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WHIS Chp. 7-8 "Rome and the Rise of Christianity"
Transcript of WHIS Chp. 7-8 "Rome and the Rise of Christianity"
Rome and the Rise of Christianity
5-1 "The Rise of Rome"
5-2 "From Republic to Empire"
5-3 "Roman Culture and Society"
(pg. 152-159) 5-2 Vocabulary to add to foldables:
5-3 (pg. 160-165) Vocabulary
The Land and People of Italy
The Alps are located just north of Italy.
The city of Rome is located on the Tiber River.
Rome's location allowed it to have easy access to the entire Mediterranean Sea.
Before the formation of the Roman Empire, the Etruscans, Greeks, and Latins colonized Italy.
The Etruscans had the greatest influence on the Roman civilization.
They turned Rome into a large city, were the first to wear the toga, and showed the Romans how to organize an army.
The Roman Republic
In 509 B.C., the Romans overthrew the Etruscans and established a
Read pg. 148-150, and answer the following questions in complete sentences for your notes:
What two social groups was Roman society divided into?
What was the job of
What was the job of
Why did patricians and plebeians have a conflict? How was this conflict resolved?
What principles of justice do you recognize from Roman laws that are similar to today's laws?
Possible Answers for notes:
The plebeians and the patricians were the two main social groups of Roman society.
Consuls ran the government and led the Roman army.
Praetors were in charge of enforcing Roman law.
Plebeians felt that they did not have political and social equality. The council of plebs was created.
"A person is innocent until proven guilty" was a concept emphasized in Roman law.
What is Servius Tullius remembered for?
Who was the Roman Republic ruled by?
Why did Servius Tullius die?
Please answer the following questions using complete sentences in your notes:
The Formation of the Roman Republic
Four Advantages of Rome's location:
River Tiber offered Roman's a way to the sea.
Rome's location was far enough inland to be safe from pirates.
Seven hills around the city offered defense by land.
City was situated where the Tiber could easily be crossed.
5-1 "The Rise of Rome" Notes
The First Punic War
The Second Punic War
The Third Punic War
The Punic Wars
Carthage was a major power in the Western Mediterranean.
Rome wanted to own the neighboring island of Sicily.
After building a strong navy, the Romans were victorious.
Carthage gave up rights to Sicily and paid a fine to the Romans.
Please answer the following questions
in complete sentences
as you watch the following video
How did Hannibal and his army travel to Italy, and why?
What happened at the battle of Cannae?
What was Scipio's risky plan?
What happened to Hannibal?
Rome invaded Carthage again for revenge and resources.
After 10 days the Romans destroyed Carthage and enslaved their entire population.
5-2 Notes "From Republic to Empire"
Problems in the Republic
Generals Take Over
The Beginning of the Roman Empire
Rome was run by wealthy Senators and Landowners.
Soldiers Loyal to Generals
General Marius recruited soldiers who were poor and owned no property.
Soldiers were loyal to generals, and not the Senate.
The rich stayed rich, and poor stayed poor. Any reformers were killed. Example: Gracchus brothers, Tiberius and Gaius, passed bills that called for the gov. to give back public land held by large landowners to the landless Romans. They were both brutally murdered by members of the Senate.
Please answer the following questions using complete sentences:
What kind of environment is Rome during Caesar's youth?
What are Caesar's goals?
Why does Caesar need Crassus and Pompey?
What task is Caesar assigned at the end of the video?
Caesar's Rise and Demise
The death of Crassus and the death of Caesar's daughter weakened the ties of Caesar and Pompey.
Caesar starts a civil war after the Senate chooses Pompey as their ruler.
After defeating Pompey, Caesar becomes dictator of Rome.
His changes were too radical, and many believed he would never give up his power.
On March 15, 44 B.C. Caesar was stabbed 23 times by a group of Senators.
Octavian vs. Mark Antony
Who is named Caesar's heir?
Why do Mark Antony and Octavian join forces?
How does Mark Antony and Octavian rule Rome?
Why does Mark Antony decide to ally himself with Cleopatra?
What happens at the Battle of Actium?
The Age of Augustus
Octavian was soon awarded the title Augustus-"The Revered One."
Read on pg. 137 and write down how Augustus transformed the military and governorship of Rome's territory
The Birth of the Roman Empire
Following Emperor Augustus, Rome is ruled by emperors rather than the Senate.
Emperors were selected by the previous emperor before his death.
Partner Collaboration: Find a partner, and discuss some of the problems you think will come from this emperor selection method. Turn to pg. 139, and write down one "good" emperor and the one described "bad" emperor of the "first five" emperors following the death of Augustus. Explain why they are labeled this way for your notes.
Possible Answers for Partner Collaboration:
Bad Emperor- Nero. He had people killed if they were in the way.
Good Emperor- Trajan or Hadrian. Trajan provided state funds to assist poor parents to raise and educate their children. Hadrian built a wall to keep peace in Britain.
Emperor Hadrian's Wall
Good and Bad Emperors
The New Roman Empire
Using pg. 158 identify:
Please complete Guided Reading 5-3, while watching the story of Verus. Your Guided Reading 5-3 will be due at the end of the period.
(10 points) Draw a gladiatorial scene that either depicts the Coliseum or the difference between two gladiators' fighting styles. No blood no gore.
Section 4: "The Development of Christianity"
5-4 (pg. 168-173) Vocabulary:
Theodosius the Great
Section 5: "Decline and Fall"
5-5 (pg. 174-177) Vocabulary:
5-4 "Development of Christianity" Notes
State mandated religion
Roman success=favor of the gods
Similar to Greek Mythology
Look on pg. 169, and find an example of a Roman god that is similar to a Greek god.
The Rise of Christianity
Christianity is personal and offers salvation and eternal life to individuals
Christianity offers eternal life without painful or expensive initiation rites
Christians formed strong lasting bonds by helping one another.
Jesus and his Teachings
Christianity Spreads throughout Rome
Persecution of Christians
Complete the following fill-in-the blank notes. Everything should be in your notes.
Jesus believed his mission was to complete the salvation that God's followers had been promised.
Jesus preached the ethical concept "Love your neighbor as yourself".
Pontius Pilate, the procurator, ordered the crucifixion of Jesus.
Christians proclaimed that Jesus had risen from the dead.
Please answer the following questions using complete sentences in your notes (See pg. 70):
Who was Paul, and what did he teach his followers?
How was Christianity spread throughout Rome?
Early Christians were a small minority.
Christians were soon considered traitors for not honoring the state.
Simon Peter and Paul of Tarsus are executed.
Nero blames Christians for the A.D. 64 fire in Rome.
The Fall of Western Rome
I. First main idea: What type of arts and culture did the Romans spread throughout their empire?
They spread Greco-Roman arts and culture.
1. Roman Art
a. Statues- Romans tried to produce sculptures that were as realistic as possible.
2. Roman Architecture
a.Buildings- Built enormous arched and domed buildings made of concrete.
b.Projects- Created a network of roads 50,000 miles long.
Made almost a dozen aqueducts to supply a pop. of 1 million with water.
Literature: Describe each of the following examples
a.Aeneid- See pg. 161
a.Cincinnatus- See pg. 162
Main Idea: Rome was the largest city in the world. It had problems similar to mega cities today.
Roman Men and Boys
Learned reading, writing, family values, and moral principles mostly inside the home.
At age 16 boys exchanged purple-edged toga for white toga of manhood.
Expected to provide for and protect their women.
Roman Women and Girls
Legally allowed to marry at 12, most married at 14.
Could own, sell, or inherit property, and divorce. Allowed to attend races and gladiator battles, but had poor seating.
Could not participate in politics.
Were purchased from all over the empire.
Slaves worked in the home, in shops, and as laborers.
The most famous rebellion was started by gladiator, Spartacus. He was killed by the Roman army and 6,000 of his followers were crucified.
Christianity Takes Over
Constantine was the first emperor to be baptized.
He issues the Edict of Milan, which allows Christianity to be practiced openly in the Roman Empire.
Near the fall of the Roman Empire, Theodosius the Great adopts Christianity as the official religion of Rome.
Caused labor shortages
Diolcletian believed the empire was too large to rule it alone.
He split it into four units, each with its own ruler.
This is called a tetrarchy
Diocletian and Constantine give all money to the army and government programs.
Caused inflation and economic decline.
During a 50 year period there were 22 emperors.
The majority of them died from assassination.
Watch Mankind Episode to see the Fall of Rome