactic acid
Chronic exercise is the long term effect of exercise on the body
The body response to long term exercise
Condition of bone can be improved by exercise as it responds to mechanical stress. These chronic responses that happen to the skeletal are:
•Increase in bone density
•More mineral content inside the bone
•Stronger ligaments
•Thickening of hyaline cartilage at the ends of the bone, this is what acts as a shock absorber decreases risk of injury.
The respiratory system is composed of the lungs, airways and the respiratory muscles such as the diaphragm. The main function of the respiratory system is to control breathing.
The energy system is composed of 3 different systems which will all work to get the muscles enough energy to carry out a physical activity. during chronic exercise the body will respond by adapting itself to make the energy systems more efficient.
Max Meunier
Chronic exercise will effect the musculoskeletal system, energy systems, cardiovascular system and the respiratory system
The long term effects of exercise on the cardiovascular system will overall improve activities like running as their will be changes in the heart, lungs and the bones, these changes happen because of these different topics.
CARDIAC HYPERTROPHY
Cardiac hypertrophy is defined as the thickening of the heart muscle. Because the heart is a muscle whenever it is used it will expand in size, the heart will increase in both its size and its blood volume. The heart does this by having the walls of the left ventricle thickening which allow a potential of an increase of the heart size whenever it contracts. When you heart increase in size it will have a increase in oxygen capacity as it has more space to store the oxygen, this means that more oxygen can be stored then sent round to the muscles during exercise. The heart is able to pump around more blood around the body per beat as the walls of the left ventricle have thickened allowing the blood to push blood out with more force. This will benefit an athlete because they will have the ability to have more blood ready for the muscles quicker. The diagram shows the difference between a normal heart and a heart during cardiac hyperthrophy
INCREASE IN STROKE VOLUME
Due to the size of the heart increasing, the blood capacity inside the heart also increases because it can store more blood, this means the stroke volume, which is how much blood is pumped out in one contraction, also increases as their is an increase in the amount of blood which is needed to be pumped out. This means that the heart can send out more blood at one time meaning the blood will get to the muscles quicker, which will deliver more 02. However this will only happen if exercise is regularly done over a long period of time. After a long period of time the body becomes more efficient at delivering 02 to the muscles because the body will get used to delivering the blood at a higher intensity. This will benefit an athlete because he will be able to send more blood out at one time and therefore send out more oxygen to the working muscles which need it in order to maintain the exercise.
INCREASE CARDIAC OUTPUT
Cardiac output will increase as an effect of chronic exercise due to a combination of the increasing heart rate and the increase in stroke volume, cardiac output is the amount of blood pumped by every ventricle per minute. Cardiac output can increase 5 to 7 times to allow more oxygen to get to the muscles. The amount of cardiac output will depend completely on the stroke volume and heart rate. Your cardiac output will increase during chronic exercise in relation to an increase of both stroke volume and heart rate.To find out the cardiac output you must do stroke volume x heart rate therefore both these factors will increase cardiac output. Having a higher cardiac output means that more blood is pumped round the body each minutes which means more 02 will be available to the working muscles which need it. This will benefit an athlete as this means that they can get o2 to the muscles quicker in order to maintain exercise for a longer period of time and at a higher intensity.
DECREASE IN RESTING HEART RATE
Your resting heart rate is simply your normal resting heart rate, on average your resting heart rate for a men is between 70-76 and 74-78 for a women. After long term training the Heart will decrease and it will get to a resting zone quicker. This reduce in the heart rate will put less stress on the heart as their will be less pressure and stress on the heart as it doesn't need to pump blood as quickly. The reason why your resting heart rate decreases as part of chronic exercise effect is because your body starts to learn how to become more efficient at using oxygen, which means that less oxygen will be needed which means your heart rate can reduce in order to put less stress on the heart. it does this when you do more and more exercise after a while the body will use less oxygen in order to provide energy to do the muscles. This means that the body becomes better at not wasting any oxygen meaning that you will make more of the oxygen which you intake.
CAPILARISATION
A chronic effect of exercise will be that our body creates more capillaries, this is to make it so that their is an increase of blood flow in the body. This increase of blood flow will provide more oxygen to the body as their are more roads that it can take, an increase of capillaries means that their is an increase in the capilary network, an increase in the capillary network also means that the body will be able to get rid of carbon dioxide and lactic acid quicker. This process of increasing the amount of capillaries is called capilarisation.
INCREASE IN BLOOD VOLUME
Blood volume is the total amount of blood in the body. Blood volume will increase after long term exercise due the increase of capllaries.Exercise will effect blood volume as this is heavily linked to capilarisation, this is because if they are more capillaries their will be more blood as their is more space for it move around the body. When we increase blood volume we also get an increase in the amount of oxygen in the body. Although exercise will increase the blood volume it will be impossible to be able to exactly tell by how much as this figure varies from person to person. This will be a benefit for the body as it will give the body more routes for the blood to travel meaning the blood can travel quicker. This will benefit an athlete because it means that the blood which carries the oxygen which is needed to create energy will get to the muscles quicker.
REDUCTION IN RESTING BLOOD PRESSURE
Your blood pressure will rise whenever you start doing exercise, this is because more blood is rushed around the body putting greater force on the capillaries, after a minute the blood pressure of a healthy person will return to normal. When you have been training the body will come back to its resting point faster because the body will be better at doing this. Whenever exercise is done for a long period of time your blood pressure will naturally decrease, this is because your body is able to cope with a lower resting blood pressure. However this blood pressure will quickly increase again if the exercises are not done on a regular basis. Having a lower blood pressure means that your arteries, organs and tissues are not being damaged as they would be if it was high meaning that they will be in better shape then someone with higher blood pressure.
DECREASE RECOVERY TIME
Recovery time in relation to sport is how long it takes for someone to recover physically from a exercise back to its normal state. Your body will decrease its recovery time when physical activities are done on a regular basis as your body will slowly become better at recovering back into a normal state. A common example of this is when someone who regularly performs weight training, at the start of the weight training he/she may take 2-3 days for their muscles tears to repair, after a while the body may only take 1 day as it becomes better at repairing the body. Having a lower recovery time will be important because it means that you can do exercise more regularly, people who are fitter will recover faster as their tendons and joints because used to the regular exercise and are able to recover quicker as the body is better at doing it. This benefits an athlete because it allows them recover quicker therefor they can do more exercise more regularly.
INCREASE AEROBIC FITNESS
Over a long period of time the body becomes better at adapting to aerobic exercise as it happens, this is because everything in your body as improved in order to be able to sustain this aerobic exercise. the heart and lungs both grow in their size and their capacity in order to provide the body with more oxygen and more blood. This kind of improvements will increase the efficiency of the aerobic exercise. Having a good aerobic fitness will be important when performing certain actives which need sustaining for a long period of time. The aerobic fitness will only increase when undertaking resistance training if the reps of the exercise are high as this will be aerobic workout rather then low reps which is anaerobic. due to an increase in aerobic fitness an athlete is able to run for a longer period of time without getting fatigued this due to the muscles are used to having strain and resistance put on them therefore will be more used too it. also many things like the heart rate and cardiac output will increase meaning that more energy is able to get to the muscles will need it in order to stop them from fatiguing.
Muscle Hypertrophy
Muscle hypertrophy involves an increase in size of skeletal muscle through an increase in the size of its component cells.Whenever someone takes part in weight training it will have a massive effect on the muscles and the tendons, This is because the muscle fibers inside of them will tear when you are using weights. Muscle fibers will be repaired using proteins which the user gets from food and supplements. Whenever muscles fibers get repaired like this they will become larger and stronger then previously in an attempt to prevent the muscles from getting torn again. This process is hypertrophy. This means that when you are doing weight training regularly for a long time your muscles will get bigger, stronger and more defined depending on the exercises performed. In order to make the muscles keep on tearing in order for them to be repaired and then re-build you will need to constantly use heavier weights as otherwise your muscles will get use to a specific weight and not tear. Men have a higher potential to be bigger than women as they have more testosterone. this will benefit an athlete because it increase an athlete strength, power and muscular endurance.
INCREASE IN MYOGLOBIN STORES
Myoglobin is defined as a red protein containing heme that carries and stores oxygen in muscle cells, myoglobin function is too carry oxygen from cell membrane all the way to mitochondria. Whenever aerobic chronic exercise takes place their will be an increase in myoglobin, this is because over a long period of time your body will adapt itself so that when you are exercising you receiver more oxygen so that you can go on for longer, the way the body does this is by increasing myglobin stores which will allow them to carry more oxygen. Therefore when you are taking part in aerobic exercise your body will be able to deliver more oxygen to the working muscles more efficiently as their are more myoglobin which will can more oxygen around. this will benefit an athlete as when their is more myoglobin their will be an increase in the amount of oxygen stored in the muscles.
INCREASE IN TENDON STRENGTH
Tendons are what connect our muscles to our bones, they are strong bands of connective tissue which are able to cope with a massive amount of pressure being put on them. Whenever exercise is done for a long period of time the muscles will grow and become stronger, therefore in order for the tendons to cope with this change they also increase in size and strength. The tendons will need to do this as otherwise when the muscles get bigger and stronger they will not be able to cope with the pressure and tension of the muscles and become damaged. The increase in the tendons strength will be because of collagen fibers who role is to strengthen any tissue, collagen fibers will increase during long term exercise. Different exercise will have different effects on tendons as things like weight training will make them stronger but aerobic exercise will increased their endurance. This will benefit an athlete because more strain and pressure will be able to be put on the tendons without them getting damaged and therefore causing a injury.
INCREASED NUMBER OF MITOCHONDRIA
Mitochondria is an organelle found in large numbers in most cells, in which the biochemical processes of respiration and energy production occur. When long term exercise is performed muscles will increase their oxidative capacity, this is how muscles adapt themselves to chronic exercise so that they can maintain the activity for a long period of time. The ways the muscles do this is by having a increase in the numbers of mitochondria. The mitochondria is the cells which hosts the location where oxygen and glucose combine in order to make ATP. This means that if their is an increase in mitochondria their will be more space for the body to produce ATP which is needed energy source in order to do aerobic exercises. This will benefit an athlete as more energy will be available for the muscles which need it on order to carry out the exercise.
INCREASED STORAGE OF GLYCOGEN AND FAT
Fat is a substance found in all humans which is used for energy. Glycogen is the main form of carbohydrate storage in animals and occurs primarily in the liver and muscle tissue. It is readily converted to glucose as needed by the body to satisfy its energy needs.When doing regular exercise over a long period of time the muscles are able to use fats for energy more efficiently this will be a benefit when their is an increased amount of fat available as their will be more available to break down to energy. Increase storage of glycogen and fats is used for aerobic exercise that last over for long period of time. So when you’re training with aerobic exercises your body learns to use fats and glycogen more efficiently, allowing you to go further. But because you can use fats for energy your body allows carbohydrates (glycogen) to be preserved. There for with aerobic exercise your body learns how to use fats more efficiently to supply energy for the working muscles that need it.
INCREASE TOLERANCE TO LACTIC ACID
When anaerobic exercise is being done regularly the body will adapt itself to cope with lactic acid better, during anaerobic exercise the body needs to create energy without using oxygen, however when it does it creates lactic acid which will cause discomfort and at times will cause the exercise to stop. The body will adapt itself because when these sorts of exercise are going it stimulates the muscles which once they are stimulated several times will be able to cope with the discomfort more, the body will also become better at getting rid of the lactic acid quicker as it when long term exercise occurs the chronic response of the body will be to increase the lactic acid threshold. someone who trained regularly using the lactic acid acid will be able to tolerate lactic acid better as their body will be better at disposing it and will be more used to the feeling. this means that a athlete wouldn't fatigue as quickly because lactic acid is the main cause of fatigue of the muscles. The capillary network will have a major part of this as when it increase it will allow lactic acid to be disposed quicker as its disposed in the blood and when the capillary network increases it will give the blood more ways to dispose it.
INCREASE IN BONE CALCIUM STORES
Any exercise which put force on the bone will trigger a chronic effect, this effect is that their will be an increase in the bones calcium stores, this is because there are cells called osteoblasts that constantly bring calcium into bones to make them stronger and osteoclasts take calcium from bones. Exercise increases the rate that osteoblasts is used to strengthen bones. No exercise will slow the osteoblastic activity to weaken bones. So any exercise that places force on a bone will strengthen that bone. Whenever bones are put under a certain level of stress the levels of calcium and collagen minerals are increased so that the bones can be re-strengthened in order to protect them. this will be important for people who have osteoporosis which is a condition whenever the bones become very fragile and break very easy. during a injury it will be very important that bone are get a high amount of calcium as possible in order for them to heal.
INCREASED STRETCH IN LIGAMENTS
A ligament is a short band of tough, flexible, fibrous connective tissue that connects two bones or cartilages or holds together a joint. A chronic response to long term exercise is the increase in the stretch of the ligaments, the ligaments do this as whenever long term exercise is happening the body will recover by putting down more collagen which is a protein which supports body tissue, collagen will make the ligaments more stable, stronger and more flexible at the joints, all these factors will help to contribute to the stretch of the ligaments. Ligaments will need to adapt in this way because long term exercise will put great force and stress on the ligaments which could be damaged easily if not strengthened. Fibroglass are what connect ligaments to the joints therefore they will nee to be flexible in order for them to be pliable. Athletes have more pliable ligaments ligaments because they are constantly trained stretched and used which makes them more flexible and pliable. they will be useful for sports like gymnasts or sprinters because they will be ligaments which are constantly used and are put at angles which normal people don't usually do.
INCREASED THICKNESS OF HYALINE CARTILAGE
Another chronic response of the skeletal system is the increase of the thickness of the hyaline cartilages, this kind of cartilage is the most common type of cartilage in your body. This protects the ends of your bone from wear and tear. over a long period of time the cartilage will become thicker as it needs to becomes a better shock absorber, this will therefore decrease the chances of an injury during any physical activity as they can take more pressure.
INCREASE IN THE PRODUCTION OF THE SYNOVIAL FLUID
Synovial fluid is a viscous, non-Newtonian fluid found in the cavities of synovial joints.A chronic response to long term exercise will be to increase the production of synovial fluid, this is because synovial fluid acts as a lubricant which helps the joints and cartilages to move around without damage, this means that due to having more of it you will be able to carry out a exercise which is heavy on movement for a longer period of time as the joints and cartilages will be lubricated which will reduce the risks of injuries. The viscousty of the fluid then decreases during exercise because it will aloow the joints
INCREASED VITAL CAPACITY
A chronic response of exercise will be to increase the body's vital capacity. The vital capacity is the maximum amount of air that can be forced inhaled and exhaled in one breath. With exercise and training you are able to increase the amount inhaled and exhaled in one breath. This means there is more of an increase of oxygen to working muscles and more diffusion occurs therefore prevents less waste product build up. vital capacity is increased so that you can inhale more oxygen in order to make more ATP and exhale more carbon dioxide.
INCREASE IN MINUTE VENTILATION
Minute ventilation is the amount of air a person breaths in a minute. .Another chronic response with training and exercise is an increase of minute ventilation, this is the amount of air moving through the lungs each minute. For air to go through the lungs you have to inhale and exhale, therefore your breathing rate increase as well. This is benefit because it allows more oxygen to travel through the lungs per minute so more oxygen can get to the working muscles and they act as food for working muscles give them energy. Minute ventilation increases as a response of exercise as the body will need more oxygen to be passed round the body.
INCREASED STRENGTH OF RESPIRATORY MUSCLES
The respiratory muscles are the lungs, diaphragm and the inetcostal muscles. The respiratory muscles become stronger as a chronic response for example the diaphragm and intercostals muscles, this means there if a greater expansion of the chest cavity, which enables for further oxygen to be inhaled and more oxygen supplied around the body to which parts need it.The respiratory muscles become stronger as a chronic response for example the diaphragm and intercostals muscles, this means there if a greater expansion of the chest cavity, which enables for further oxygen to be inhaled and more oxygen supplied around the body to which parts need it. the increase strength of these muscles also means that more CO2 can be pushed out with a greater force. this will benefit all athletes because it will allow them to take in more oxygen and breath out more CO2, this will help to create oxygen and reduce fatigue.
INCREASE IN OXYGEN DIFFUSION RATE
Increase of oxygen diffusion rate increases as another chronic response to the respiratory system. Diffusion is the exchange of oxygen for carbon dioxide and this takes place in the alveoli, also occurs from a high pressure to a low pressure. If there is an increase rate of diffusion this allows for more oxygen to be pushed around the body but also for more carbon dioxide to be removed from the body. This will help your performance because your body will create more carbon dioxide and your body gets rid of it quicker but also there is more oxygen available so your body is able to exercise longer.
INCREASED AEROBIC AND ANAEROBIC ENZYMES
Both aerobic and anaerobic enzymes are used in the production of ATP as they break down energy fuel source. the increase amount of these enzymes means that more ATP can be broken down given the participant more energy to do the exercise. an increase amount of anaerobic enzymes means that you will have greater glucose breakdown, more aerobic enzymes means that muscles tissue will have the ability to generate ATP. This is an increase in mitochondria content and size of them, which is supported by an increased level of aerobic system enzymes. These chronic responses enhance the ability for a muscle to generate ATP, which is the body’s first source of energy before going onto lactic acid system. This enables aerobic exercise to be undertaken for prolonged periods. this will benefit an athlete as when you have a higher amount of aerobic enzymes you will be able to carry out a exercise for a longer duration and when you have more anaerobic enzymes you will be able to carry out a exercise of a higher intensity.
INCREASE USE OF FAT AS AN ENERGY SOURCE
Fats are used for endurance/aerobic based sports like long distance runs. Fat oxidation will increases if you exercise for long periods of times, this is because fats are stored in large molecules which need to be broken down, when you exercise you are using other fuel sources so when these fats are needed they are oxidated for usage.fats provide more ATP then carbohydrates because carbohydrates only need 1 oxygen however fat needs 2 oxygen. .Whenever we carry out aerobic exercise we break down fats as a way to make energy because all other sources are expired. Fats are stored mostly in tissue, we also have small stores in the muscle itself. At the start of exercise, muscle stimulation will increase lipolysis, which is the breakdown of fats into fatty acids and glycerol in tissue and muscle. Being able to store more fat will be a benefit for a endurance athlete because fats are used to fuel the body when glycogen levels are low. this energy will help the athlete because when energy is low for a long based sport like marathon running the fat level will provide enough energy to complete the activity.
INCREASE IN MUSCLE STRENGTH

In order to increased muscular strength you must perform resistance training as this will work the muscles the best. the term overload links to this as in order to increase muscle strength you must do this. During chronic exercise your muscles strength will increase, both the strength and the endurance of your muscles will increase. The endurance of your muscles will increase because the more you stimulate the muscles the better it becomes at preventing unwanted injury due to its increase in strength. Your muscles strength will will increase because your body naturally repairs muscles after exercise, once the muscles are repaired they become stronger and are able to take more damage as a result of this. During exercise when your muscles are put under stress the muscles will tear and strain as they cant deal with the force being put on them. this is what causes the muscles to tear, the muscles are then repair by the use of things like proteins which come and repair the muscles, this is what makes the muscles stronger as they are repaired to become stronger then previously . this increase in muscular strength will benefit an athlete because it will increase their strength power and muscular endurance.
Reference

Muscular system

http://wccphysiologyunit.weebly.com/long-term-effects-of-exercise---muscular-system.html

http://www.slideshare.net/danesmith_1/long-term-effects-of-exercise-on-musculoskeletal-system

https://www.boundless.com/physiology/muscle-tissue/exercise-and-skeletal-muscle-tissue/effect-exercise-on-muscles/

Skeletal system

http://questgarden.com/84/76/9/090714174605/index.htm

http://wiki.answers.com/Q/Long_term_effects_of_skeletal_system

http://www.livestrong.com/article/251873-long-term-effects-of-exercise-on-the-skeletal-system/

Cardiovascular

http://www.livestrong.com/article/22941-long-term-effects-exercise-cardiovascular/

http://www.ehow.co.uk/list_6524144_short-effects-exercise-cardiovascular-system.html

Respiratory system

http://www.livestrong.com/article/346890-long-term-effects-of-exercise-on-the-respiratory-system/

http://www.normalbreathing.com/c-effects-of-exercise-on-the-respiratory-system.php

Energy systems

http://quizlet.com/5575644/acute-and-chronic-effects-of-exercise-on-body-systems-flash-cards/
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