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Chemistry: Acids & Bases
Transcript of Chemistry: Acids & Bases
Kylie Mah ACIDS & BASES Acids, bases, and salts are three classes of compounds that form ions in water solutions. Conjugate Acids & Bases base accept proton -> acid
(H+) + Base= Conjugate acid of Base+
acid donates proton -> base
(H+) + Acid= Conjugate base of Acid Observable Properties Acids & Bases Dissociation of Acid & Bases The pH Scale Arrhenius, Bronsted Lowry, & Lewis Bases Calculating pH Buffers The pH scale can be used to determine whether substances are acidic, neutral, or basic.
Strengths of acids and bases increase in distance from the neutral pH of 7.
As the concentration of hydronium ions increases, the solution becomes more acidic and the pH decreases.
As the concentration of hydronium ions decreases, the solution becomes more basic and the pH increases.
pH<7 : acidic
pH=7 : neutral
pH>7 : basic Strong Acid: an acid that dissociates completely in an aqueous solution. Weak Acid: an acid that dissociates incompletely in an aqueous solution. Strong Base: a base that dissociates completely in an aqueous solution. Weak Base: a base that dissociates incompletely in an aqueous solution. ex: hydrochloric acid (HCl)
perchloric acid (HCLO4) ex: hydrofluoric acid (HF)
hydrocyanic acid (HCN) ex: lithium hydroxide (LiOH)
sodium hydroxide (NaOH) ex: ammonia (NH3)
hydrofluoric acid (HF) Acids taste sour
turns the litmus paper red
produces H2 when it reacts with active metal
reacts with base to produce salt and water
some conduct electric current Bases taste bitter
turns the litmus paper blue
reacts with acids to produce salt and water
conduct electric A buffer is an aqueous solution that has a highly stable pH. It stabilizes pH and acidity because it contains a reservoir of acid and base. A buffer is created when a weak acid or base is mixed with its conjugate. What is a buffer? Real Life Applications Blood in the human body is naturally buffered between the pH of 7.3 to 7.5. This is important because drastic changes to the pH would lead to serious problems in the body. Many medicines are buffered to prevent changes in pH of the body vs. strong acid weak acid strong base weak base vs. conjugate base of that acid- after Brøsted-Lowry acid gives up a proton conjugate acid of that base- after Brøsted-Lowry base accepts a proton Arrhenius Acids: Chemical compounds that increase concentration of hydrogen ion in an aqueous solution, H+ Bases: Substances that increases concentration of hydroxide ions in an aqueous solution, OH- Bronsted-Lowry acids: molecule or ion that is a proton donor base: acid-base reaction: Lewis Acids and Bases acid: an atom, ion, or molecule that accepts electron to form a covalent bond base: an atom, ion, molecule that donates electron pair to form a covalent bond The pH of a solution is defined as the negative of the common logarithm of the hydronium ion concentration, [H3O+] pH = -log[H3O+] The pOH of a solution is defined as the negative of the common logarithm of the hydroxide ion concentration, [OH-]. pOH = -log[OH-] The ion product of [H3O+] and [OH-] is 1.0 x 10^-14 M² Molecule or ion that is a proton acceptor protons are transferred from one reactant to another base. Questions 1. Do strong acids fully dissociate? a.) yes
c.) partially 2. What would be the pH of base? a.) 3
c.) 13 3. Which solution will change red litmus paper to blue? a.) NaOH
c.) NaCl 4. What are some real life applications for buffers? a.) blood
c.) both 5. As the concentration of hydronium ions decreases, the solution becomes more _______ and the pH _______? a.) acidic, increases
b.) basic, increases
c.) basic, decreases 6. Identify the acid, base, conjugate acid, and conjugate base in the following reaction.
CH3COOH + H2O --> H3O + CH3OO 7. Explain how Arrhenius and Bronsted-Lowry acids and bases are similar and different to Lewis acids and bases. Acids & Bases Song by: Morgan Butler, Nanavati Low, Monica Shi [H3O+][OH-] = 1.0 x 10^-14 M² When given [OH-], [H3O+] can be determined by substitution. Thus, the pH of a solution can be found when given OH- concentration.