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FIRO-B

Interpersonal Communication Theory
by

Melissa Gerritsen

on 15 April 2014

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Transcript of FIRO-B

FIRO-B
Fundamental
Interpersonal
Relationship
Orientation
-
Behavior
Theory

Is developed by William Schutz
Has 54 different statements
Have to rate every statement on a scale from 1-6
Activity!
FIRO-B Test
How to score?
Inclusion
Behavior that has to do with interacting, attention, acknowledgment, being known, prominence, recognition, status and prestige.

Inclusion
is different from
affection
, because it does not involve strong emotions towards other;
Inclusion
is different from
control
, because the preoccupation is with prominence, not dominance.
Control
Control
behavior differs from
inclusion
in that it does not require prominence;

It differs from
affection
in that it has to do with power, not emotional closeness.
Facts
What does the
FIRO-B assessment test?
FIRO-B Assessment
Benefits
William Schutz, 1958
A Three- Dimensional Theory of Interpersonal Behavior
Three needs
1: Inclusion
2: Control
3: Affection
• Management and supervisor development
• Leadership development
• Identifying leadership preferred operating styles
• Employee development
• Team building and explaining team roles
• Improving team effectiveness
• Advancing career development
How to interpret the score
Inclusion
Recognition,
Belonging,
Participation
Control
Influence
Leading
Responsibility
Affection
Closeness
Warmth
Sensitivity
What does the FIRO-B Assessment measure?
Expressed Behavior (e) – what a person prefers to do, and how much that person wants to initiate action

Wanted Behavior (w) – how much a person wants others to initiate action, and how much that person wants to be the recipient
Please answer these statements
Do not think to long about your answers
Video
The test shows a person the difference of an individual’s report of the behavior he/she expresses (e) toward others and of the behavior he/she wants (w) others to express toward him in each of the three need areas.
What are the differences between the three needs?
Affection
Affection
behavior refers to a close emotional feeling between people.
It is also defined as the need to establish and maintain satisfactory relations with other people with respect to love and
affection
.

If more than two people are involved it usually becomes
inclusion
behavior.
Source: William
Schutz, 1958
A Three- Dimensional Theory of Interpersonal Behavior
Source:
William Schutz,
1958
A Three- Dimensional Theory of Interpersonal Behavior
Source
Lawrence Rosenfeld &
Paul Jessen
(1972).
Compatibility and Interaction in the Small Group: Validation of Schutz's FIRO-B Using a Modified Version of Lashbrook's PROANA5
Sources:

Source:
William Schutz,
1958
A Three- Dimensional Theory of Interpersonal Behavior
Source:
1958
William Schutz,
A Three- Dimensional Theory of Interpersonal Behavior
Multiply all your scores with 3
50% of the people score within 1.5% of these averages
By comparing the need scores, people can determine which is their most important interpersonal need, or it may indicate the need that is least satisfied.
Characteristics of the different groups
High expressed scores and low wanted scores, these people are controllers, because they want to express but are unwilling to accept in return.
Low expressed scores and high wanted scores, these people are passive, because they want to receive but are unwilling to initiate interaction.
Total Scores
People with a high total score have strong needs to interact with other people. They are likely to be gregarious, friendly, and involved with others.
People with low scores are the opposite, They are mostly shy and reserved people.
Descriptions of the six different groups
Expressed
Inclusion
- I make an effort to include others in my activities. I try to belong, to join social groups to be with people as much as possible.
Control
- I try to exert control and influence over things, I enjoy organizing things and directing others.
Affection
- I make an effort to get close to people. I am comfortable expressing personal feelings and I try to be supportive of others.
Wanted
Inclusion
- I want other people to invite me to belong. I enjoy it when others notice me.
Control
- I feel most comfortable working in well-defined situations. I try to get clear expectations and instructions.
Affection
- I want others to act warmly toward me. I enjoy it when people share their feelings with me and when they encourage my efforts.
Sources:
FIRO-B
Consulting Psychologists Press.
Source:
Schutz
1958
FIRO: A Three- Dimensional Theory of Interpersonal Behavior
Workplace
The FIRO-B is actively used in organizations for a variety of purposes. These include training, understanding senior management functioning, enhancing leadership effectiveness, coaching, and crucially, personnel selection and placement.
Employers can evaluate the way their employees can communicate with other coworkers and view how efficient the employee is when working together within a group.
Source:
Ahmetoglu, Chamorro-Premuzic & Furnham, 2010
Interpersonal Relationship Orientations, Leadership, and Managerial Level: Assessing the practical usefulness of the FIRO-B in organizations
Why did Schutz created the FIRO-B test?
Schutz wanted to make sure that the people in a company that have to work in groups, were compatible to work together.
The different values that are combined in various ways help to measure interpersonal compatibility and help to determine what each person expresses and wants
Individuals tend to develop a stable interpersonal style that can be characterized in the three basic needs, these help to predict the outcome of interpersonal relations.
Source: Hale, 1975, Interpersonal compatibility and workgroup performance.
Source: Rosenfeld & Jessen, 1972, Compatibility and Interaction in the Small Group: Validation of Schutz's FIRO-B Using a Modified Version of Lashbrook's PROANA5
Compatibility
Compatibility is the central concept of the theory.
“Schutz conceived compatibility as a property of a psychological relationship between two or more persons and between an individual and a role or between an individual and a task situation.”

These are the main ideas within this theory that allowed the creator of the theory to work with. Through these studies different communication theorist began to evaluate on this theory and use it in real world situations, especially in the work force.
Source: Liddle & Slocum, 1976, The Effects of Individual-Role Compatibility upon Group Performance: An Extension of Schutz's FIRO Theory
Conclusion
This theory is widely used in organizations.
There were no weaknesses found after researching this theory
Beneficial because a communicator will know what they need to contribute and take away from an interpersonal relationship in order for that relationship to be successful no matter what the environment is.
Understanding will help working better as a team and understand the specific role in the group that the communicator will participate in.
Knowing what communicators gain and give to interpersonal relationships. Putting this to practice will result in better communication skills with coworkers but also with their family, roommates, friends, and children.
Questions
The end
Thank You
Melissa Gerritsen
Kristina Labeja
Tory Newton
Ally Peters
Kate Smith

Small Groups and FIRO-B
1. How group information sharing impacts group decision effectiveness.
2. How group personality composition impact group information sharing.
3. How group personality composition impacts group decision effectiveness.
Source: Bottomley, K. 2013. The impact of group personality characteristics on group decision-making.
FIRO-B vs 16PF5 & The Big 5
16PF5
The Big 5
- The 16PF5 consists of a very broad scale, while FIRO-B remains much narrower.
- Expresse and wanted control were not accounted for by the 16PF5.
- When compared to FIRO-B it was found that the two scales are very different.
- Each reflects different areas for clarification of individual differences in relationships.
Source: Dancer & Woods. 2006. Higher-order factor structures and intercorrelations of the 16PF5 and FIRO-B.
Source: Mahony & Stasson. 2005. Interperonsal and personality dimensions of behavior: FIRO-B and the Big Five.
Blackman, C.
1958,
A Brief summary of FIRO Theory
Furnham, A.
2008,
Psychometric Correlates of FIRO-B Scores.
Youngs, D. E.
2013,
A social withdrawal component in Schutz's FIRO Model of interpersonal personality.
Workplace examples
- "For women, gossip can become an agency of control, allowing them to reaffirm their own power within the organization."
- "High gossipers received higher ratings on the express control (need to exert power)."
- Leaders that use control the right way:
1. Establish a project's overall intention and clarity of vision;
2. Build effective teams;
3. Monitor and adjust their behavior to adapt to the group's interaction;
4. Keep the group focused on its goal.
Farley, Timme & Hart.
2010.
On coffee talk and break-room chatter.
Galanes.
2009.
Dialectial tensions of small group leadership.
Motives, goals, and
consciousness of individuals involved;

Constraint of the indivudals involved such as experience, social skills, and disposition;

strategic use of strategies;

Targets' response to affinity seeking.

Source: Gordon & Hartman, 2009, Affinity-seeking strategies and open communication in peer workplace relationships.
- Leaders high in inclusion, usually are able to motivate followers.
Source: Trainer, 2010, FIRO-B: Interpretive report for organizations.
Full transcript