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Social Psychology: Prejudice, Discrimination, and Stereotype
Transcript of Social Psychology: Prejudice, Discrimination, and Stereotype
Types of Prejudice
Conformity as an Explanation of Prejudice and Discrimination
Influences that cause individuals to be racist or sexist, for example, may come from peers parents and group membership. Conforming to social norms means people adopt the “normal” set of behavior(s) associated with a particular group or society.
Social norms - behavior considered appropriate within a social group - are one possible influence on prejudice and discrimination. People may have prejudiced beliefs and feelings and act in a prejudiced way because they are conforming to what is regarded as normal in the social groups to which they belong:
Difference Between Prejudice and Discrimination
A prejudiced person may not act on their attitude Therefore, someone can be prejudiced towards a certain group but not disc.riminate against them. Also, prejudice includes all three components of an attitude (affective, behavioral and cognitive), whereas discrimination just involves behavior.
An extreme example of prejudice and discrimination would be the Nazi’s mass murder of Jews in the Second World War, or the killings of Catholics by Protestants and Protestants by Catholics.
There are four main explanations of prejudice and discrimination:
1. Authoritarian Personality
2. Realistic Conflict Theory - Robbers Cave
4. Social identity Theory
Examples of Discrimination
What Is Prejudice?
Prejudice is a baseless and usually negative attitude toward members of a group. Common features of prejudice include negative feelings, stereotyped beliefs, and a tendency to discriminate against members of the group. While specific definitions of prejudice given by social scientists often differ, most agree that it involves prejudgments (usually negative) about members of a group.
What is discrimination?
Discrimination is the behavior or actions, usually negative, towards an individual or group of people, especially on the basis of sex/race/social class, etc.
in South Africa. Apartheid (literally "separateness") was a system of racial segregation that was enforced in South Africa from 1948 to 1994. People who weren't white where prevented from voting and lived in separate communities.0
is discrimination against a person or group on the grounds of age.
In Western societies while women are often discriminated against in the home and family environments. For instance after a divorce women receive primary custody of the children far more often than men. Women on average earn less pay than men for doing the same job.
Prejudice and Discrimination
Prejudice and discrimination have been prevalent throughout human history.
has to do with the inflexible and irrational attitudes and opinion held by members of one group about another, while
refers to behaviors directed against another group. Being prejudiced usually means having preconceived beliefs about groups of people or cultural practices. Prejudices can either be positive or negative, both forms are usually preconceived and difficult to alter. The negative form of prejudice can lead to discrimination, although it is possible to be prejudiced and not act upon the attitudes. Those who practice discrimination do so to protect opportunities for themselves by denying access to those whom they believe do not deserve the same treatment as everyone else.
Sources of Prejudice
Many prejudices seem to be passed along from parents to children. The media- including television, movies, and advertising- also perpetuate demeaning images and stereotypes about assorted groups, such as ethnic minorities, women, gays, and lesbians, the disabled, and the elderly
Prejudices may bring support from significant others, so rejecting prejudices may lead to losing social support. The pressures to conform to the views of families, friends, and associates can be formidable.
Social studies have confirmed that prejudice especially rises when groups are in direct competition for jobs. This may help to exo
In response to early socialization, some people are especially prone to stereotypical thinking and projection based on unconscious fears. People with an authoritarian personality rigidly conform, submit without question to their superiors, reject those they consider to be inferiors, and express intolerant sexual and religious opinions. The authoritarian personality may have its roots in parents who are unloving and aloof disciplinarians. The child then learns to control his or her anxieties via rigid attitudes.
Ethnocentrism is the tendency to evaluate others cultures by ones own cultural norms and values. It also includes a suspicion of outsiders. Most cultures have their ethnocentric tendencies, which usually involve stereotypical thinking.
Group closure is the process whereby groups keep clear boundaries between themselves and others. Refusing to marry outside an ethnic group is an example of how group closure is accomplished.
Under conflict theory, in order to hold onto their distinctive social status, power, and possessions, privileged groups are invested in seeing that no competition for resources arises from minority groups. The powerful may even be ready to resort to extreme acts of violence against others to protect their interests. As a result, members of underprivileged groups may retaliate with violence in an attempt to improve their circumstances.
Solutions to Prejudice
One theory, the
, is that when people have an appropriate education and higher self-esteem, their prejudices will go away.
Another theory is the
, which states that the best answer to prejudice is to bring together members of different groups so they can learn to appreciate their common experiences and backgrounds.
A third theory, the
, holds that conflicting groups need to cooperate by laying aside their individual interests and learning to work together for shared goals.
A fourth theory, the
, is that prejudice can be eliminated by enforcing laws against discriminative behavior.