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Transcript of HIV/AIDS
How is HIV transmitted?
How is HIV not
transmitted? Preventive Measures for HIV/AIDS? HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) HIV is the virus that causes AIDS. HIV is found in blood, breast milk, semen and vaginal fluids AIDS is the name given to a group of illnesses in HIV positive people. These are illnesses that arise when PLWHA are no longer able to fight off infection because of lowered immunity. 1. Unprotected sexual contact 2. Blood transmission transfusion sharing of contaminated needles, syringes, razors or other sharp objects infected blood entering the body through open wounds 3. Mother-to-child transmission NOT Mosquito bites...
mode of transmission or not? METHODS OF PREVENTING HIV TRANSMISSION? 2. Harm Reduction -
Harm Reduction is a term used to describe activities aimed at preventing or reducing negative health consequences associated with certain behaviors. It is important for CHVs to understand that harm reduction does not involve either supporting or opposing behaviors that increase risk, but focuses on reducing harm among those who may be either unwilling or unable to stop risk behaviors, even if it is illegal in your country. Main MODES of Transmission questions??? FACTORS AFFECTING TRANSMISSION QUESTIONS ? ? ? download everything
search: CBHFA The immune system is the body's defense system against diseases. White blood cells called lymphocytes play an important role in helping the body's immune system. CD4 cells are a special type of lymphocyte. In HIV infection, the virus attacks the immune system. HIV destroys the special CD4 cells, and it is the loss of CD4 cells that leads to the weakening of the immune system. Understanding the Acronym:
Acquired means a disease you get during life rather than one you are born with.
Immune Deficiency means a weakness in the body's immune system.
Syndrome means a group of particular health problems that make up a disease. PROGRESSION of HIV INFECTION to AIDS
Six major phases:
1. HIV Infection
2. Window Period
4. Asymptomatic Stage
5. HIV related illness
6. AIDS 1. HIV Infection - The time when HIV is introduced into the body and starts to multiply and spread. 2. Window Period - The time from HIV infection to the time when the body begins to make detectable antibodies. It lasts approximately 3 to 6 months after HIV infection. During the window phase, HIV infected individuals are infectious. If an individual takes an HIV test during this time, it will come out negative although he or she is HIV positive (called a false negative). 3. Seroconversion - The time when a person’s blood starts developing antibodies to help fight HIV infection. Seroconversion occurs approximately 6 -12 weeks after HIV infection (when the window period ends. Individual will now test positive for HIV. 30 - 50% of people suffer from a flulike illness during this time (fever, swollen lymph nodes, night sweats, skin rash, headache or cough). 4. Asymptomatic phase - Asymptomatic HIV is the period during which a person will test positive for HIV, but does not have any signs or symptoms of the disease. PLWHA can remain asymptomatic for 10-15 years or more. Generally no signs or symptoms, but may be accompanied by swollen glands for a long time without any other symptoms of disease (called persistent generalized lymphadenopathy or PGL by doctors. It is during the asymptomatic phase that people are at greatest risk of transmitting HIV. Because they may look and feel healthy, they may not know that they are HIV positive and may be passing on the virus. 5. HIV-Related illness - During an HIV-related illness, PLWHA begin to show signs and symptoms of disease. This occurs after the asymptomatic phase and can last from months to years, depending on treatment of Opportunistic Infections and availability of ARVs. HIV-related symptoms increase due to an increase in the amount of HIV virus in the body and the destruction of CD4 cells and other important immune system functions. During this period people will begin to develop increasing opportunistic infections (weight loss, chronic diarrhea, prolonged fever, thrush and/or pulmonary tuberculosis (TB)) 6. AIDS Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) - is the life threatening or ‘terminal’ stage of HIV infection. The immune system is severely weakened in PLWA, and cannot cope with infection. This creates a life threatening condition. Once a person has AIDS, he or she can be expected to live for one to two years if no treatment is available. HIV Wasting Syndrome – unexplained weight loss greater than 10%, chronic diarrhea for longer than one month and chronic fever for longer than one month. A CD4 count of less than 200 Life threatening infections and cancers develop such as:
· Severe lung infection
· Severe infection of the eyes.
· Fungal infections that cause thrush in the mouth, or infections difference between 'transmission' and 'infection'
The transmission of HIV is the process of spreading or contracting HIV through one of the three main modes of transmission (sexual contact, blood transmission, parent-to-child transmission). HIV infection is the result of HIV transmission, where HIV is introduced into the body and starts to multiply and spread. Unprotected Sexual Contact Is the most common means of transmitting HIV.
· HIV can be transmitted during unprotected sexual intercourse or through contact with infected blood, semen, cervical or vaginal fluids of the infected person. MOTHER-to-CHILD TRANSMISSION
Mothers can pass HIV to their babies during pregnancy, during delivery, or after birth through breastfeeding.
If a pregnant mother is HIV positive there is approximately a 1 in 3 chance her baby will become infected. However, there are ways to decrease this possibility. There are drugs called ARVs that HIV positive mothers can take, and special feeding practices that will help reduce the chance of a mother passing HIV to her child. Factors that Increase Risk (Risk can be thought of as “things that you do” that might increase the chances of transmitting or contracting HIV)
Unprotected Sexual Contact
Drug Abuse and Alcohol Consumption
Multiple Sexual Partners and/or Casual Sex Factors that Increase Vulnerability (Vulnerability can be thought of as the environmental aspects influencing “who you are” that may impact your risk of transmitting or contracting HIV.)
Other factors that can increase vulnerability include:
1. Social Mobility
2. Stigma and Denial
6. Poverty Understanding HIV Transmission in Our Community Knowledge: Not everyone knows about HIV; myths circulate around communities that are not correct, people learn about HIV not just from accurate sources but from many different sources Belief about personal risk: Some people think that HIV only affects sex workers, injecting drug users (IDUs) or men who have sex with men (MSM); people do not like to think that they might be at risk from their husband, so they deny it; people invent convenient stories to believe that they are safe 'I only have a few local girlfriends, I don't visit sex workers' Means to protect themselves: Some people cannot access condoms. They might be too young and shops won't sell condoms to them. They might be poor, or they do not want to carry condoms around in case someone sees them. Clean needles might not be available in their area, or they are scared to go and get them. Skills: They might not know how to use a condom properly might be using two or three for added protection, they might not be able to ask for safe sex, assert themselves, and they might only have sex after they have been drinking alcohol. Power: Not everyone is in a situation where they are in control of whether they have safe sex or not. Wives may not be able to insist that their husband uses a condom when he returns for a work assignment; condom use in sex work might be dictated by the owner of the brothel or by the client, not by the sex worker; people who drink too much alcohol might lose their ability to make a good safe decision; a sex worker who needs money to buy food for her children may not be in a position to refuse unsafe sex 1. Safer Sex
· Abstinence (not having sex at all).
· Correct and consistent use of condoms - male and female condoms.
· Delaying sex is important in young people who may not be prepared or able to negotiate safer sex 3. Precautions against Infections -
CHVs need to take steps to ensure no contact with blood and body fluids. Keeping sterile medical equipment and taking all possible measures to avoid disease transmission and for self protection are called 'Universal Precautions' and should be used in every caring situation, whether you know your client's HIV status or not. Universal precautions not only help prevent the spread of HIV, but other infectious illness. When the body is weak, it is easier to get coughs, diarrhea, fever and other health problems. HIV & AIDS in our Community Session 6: simple questions... 1. when did people in your community first become aware of HIV and AIDS? 2. how did the effects of HIV and AIDS first show themselves in your community? 3. how did people react? HIV DATA GLOBAL
LOCAL ACTIVITY How is HIV transmitted? Session 7: HIV can be transmitted sexually through vaginal sex, oral sex and anal sex.
· The presence of other Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) increases the chance of contracting or transmitting HIV. Unprotected Sexual Contact Hugging
breathing the same air, coughs, sneezes
sweat, contact sports
tears, consoling someone who is crying WAYS in which HIV is NOT TRANSMITTED Sharing · Toilet seats
· Food utensils or drinking cups
· Public baths or swimming pools INSECTS Mosquito bites
·Any other biting insect or animal Session 8: question Having sex in a faithful monogamous (one partner only) protects partners from contracting or transmitting HIV if they are not exposed to HIV through drugs or other activities. Avoid having multiple partners and/or casual sex.
Being aware of your partner's HIV status and taking necessary precautions