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United States History

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Natalie Baxter

on 8 March 2014

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Transcript of United States History

Thomas Jefferson is elected President:
(Democratic) Republican candidates T. Jefferson and Aaron Burr soundly defeat Federalist candidates Adams and Pinckney. They tied, so the House chose Jefferson, because Hamilton (SoS?) was anti-Burr.
The election is often coined,
"The Revolution of 1800,"
because it marked the restoration of a limited and frugal government, and a break in the monarchical tendencies of the Federalists
A peaceful change in hands from Federalist to Democratic-Republican power
Aaron Burr challenges Alexander Hamilton to a duel and kills him
Jefferson's beliefs:
A simple, limited government
Agriculture, centered around the yeoman farmer
Saw debt as a source of gov't corruption
Strict view of constitution
Neutrality (like Washington)
Jefferson's Presidency ( inaugurated 1801, finished in 09)
He reduced the size of the federal government
Alien and Sedition Acts expire

The Democratic Republicans had opposed them from the start, so they were let expire.

Jefferson refused to use the acts against his opponents, and pardoned all those indicted under them during Adams' presidency

*Most immigrants were Democratic Republicans!
Naturalization Act of 1802
This replaces the Naturalization Act of 1798, setting the requirement for citizenship back to 5 years
Debt reduction:
Army budget cut in 1/2, and navy budget also cut back, in an effort to reduce national debt
No internal taxes:
All taxes, including the Whiskey Tax, were repealed
Adams' Midnight Appointments
Judiciary Act of 1801
opened 15 new seats in the judiciary, which Adams filled with Federalists. He then reduced the number of judges in the Supreme Court to 5, so Jefferson couldn't appoint anyone.

So, the Democratic Republican Congress repealed the act, and Jefferson got to appoint a judge.

Then the DRs tried to remove opposition judges (the drunk Judge John Pickering actually was impeached), and the precedent was set that only criminal acts could lead to impeachment.
Marbury v. Madison
John Marshall, a Federalist, becomes Chief Justice
Separation of Church and State, and the Mammoth Cheese
The Cheshire farmers sent Jefferson a mammoth cheese to express gratitude for his commitment to the separation of church and state (which had been made "without a single slave to assist"). On the same day, he stated that the First Amendment supported this, showing his belief in a limited government

This elated New England Baptists, but frightened Federalists.
(During the election, Federalists had falsely called Jefferson an atheist (it was a venomous campaign), which scared some women into hiding their bibles. This vindicated the hysteria)
Religious Revivalism
Methodists and Baptists believed that God saw everyone as equal

This encouraged a new, democratic political culture
They provided a forum for sustained political conversation. They were read aloud at taverns, workshops, and homes, giving importance to events like the Cheshire farmers.

In 1800 there were 260 papers--by 1810 there were 396.

Almost all were very partisan
Madison, Jefferson's SoS, would not certify Adam's appointment of Marbury ( a "midnight appointment"). So, Marbury sued, requesting a writ of mandamus (a court order forcing the president to appoint him).

This created a dilemma: if the SC ruled Marbury in favor, the president would not comply with the writ. Yet by refusing to issue the writ, the Federalist-SC would be handing the DRs a victory...

So, Marshall ruled that marbury had a right to his appointment but the Supreme Court could not enforce it because the Constitution does not grant the Court the power to write writs.

Thus, Marshall declared that it was unconstitutional for the court to write writs, and established the power to judge the constitutionality of laws passed by congress. This is the theory of
judicial review
The Louisiana Purchase

LA was a key area because whoever controlled it controlled the mouth of the Mississippi River. So, the US preferred that the weaker Spanish control the area. So, when France got hold of the area in 1800-01, and the US could no longer keep goods in NO, Jefferson prepared for war and sent Monroe to France. He bought NO for a mere $15 million (France needed $ for war against Britain).

People questioned its constitutionality, and whether it went along with J's belief in debt reduction.
He was an expansionist
The Lewis and Clark expedition
Following the LP, Jefferson sent Meriwether Lewis and William Clark to map the territory all the way to the Pacific.

They led the Corps of Discovery, a diverse group that included
, their Indian guide.

The group returned in September 1806 with knowledge of the flora, fauna, and people of the West
Indian Resistance
Indians were losing their land from westward settlement, they were dying from disease, and they were losing their traditional values
Accomodationalists vs. Traditionalists
Some natives would adopt what customs as a means of survival, often agreeing to sell their lands and move west.

They were opposed by traditionalists, who urged natives to adhere to tradition and refuse to give up land
He and his brother lead a traditionalist revolt against American encroachment by fostering a pan-Indian federation centered in the Old Northwest.

Prophet, the brother, who claimed to be born again, travelled the Ohio River Valley as a religious leader. He stressed tradition and moral values (no alcohol)

By 1808 the pair started talking more about aggression. Tecumseh travelled gathering Indian resistance. He lead them, alongside their British allies, in the War of 1812

Tecumseh died at the Battle of Thames, marking the end of Indian unity
The Barbary Wars
The Embargo Act of 1807
Jefferson re-elected in 1804
Jefferson and Clinton (NY Governor) defeat Pinckney and Rufus King (NY)

Jefferson took credit for the return of Republican values and the LA Purchase, and won. Clinton became his VP
Trade in the Medterranean was controlled by the Barbary States: Morocco, Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli. These states demanded large payments from trading nations, but during the colonial era merchants were protected by Britain. After, Pres. Wash. and Adams agreed to pay.

Jefferson refused to pay, so Tripoli declared war. In the end there was no decisive victory, but the US' reputation strengthened
In 1803, Napoleon declared war on Britain. At first this helped US trade, but soon the countries tried to block each other from trading with the US.

Great Britain was more aggressive. The British would board American ships, seize cargo, and impress sailors who they claimed were deserters from the British Navy (affected 6,000 seamen from 1803-12).

The situation reached a crisis in 1807 when the British
fired on the American
. 3 Americans were killed and 4 abducted in the
Chesapeake Affair

Jefferson chose "peaceful coercion" over war in response to British aggression.

This act cut off U.S. trade to all foreign ports. J thought it would pressure nations to agree to leave US ships alone. However, it really just hurt American trade

It was very unpopular--Especially in New England, where trade was nearly at a standstill. However, manufacturers benefited (number of factories soared), and there was smuggling
James Madison elected President
Chesapeake Affair
Non-Importation Act
Congress passed it to ban British manufacturers from entering American ports, to protest British impressment

It was more a warning than anything else, as it didn't ban the really important goods
Madison, a Democratic Republican, ran against Pinckney and King (Federalists). This time, the Federalists had more of a chance of gaining seats in Congress because of the Embargo Act. Madison had Jefferson's support.
Non-Intercourse Act of 1809
Madison replaced the Embargo Act with this. It reopened trade with all except Britain and France, and promised if either country stopped violating US rights, the US would trade with them again.

This fixed the Embargo Act problems, but not the original ones. It was almost as unpopular, since Br. and Fr. were US' biggest trading partners.
Madison's Presidency
He inherited the foreign policy conflicts of the Jefferson years
Macon's Bill #2
This replaced the Non-Intercourse Act (which expired), and reopened trade with all countries. It also promised that if either Britain or France stopped violating US rights, the US would stop trading with the other nation. Napoleon said sure, Madison complied, but the French didn't stop.
Battle of Tippecanoe
Women in Politics
The transition from one president to the next was eased, in part, by the wives of the officials in the capital, who encouraged political and diplomatic negotiation.

They hosted events, served regionally diverse food.

**Also, Jeffersonian woman responded to the Embargo by making homespun clothing
Madison re-elected in 1812
At this point, war seemed inevitable. The Federalists had support from anti-war sentiments, and gained some congressional seats

The South and West--areas that supported war--remained very Democratic Republican
In 1809, the governor of Indiana territory, William Henry Harrison, negotiated the Treaty of Fort Wayne. Native Americans agreed to cede 3 million acres for a nominal fee. Tecumseh wasn't present for the agreement.

Settlers in the territory persuaded Harrison to wage war against Tecumseh's federation. The battle ousted members of the confederacy, and was seen as an American victory.
The War Hawks
These western congressmen became convinced that the British were encouraging Tecumseh.

Leaders such as Henry Clay (KY) and John Calhoun (SC) pushed for military action against the British.

Such action would eliminate Native American threat and allow an invasion of Canada, they thought
War of 1812

"Mr. Madison's War"
An evasion of war
Britain tried to avoid war, but it was too late
Congress soon voted on war. Land-hungry southerners and westerners were for it (War Hawks), New Englanders against.
The US was unprepared:
The DR's debt reduction program reduced the army and navy to almost nothing
Nobody enlisted in the national army, only some state militias. They were low on supplies and salaries were low.
Financial problems due to lowered revenue/import taxes from embargo and war
Regional disagreements--New England state militias wouldn't leave their state lines
The British had some victories early in the war, at Fort Dearborn and Detroit (
General William Hull's Surrender
The US burned the city of York and won several sea battles. At the
Battle of Thames
, American forces defeated British and Native American forces and killed Tecumseh. The Battle of New Orleans, led by General Andrew Jackson in 1815, was a major US victory. But, the US had already signed a peace treaty, ending the war weeks before in late 1814.
Treaty of Ghent
Britain had grown weary after fighting Napoleon for over a decade and the US for 2 years. There was no decisive victory.
The treaty was negotiated by JQ Adams and Henry Clay
edit this
invasion of canada?
The treaty really just restored what was there before.
What the war did:
Reaffirmed American independence from Britain
Convinced the US to stay out of European politics
Destroyed Indian resistance, leading to American expansion in the South and West
Finished off the Federalist party
Most importantly, it stimulated domestic manufacturers
Hartford Convention
As diplomats were negotiating the Treaty of Ghent in December, Federalists from New England convened in Hartford, CT, to express their displeasure with the war. (They even talked about secession!)

This was right around the Battle of New Orleans, which made the Federalists look treasonous, so they kinda died out.
Aftermath of the war:
Nationalism-the US had held their own against one of the world's strongest powers
Damaged reputation of the Federalist party(they had been seen as unpatriotic for their opposition to war)
Native Americans lost their British ally
Industry developed
Battle of New Orleans
James Monroe elected President
The Federalist party had died out, so Monroe won easily

He continued Madison's domestic program, supporting tariffs and vetoing the Cumberland road bill

He was president during
"The Era of Good Feelings"
(1815-25) because of the lack of party rivlary
Madison's 2nd term
He proposed economic and military expansion through the creation of a second national bank, and improvements in transportation

2nd Bank of the United States was chartered
The Tariff of 1816 was passed
Funds were collected for the extension of the National road

Important Supreme Court cases:
The court was still lead by Chief Justice John Marshall, and remained the only Federalist stronghold
Marbury v. Madison
(1803, see timeline)
Fletcher v. Peck
(1810) The Supreme Court ruled against a Georgia law that violated individuals' rights to make contracts
McCulloch v. Maryland
(1819) The Supreme Court ruled against a Maryland law taxing the 2nd BUS and consequently asserted the supremacy of the federal government over the states. Marshall also reinforced a loose constructionist view of the Constitution by reaffirming that Congress had a right to charter the bank,
Dartmouth College v. Woodward
(1819) Declared a contract between a college and a colonial assembly no longer valid. the SC nullified the NH? law, altering the charter of Dartmouth college. Showed the sanctity of contracts?
Gibbons v. Ogden
(1824) Invalidated a NY State act granting a monopoly to ferry boat company operation between NY and NJ. Confirmed federal jurisdiction over interstate commerce
His (and Madison's) term was characterized by nationalism and improvement in transportation, the military, and manufacturing
Henry Clay's "American System"
Internal improvements/transportation
: the military had difficulty moving materials in the war
High tariffs on imported goods
, to promote American manufacturing
A second Bank of the United States
, which would stabilize the economy and make credit readily available
The Missouri Compromise
When Missouri applied for statehood, controversy arose between slave-holding and free states because at the time, the number of each was equal.

The compromise, proposed by Henry Clay, made Missouri a slave state, but Maine a free state, to maintain the balance.

It also divided the remaining area of the LA Territory at 36*30' latitude. North of the line, slavery was not
permitted (except in MO).
The Monroe Doctrine
Panic of 1819
At one point, gradual emancipation of MO was proposed in the Tallmadge amendment, but it enraged Southerners and was rejected by the Senate
John Quincy Adams as SoS
Served from 1817-25
An expansionist-Pushed to obtain fishing rights, political separation from Europe, peace
Against alliances
Rush-Bagot Treaty (1817)
Agreement between US and GB to limit their naval forces in the Great Lakes.

It was the first modern disarmament treaty and led to the eventual demilitarization of the US-Canada border
(At the Convention of 1818, the US-Canada border was set at the 49th parallel)
Adams-Onis Treaty (1819)
Agreement between US and Spain that completed the US acquisition of Florida
After the treaties, only Latin America remained. In 1822 the US became the first country to recognize the newly formed countries. (But JQA knew that the French were coming)
Called for limited European influence in the Western Hemisphere

But, it was really a big bluff since the US didn't have the military to enforce it anyways!
The first crash, caused by the boom-bust cycle, resulted from avid speculation of Western land. When manufacturing fell in 1818, prices fell, devastating workers.

Boom-Bust Cycles
Direct result of the market economy, because prosperity would stimulate demand which lead to higher prices, higher production, and speculation on land. When prodo surpassed demand, prices and wages fell, causing land and stock values to collapse.
Some people say it was a way of weeding out bad businesses. Also, since each seller determined their prices, it increased individual freedom.
John Quincy Adams elected President
"The Corrupt Bargain"
Adams, William Crawford, and Andrew Jackson ran for the DRs. Monroe did not back any of the candidates. Henry Clay ran for the Federalists
Jackson received the largest popular vote and electoral votes, but he did not have a majority. So, Clay backed Adams and the House voted him president.
Soon after, Adams announced that Clay would be his SoS. Jackson and his supporters were furious.
Adams' Beliefs:
Thought his policies followed those of Jefferson & Madison
Wanted the gov't to promote scientific and technological progress
Adams' Presidency...
He believed he was above partisan squabbles, but his opponents thought this made him aloof and elitist
HIs programs for federally funded infrastructure went farther than Clay's
His fellow DRs called him a "latter-day Federalist"
Pretty much, he was a better SoS than President
There was economic growth after the War of 1812
Improvements in Transportation
following the War of 1812
STATES invested in roads, canals, and railroads. This increased the importance of NE seaboard cities. It also reduced travel times and shipping, stimulating the economy. The South did not develop transportation as much.
National Road
-Began in MD and reached OH in 1833
Erie Canal
-Linked the Great Lakes to NYC. Completed in '25
-As investment in canals fell, railroad construction boomed
It almost didn't work when MO submitted a constitution barring free blacks from entering the state. So, in 1821 Clay proposed a second comp: MO would guarantee that none of its laws would discriminate against citizens of other states.
Eli Whitney invents the cotton gin

Eli Whitney promotes the American System
Involved using precision machinery to produce interchangeable parts that didn't require adjustment to fit
Whitney promoted it in respect to rifles...it wasn't necessarily invented in 98.

It soon spread to other mainstream manufacturers, leading to an outpouring of consumer goods
The 2nd BUS falls
Leads to a national credit shortage, which, combined with the Panic of 1837, lead to a reform in banking

The new "free banking system" meant that banks that reached minimum standards would be chartered automatically.
This stimulated the economy in the 40s/50s
Second Great Awakening
Preachers encouraged repentance, and said salvation was available through conversion.
*Second millennium is coming-->desire for perfection-->societal reform*

Charles Finney
Revival Meetings:
Women were more involved than men because it was a social outlet and gave new opportunities
The movement of large camp meetings began in KY and spread to other states--especially NY and PA
The towns adjacent to the Erie Canal became known as the "burned-over district," because of the intensity
Women began a drive to help reform the prostitutes and stop young men from abusing women through the

Female Moral Reform Society

(1834), which opened chapters across the nation and became politically involved
Goal was to limit the prodo/sale/consumption of alcohol
Popular among women, who were troubled by their alcoholic husbands
Inspired by religion
Favored by employers
Over the years the focus went from moderation to abstinence to prohibition
In the 1820s, Catholics and immigrants were targeted
Asylums and Penitentiaries
In early America, the mentally ill were often treated as common criminals, so reformers such as
Dorothea Dix
led to the creation of the first mental asylums.
Public Education
This campaign gained a large following in the 40s
Horace Mann
, a lawyer and reformer, advocated free, tax-supported education. He helped MA lead "common school" movement, which established schools to train teachers, lengthened the school year, and raised teachers salaries
The movement believed education is essential in a democracy
Catholics did not like the Protestant curriculum, and established their own schools
Founded by Joseph Smith in upstate NY in 1830
The group was met with hostility for its unorthodox teachings--especially polygamy
The group journeyed west, and Smith was killed by a mob in IL in '44, and Brigham Young became the new leader
utopian experiments:
Lead to a focus on engineering and science
Peaked from 1820-60, with 6,000 members in 20 settlements in 8 states
Emphasized agriculture and handcrafts
Founded by Mother Ann Lee in England 1772, their name related to their worship service, which included shaking
Lived comunally, with men and women in separate quarters, but with equal leadership. Depended on new recruits because of celibacy.
There were other utopias in Putney, VT, and Oneida, NY, founded by lawyer John Humphrey Noyes
A short, intense attack on freemasonry, a secret society that came from England and emphasized individual belief and brotherhood. AMs saw the society as anti-democratic and elitist. They held conventions...idk
In 1816 the
American Colonization Society
was founded, which wanted to free slaves and ship them back to Africa
But, by 1830 the immediatists surpassed the gradualists as the leading voice of the movement
In '31, white abolitionist
William Lloyd Garrison
The Liberator
, and became a key figure in the movement for immediate abolition.
Politics: A group of abolitionists formed the
Liberty Party
in 1840. It believed that the Constitution was an antislavery document and that the US should live up to that (this differed from Garrison, who said it protected slavery. He didn't want to be involved in politics anyways).
Frederick Douglass
: He was born into slavery, but escaped to the North and became literate.
American Anti-Slavery Society: 1833. An immediatist group
The Lovejoy Incident: Elijah Lovejoy, an abolitionist, was killed by a proslavery mob and his printing press was destroyed.
Defense of Slavery:
George Fitzhugh: Claimed that it was a "positive good" for the slaves, providing them with skills, discipline, and "civilization"
Abolitionists also gained following through their protest of "the Gag Rule" which made abolitionists petitions off limits for debate
Women were involved in the abolition movement, foudning the Female Anti-Slavery society
Antebellum society defined women as inferior.The "
cult of domesticity
," insisted that women keep a proper Christian home--separate from the male sphere. Under femme covert, women had no political standing
Seneca Falls Convention
(1848): Organized by Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton, who began thinking not only about abolition but also about the conditions of women in the US. The convention issued a doc that said "all men and women are created equal"
Andrew Jackson elected President
Got revenge after the "Corrupt Bargain" of '24
Jackson had a big campaign, with the first well-organized national party
What he did when he became President:
-Like Jefferson, he strengthened the executive branch while reducing federal power by (1) relying on a "kitchen cabinet" of his political friends instead of his official one and (2) rewarding his followers and confronting his enemies and (3) rotating officeholders to keep Democrats in office
-He vetoed things a lot, such as the Maysville Road Bill (1830), declaring them unconstitutional
He was very anti-elitist (reformer in sense that he returned gov't to majority rule), but he was very egotistical...which is why he was called "King Andrew"
"Old Hickory"
Spoils System
Although it was used before and after Jackson, it is most associated with his presidency

The idea is that elected officials reward supporters with government jobs. Jackson fired 10% of gov't employees when he assumed office and gave the jobs to loyalists
The Nullification Crisis
The Democrats
Shared a fundamental commitment to the Jeffersonian concept of an agrarian society
Weak central gov't, no gov't intervention in economy bc it favors the rich
Westward expansion calls for federal intervention (Jackson initiated Indian removal)
Started in 1828
SC rejected the 1828 tariff (AKA t. of abominations. which protected manufacturers by imposing import duties on cloth and iron. While this protected N. factories, it raised prices in S), invoking the doctrine of nullification, which said that a state had the right to overrule federal legislation
Jackson's VP, Calhoun, agreed that sovereignty rests with the states, so he kinda left Jackson, who thought it rested with the people. Jackson started to rely more on SoS Van Buren
In '32 Congress reduced some of the dutiesbut kept them on iron, cotton, and woolens. Yet SC again nullified both tariffs, fearing that they could set a precedent for legislation on slavery. This made it illegal to collect within state boundaries
In response, Jackson passed the
Force Act
, which gave the pres. authority to caull troops to collect duties before ships reached the state, while at the same time recommending tariff reductions to give SC a change to back down
Calhoun resigned and became a SC Senator, deciding to work with Clay to come up with the a compromise: The
Tariff of 1833
reduced duties over a 9 year period. SC was satisfied and repealed the nullification law
Although the crisis was over, there was no decisive victory...it would take another crisis, ove the national bank, to make this clear.
Indian Removal Act
Jackson asserted that it was necessary for Native Americans to be removed to areas west of the Mississippi. He said this was in their best interest, and pushed for the Indian Removal Act
The Cherokee people in Georgia challenged it in
Cherokee Nation v. Georgia
('31) and
Worcester v. Georgia
('32). The SC recognized the Cherokees as a nation within the state and ruled that they could not be subject to the act.
The Trail of Tears
('38): Georgia, with Jackson's support, began moving Natives to the West despite the SC decision. It resulted in thousands of deaths. This showed Jackson's consistency with the states' rights position.
Destruction of the 2nd BUS
Despite the fact that the bank was functioning admirably, Jackson insisted that it put too much power into the hands of a small elite
Jackson's oponents thought that if they brought the issue of rechartering the bank to Congress in 1832, 4 years before it would expire, Jackson would veto and weaken his chances at re-election. However, they were wrongJackson did veto, but his angry rhetoric played well with voters and he won the re-election.
Jackson took action to kill the bank immediately. He moved federal deposits from the BUS to state banks in Democratic-leaning states
and Specie Circular
Specie Circular
: Jackson's suspicion of bankers and credit led him to issue this, mandating that gov't held land only be sold for hard currency (gold or silver). This resulted in a shortage of funds by the gov't

**Both of these contributed to the economic downfall of the
Panic of '37
Conflict over the bank lead to violence in the streets, which was a catalyst for the formation of the Antimason Party...
Violence lead to the formation of " ", which started in upstate NY in the mid 1820s as a grassroots movement against Freemasonry.
1832: Jackson reelected (easily)
His Second Term: Financial Crisis
Deposit Act of 1836
: Allowed the Secretary of the Treasury to choose one bank per state to do what the BUS used to do. It also provided that any federal surplus over $5 mil. be given to the states starting in '37. THe surplus, from speculation in public lands, was then put into bank notes by state banks. This worried Jackson, who hated paper $, leading to the specie circular (mentioned earlier).
Congress voted to repeal the Specie circular, but J pocket vetoed and it stood until mid 1838 when Congress killed it
Jackson was the first Pres. to really use the veto, another reason he was called "King Andrew"
The Second Party System
The Jacksonian branch of the DRs became the Democratic Party and Jackson's opponents organized the Whig Party (1833), who were left over from the old National Republican Party
This was the 2nd 2 party system in history, following the DRs and Federists (1790s-1810s)
Whigs favored an economy helped by an active gov't, corporations, nat'l bank, paper currency, reform. Supporters were evangelical Protestants, Methodists, or Baptists and usually American born or free black
Democrats supported limited gov't, and no concentrated power. suppoerters were immigrants or non-evangelical Protestants
Martin Van Buren elected President
At this point the Whigs were not yet a natl party, so they entered 3 sectional candidates (hoping no one would get a majority and the House would choose) against Democrat Van Buren, who won easily.
A few weeks after VB took office, the whole American credit system collapsed, setting off a depression from '39-'43.
VB didn't help by using Jackson's hard $ policies and establishing a new regional treasury system for gov't deposits
William Henry "Tippecanoe" Harrison elected President
The Whigs nominated the hero of the Indian Wars, nicknamed this after the site of his defeat of Tecumseh's forces
He was presented as a man of humble origins, despite being well off
He ran against Van Buren, who the Whigs portrayed as distant and aristocratic (despite that he was from humble backgrounds). Plus, VB had the Panic of '37 going against him
He was a grassroots campaigner
**Harrison died of pneumonia after a month in office, and was succeeded by his VP, John Tyler.
John Tyler's Presidency
Tyler was a Whig in name only--A former Democrat, he joined them just to oppose Jackson's policies over nullification
He vetoed bills that the Whig-dominated congress sent his way. These included the essentials of Clay's American System (new bank, higher tariffs, internal improvements)
The only things that really happened during his presidency were the repeal of the independent treasury system and a higher tariff.
And, the entire cabinet resigned, leaving him without a party, which is why he was called "His accidency"
Westward Expansion...
In 1845, the term
Manifest Destiny
was coined by
John O'Sullivan
: It was God's plan for the US to take over and settle the entire continent. It also referred to the movement of individuals to newly acquired lands.
Americans were more driven by economic motives such as cheap land and precious metals
Americans had been settling in Texas as far back as the 1820s because of the affordable land for cotton
By 1835, the settlers were numerous and powerful, so the Mexican gov't tightened control. This sparked a rebellion, which culminated in Texan independence and the establishment of the Lone Star Republic in '36. Texas opened annexation negotiations...?
Oregon had been split between the US and Britain since the Convention of 1818, but expansionists began demanding "Fifty-four forty or fight"
James K. Polk is elected President
and the annexation of Texas
Polk, a democrat, promised to push for Texas annexation and resolve the Oregon problem, which would offer something to the South and the North.
By 1844, the Democrats were more expansionist and proslavery than the Whigs
Polk defeated President Tyler,and as a "gift," Tyler pushed the annexation of Texas through Congress
Texas joined as the 15th slave state in '44
Mexican War 1846-48
The Renaissance
The spirit of curiosity inspired people to explore. There were also new books
Protestant Reformation
Martin Luther, a German Monk, and John Calvin, a French cleric/lawyer led breaks with Rome over church practices and beliefs
Luther especially hated the Catholic church's practice of selling indulgences/sin
They insisted that people can interpret the bible for themselves--> spread of literacy
Elizabeth I tolerated it, but her successors James I and Charles I enforced religious conformity
Soooo, Puritans, Separatists, Catholics and Presbyterians moved to America
Creation of the Church of England
King Henry VIII wanted a divorce because he wanted a male heir to the throne, but the Pope wouldn't let him divorce
So, he created the C of E
Some English Protestants and Puritans believed that the English Protestant Reformation hadn't gone far enough...Puritans
*The Catholic church underwent a transformation also, and the Jesuits became. They were devoted to spreading the gospel around the world
Technological Advancements
Printing Press-1440s, helped spread information and created interest in new discoveries (Marco Polo). Luther translated the Bible to the vernacular, which later fueled the Protestant Reformation
The compass, astrolabe, quadrant, hourglass
New maps of the sea and winds
Lateen Sail (triangular) helps them master the winds
Political changes that lead to exploration:
Hundred Years' War
-English monarchs claim French throne, which interrupts trade. Also creates a national identity, political consolidation, and worsens rivalry.
Ferdinand and Isabella
Reconquista of Iberian Peninsula drives out Sephardic Jews and Moors
Compete with Portugal, who under Prince Henry the Navigator have already explored the North African coast
Willing to fund Columbus for a chance to fund a crusade to Jerusalem
Black Death/Bubonic Plague
(14th c.)
Reduced the European population by 30-60%, weakening the feudal system
Disrupts political organizations, kills leaders
Creates market economy around wool, which leads people off the land (enclosure
The Madeira, Canaries, and Azores Islands:
Learned to enslave native population
First plantation systems
Can grow exotic foods there
****They want to take all of this to the Americas
Spanish Model of Colonization
1) Crown maintains tight control over colonization
- Very hierarchical, no self government
- All trade centered around the mother country
-Manufactured goods, raw goods (sugar, plunder!)
-Orthodox faith--no dissent

2) Exploit natives and use African slaves

3) Men were the first colonists, which made a
Mestizo population
Spanish leaders were guaranteed controver the labor of Pueblo villagers, but they gained little profit and had to send gold home to Spain
The Columbian Exchange
The largely UNINTENDED exchange of plants, animals, and diseases from the Old world to the New world after first contact
Disease: Bubonic plague, cholera, scarlet fever and smallpox result in a 90% mortality rate (even though the world pop. doubles over the next 300 years)
Natives get livestock, Europeans get crops
France and England hoped to duplicate Spain's success, but didn't even have a settlement by the end of the 16th century!
Why Explore?
Countries craved African and Asian silks, dyes, perfumes, jewels, silver, gold, SPICES, etc.
Europe only had 3 crops, which they used to ferment the gross water
Sugar could supplement their diet
Concern for spreading Christianity supplemented the economic motive
The Failure at Roanoke
In 1587, after 2 other tries, Sir Walter Raleigh sent 117 colonists to Roanoke Island
The colonists mysteriously disappeared
It was a failure because of the neighbors' hostility and insufficient foodstuffs
A set of economic and political ideas that shaped colonial policy. Holds that only a limited amount of resources exists in the world

Countries must maintain a favorable balance of trade, with more exports than imports
Jamestown, Virginia
Religious and economic motives: Overcrowding, competition with Spain, hoped to find new trade routes and precious metals
It was a joint-stock venture, founded by small investors.
They got a charter in 1606 and Jamestown was founded in 1607
Nearly collapsed because colonists couldn't sustain themselves. Arrived during a bad drought. Disease.They thought it would be easy to just find gold and silver but it wasn't. They were lazy. Many died (90%)
Relations with natives also deteriorated quickly
They economy eventually became centered around tobacco, which helped expand colonization
First permanent English settlement. Lead by John Smith
The Algonquins and Powhatan
Powhatan's people traded corn with settlers, but when they ran low, the settlers raided them
These skirmished continued for years until the Natives organized an assault in '22
It didn't dislodge the settlement, but it created hostility
Left out:
-Headright: Get 50 acres
-Indentured servants
-John Rolfe:Credited with successful cultivation of tobacco. Husband of Pocahantas
-Succession of monarchs
-Roger Williams, a Puritan minister, was concerned about the mistreatment of natives and the involvement of the church in government, so he fled and founded Rhode Island in 1636. (they had separation of church and state)
-CT:Thomas Hooker, who disagreed with Winthrops rules about admission to the church, led a group to the CT river valley in '36 where they founded Hartford
-Pequot Wars: Colones of MA Bay and Plymouth defeated the Pequots
-By the 1650s, the number of Puritan church members was declining, so the half-covenant was made
-The middle colonies had major growth in the 18th. c. Immigrants went to PA
-New York Conspiracy: Stono and fears of Spain bc of King George's war made whites suspect biracial gangs, thus beginning a reign of terror. IT showed that assemblies couldn't prevent disorder
-Pueblo Revolt/Pope's Rebellion: The pueblos were sick of being oppressed by the SPanish, and their grievances came to the surface. THey attacked Spanish Franciscan priests and ordinary Spaniards. Pueblos were given land (vastly different outcome from US)
-Judith Sargent Murray believed women and men are equally intelligent, but women appear dumber bc...Women must be properly educated to educate their kids

House of Burgesses
Virginians organized the first representative legislative body in British North America
All free adult men could vote
Continued even after King James revoked the VA Co's charter in 1624
Over time it became less powerful and more exclusive
First proprietary colony established by England in America
Refuge for Catholics, but pretty soon they were outnumbered by Protestants
The Carolinas
The colony of Carolina was established in 1663 by King Charles II
He was restored to the throne in '60 and wanted to reward his supporters
Relocated successful slave owners
In 1711 it separated into N and S
N.C. was more like the Chesapeake, while S had a ton of slaves and a small # of planters
Britain granted a charter to Oglethorpe in 1732
They wanted something between S.C. and Spanish-held FL
New England
The first settlers were Puritans, who believed Calvinist doctrine that individual salvation was subject to divine path/predestination (John Winthrop!
Congregationalists (Puritans) wanted to purify the church
Separatists (like the Pilgrims) believed the church was corrupt
There was a Great Puritan Migration to the MA Bay area, where Winthrop was (20k Puritan settlers)
Anne Hutchinson
A deeply religious thinker, she held meetings to discuss theological matters
Took Puritan ideas to the extreme, accused Puritan leaders of backsliding on the idea that salvation is solely determined by God
In 1638, Winthrop and other leaders tried, excommunicated, and banished Hutchinson and her family
Restoration Colonies
Restoration Period: In 1642 English Parliament rebelled against Charles I. They won, Cromwell assumed the throne, and after him the English restored the monarchy.
New Amsterdam/ York: Originally Dutch (they really just used it for trade), but then Charles II gave it to his brother, the Duke of York
New Jersey: Duke of York regranted some of his land to friends (Carteret and Berkeley in 1664)
Delaware: Originally Dutch, then Swedish, then Dutch (New Netherlands), then Duke of York granted the land to his friend William Penn, he incorporated it into Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania: In '81, King Charles II granted a huge piece of land to William Penn to settle a debt he owed to his father. Penn made it a haven for Quakers/tolerated all religions.
Carolinas: Granted by Charles in 1663
Bacon's Rebellion
Governor William Berkeley was reluctant to interfere with Indians for land because things were peaceful, and he already had land
Angry colonists rallied behind Nathaniel Bacon, and fought both Indians and supporters of the government in 1676
Bacon forced Berkeley to flee, but died
It was TURNING POINT towards a slave society!
Tide water farmers learn moral: Don't use indentured servants, bc when they are free they will compete for scarce resources!
By 1690, Slaves > Indentured servants
Stono Rebellion
20 S.C. slaves obtained weapons by attacking a country store, killed 20 slave owners and plundered plantations. They were on their way to Florida, but were quickly put down. This shocked colonists, who tightened restrictions on blacks.
King Phillip's War
Population in New England had tripled, just from natural increase, so they needed more land and infringed on Indian territory
King Phillip of the Massasoits? began attacking settlements in 1675, but in '76 the tides turned and the colonists won
1/10 of the male population was killed, towns were ruined, and the economy devastated
The Dominion of New England
King Charles II was suspicious of New England
They weren't following rules, so he revoked the charters of all colonies north of MD and formed one massive colony
It was ruled by Sir Edmund Andros
Now the governance of New England wasn't based on Puritan values, a devastating blow to the movement
The Glorious Revolution and Restoration of Charters
The Dominion of New England did not last long. After arles II died, his brother James II, a Catholic, gained the throne.
Protestant parliamentarians rose up in the GR and deposed him, and William and Mary (Orange) took over
The revolution was almost bloodless, and also led to the English Bill of Rights
The turmoil in England inspired New England to arrest Andros, and soon royal charters were issued by the crown
The Witchcraft Crisis
Why? There were wars in Maine, so people moved back to MA, which made a bad economy
The Charter was revoked
People couldn't explain it, so they blamed it on the devil
What? People were executed for witchcraft suspicions
It stopped when ministers started to disapprove, the royal charter was implemented, and people of high status were accused
Navigation Acts
1. Only English or colonial merchants and ships could legally trade in the colonies
2. Certain enumerated American products could be sold only in the mother country or in other English colonies
3. All foreign goods destined for sale in the colonies had to be shipped through England
4. (later) The colonies could not export items that competed with English products
-Adversely affected some colonies that wanted to trade in foreign markets
-Builders and owners of ships benefited
-British found out about SMUGGLING, and established
vice admiralty courts
, which operated without juries and adjudicated violations of the acts
Board of trade and plantations
, 1696, oversaw the governors, but didn't have any direct enforcement
British Acts
Sugar and Currency Acts (1764)- Revised customs regulations, laid new taxes on foreign imports to colonies. The Currency Act effectively outlawed colonial paper money

Stamp Act (1765)- Required tax stamps on most printed materials
This impacted merchants and the elite most, bc they were buying the most paper goods
SEE CHART!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
King William's War
France wants James II to regain the throne, so they start the war. If countries go to war, that means colonies go to war
...Kinda started the witchcraft crisis
Queen Anne's War
War of Spanish succession. Colonists were encouraged to help out through land grants and offices
The Enlightenment
Stressed a belief in rationality and peoples ability to understand the universe through mathematical or natural laws
Gave elite a common vocab
John Locke's ideals about government
Advances in medicine, such as smallpox innoculation
First Great Awakening
Stressed feeling over rationalism
Main message: Anyone could be saved, and your choices will affect your afterlife
Crucial precursor to the American Revolution, as people started to question their superiors
Based on the preachings of
Johnathan Edwards
a Calvinist: People attain salvation by surrendering completely to God's will
George Whitefield
(modern celebrity): Church of England, created split between OLD lights and NEW lights
The Seven Years' War
Causes of the war: Decades of conflict between Britain and France. British settlers started to infringe on French territory in the Ohio River Valley.
Natives sided with the French
Colonial leaders met in Albany, NY to organize an intercolonial government (plan of Union). Their goal was to get the Iroquois to join them (they stayed neutral), and coordinate defense (which also didn't work out).
At first the war was pretty local, then the British took full charge (forced colonists into army and seized their supplies), then Prime Minister William Pitt tried to work with colonial assemblies to reinforce the war effort with more British troops.
The French surrendered at Montreal, and two years later the Treaty of Paris was signed. In it the French ceded virtually all of its North American land. Land east of the MS and in Canada went to GB. Everything west of the Mississippi went to Spain
Spain lose Florida
Indians lose power of putting one European country against another
Britain doubles national debt, and thinks the colonists should help pay it, especially if they want continued protection
Colonists gain war experience...(hint hint, revolution!)
Proclamation Act of 1763/Pontiac's Rebellion
Indian leader Pontiac united an unprecedented number of tribes due to concern about spread of colonists and their culture
Although the colonists eventually triumphed, the British issued the Proclamation Line of 1763, which colonists could not settle past in order to prevent further conflicts
Colonists were upset, because they felt that they had sacrificed for the war, and they were eager to settle the newly claimed lands
It also showed that the huge new territory from France would be hard to govern
Real vs. Virtual Representation
Real: Representatives come from the communities that they represent, and are bound by the views of their constituents
Virtual: (what Grenville believes) Each representative in Parliament represents the needs and wants of every citizen in the British empire
Both have pros and cons; Virtual avoids regionalism/competition for goods of state thus being better for the empire as a whole, but Colonists think they aren't represented...(no taxation without representation!)
The Stamp Act Congress
In Oct. '75, delegates from 9 colonies met in NY and drew up a list of grievances, going beyond the Stamp Act. It asserted that only representatives elected by the colonies could tax them ("No taxation w/out representation!")
Patrick Henry wrote the Virginia Resolves, a series of proposals, which were circulated around the colonies although they weren't all passed. They called for a degree of self-government that went beyond more moderate proposals.
The British responded with the claim of Virtual Representation
Committees of Correspondence
These were organized in communities throughout the colonies starting in '64.

These committees of opponents of British pol initially spread info and coordinated actions, but by the 70s they had assumed government powers and challenged the legitimacy of legislative assemblies and royal governors.
Sons of Liberty Groups
Throughout the colonies, Sons of Liberty groups formed. They harassed and attacked Stamp Act agents.

The Act was rescinded in 1766. However, the acts following only worsened the situation...
The Boston Massacre
In the winter, a disagreement between a British officer and an apprentice escalated, and angry colonists heckled/threw stones/snowballs at the British troops
The troops opened fire on the colonists. 5 died, including an African American
The incident reflected colonial tensions and resentment of the standing army in Boston
It was used later as propaganda to show the brutality of the British
Boston Tea Party
When the British passed the Tea Act in '73, it actually limited the price of tea by lowering the tariff on products of British East India Co. But, it still angered colonists who accused the Brits of doing special favors for a large company
They responded by dumping 10,000 lbs. of tea (which was worth a LOT of money!) into Boston Harbor
They later realized this was kinda stupid, since it destroyed property...
Lexington and Concord/ Bunker Hill: The War begins
April 19, 1775
General Thomas Gage sent an expedition to confiscate supplies in Concord. They first went to Lexington, where they were met with little resistance. Paul Revere told Concord "The British are coming." The Brits were met with more resistance at Concord, and defeated the King's troops.
The first shot at Lexington is known as "The shot heard around the world."
Symbolized a shift from protest to rebellion
Bunker Hill: In June, colonial forces besieged Boston, but the British forced them to retreat to Cambridge after suffering their worst losses? who?
Turning point for the Brits towards more of a focus on the middle colonies, less on radical movement in NE
Battles at Trenton/Princeton
Trenton: Washington attacked during Winter quarters on xmas/New years, defeating Hessian mercenaries
A few days later he attacked Princeton
Saratoga (Oriskansy)
General Johnny Bugoyne goes down Lake Champlain until Saratoga, and there is a battle. But, his backup has been defeated at Oriskansy (the battle that divided the Iroquois Confederacy)
drew France into the conflict
(they wanted to avenge the Brits for the 7years war) American victory ended with the Treaty of Amity Commerce, and the Treaty of Alliance (w/ France)
They had been supplying the colonies for the first 2 yrs of war...
Franklin had been working to bring them together
It enabled them to send more aid and gave Britain another country to fight
Then Spain entered! (on side of French ONLY)
Yorktown (and Guildferd Courthouse)
At the courthouse, the Americans are lead by Greene. He tells his troops to retreat, which makes them lose the battle, but not a lot of men.
The British lose a lot of men, and must retreat to Yorktown for supplies. Greene's troops trap them there, and they can't escape by sea because it's controlled by the French.So, Britain (Cornwallis) surrenders
Treaty of Paris
Signed on Sept. 3, 1783

Granted independence to a nation named "The United States of America"
Also gave US Britain's N. American land
The Declaration of Independence
On June 7, some congressmen introduced a motion towards independence
5 of them agreed to draft a declaration, which Jefferson wrote. It was adopted July4th
Important Statements:
Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness (similar to Locke)
Government is by/for the people
All men are created equal
After it was signed, there was no going back since they had committed treason!

It was pretty much blaming King George III, and was a breakup letter. It accused him of trying to destroy a representative gov't
Thomas Paine's "Common Sense"
Released in January 1776, instant best-seller
Paine was a radical English printer who had only lived in America for 2 years, but called stridently for independence
He said that the British had exploited the colonies, had a strong prose/tone, referenced the Bible...
The idea that governments should be based wholly on the consent of the people
Originated with political theorists in ancient Greece and Rome
Citizens must be virtuous and in agreement on key issues
People are sovereign, not parliament
There were several views...but all believed it could only succeed through hard work and virtue
The Articles of Confederation
late 1777
Although it was written in '76, they were sent to the states for ratification in '77
What they did:
1) Provided a unicameral legislature where states could send a certain number of delegates that would vote as a unit
2) The legislature could declare war, make peace, sign treaties, borrow $, organize a post office, establish army/navy, issue bonds, and manage Western lands
3) They could NOT draft soldiers, regulate interstate commerce, enforce treaties, or collect taxes
4) 2/3 majority needed to pass legislation and unanimity needed for an amendment
5) There was no executive and no national judiciary. The nat. gov't had no power over state gov't. States could deal directly with other countries if Congress allowed it.
6. No national currency or system of measure
**Known as the critical period, bc the AOC weren't strong enough. Others say it was a time of recovery and progress
Finance: They tried printing currency, but then there was inflation caused by Army losses and lost faith in gov't

Economic warfare between states hurt merchants
Trade: After war, Britain France and Spain limited American trade, but congress couldn't do anything as cheap British goods flooded the market?
Foreign affairs: Congress couldn't deal with Spanish presence in S and W
Congress couldn't enforce treaties, and consequently didn't enforce the repayment of war debts. This gave the British an excuse not to remove their forts

The West
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