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S&T 01 History

- History of the Scientific Method: Buddha, Classical Philosophy, Paracelsus + Bacon, Descartes, Galileo - Exploratory, Descriptive and Casual Research
by

Ale Ibarra

on 15 January 2014

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Transcript of S&T 01 History

Scientific & Technological Research
How do we know if something is true or false?
How do we know what to believe?
Do not believe in something simply because you have heard it.
Believe trusting on the authority of your teachers and elders.
"understanding and codifying the process of the scientific investigation? who cares!"
He insisted that science must begin with a deep and clear
understanding
of the problem domain, followed by an
hypothesis
about a possible solution that must be
tested
impartially under carefully controlled conditions.
Only then could knowledge be accepted as valid.
He discovered a cure for syphilis.
Paracelsus
(1493-1541)
(1596-1650)
Argued that the process of intellectual reasoning must be founded on one, and only one, fundamental axiom, “I
think,
therefore I am”.
Everything else must derive from that, either deductively or inductively.
Unlike Bacon and Descartes, he was one of the first scientists to conduct
experiments using sensors
to gather
empirical
data, such as the thermometer, timing mechanisms, and the telescope.
With the telescope Galileo was able to acquire direct observational
evidence
to support the theories of Copernicus, who had hypothesized a century earlier that the Earth revolved around the Sun, not the other way around.
Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)
Buddha
500 B.C.
Greeks & Romans
Galileo was arrested by the Office of the Holy Inquisition and was tried for heresy.
He was intimidated by the instruments of torture and he recanted.
He was sentenced to spend the remainder of his life under house arrest and forbidden from publishing and interacting with his peers.
He died penniless and blind in 1642.
The immediate effect of his trial and conviction was to put a complete stop to all meaningful scientific inquiry in the Roman Catholic countries around the Mediterranean.
Galileo’s real crime was that he had
published the evidence
he found in disobedience of the Pope.
He did so because he fervently believed that this was the final and essential phase in the process of scientific investigation:
validate your results by presenting them
to your peers for critical review.
But after
careful observation
and
rigorous analysis
, when you find that something agrees with reason, and is conducive to the good and benefit of one and all, then accept it and live up with it.
Believe in traditions because they have been handled down for many generations
Believe in something that is spoken by many.
Do not
Do not
Do not
just
relying
Alchemy
Naturalistic standpoint
Development of
inductive
reasoning

Major developments of the 20th century
Greeks proved many fundamental
theorems
in geometry and mathematics .
First to
subdivide and name branches of science
in a recognizable way, including physics, biology, politics, zoology .
In about 200 BC, the famous library at Alexandria saw the first introduction of
library cataloguing
, essential for any scholar conducting a peer review .
Romans achieved significant Earthbound
innovations
in the fields of architecture, and civil engineering.
(circa 624 BC-546 BC)

Often credited as an originator of the scientific method.
Rather than rely on a supernatural explanation (the Gods) of observed phenomena he searched for
naturalistic explanations
Thales of Miletus
Made
observations of nature
and focused on
categorizing
things.
His method of working included the implementation of questions and answers in order to arrive at
‘truths’ or axioms
.
Deductive reasoning starts with known facts or “premises”. These, by necessity, lead to conclusions that must be correct:
Aristotle
(1214 - 1294)
One of the earliest European scholars to refine the scientific method.
Developed the idea of making
observations, hypothesizing and then experimenting
to test the hypothesis.
In addition, he documented his experiments meticulously so that
other scientists could repeat his experiments
and verify his results.
Roger Bacon
(1561-1626)
Encouraged
observation and experimentation
with
many cases
before arriving at any conclusion.
Recognized critical importance of
noting the failures of a theory as well as the successes
.
Promoted the study of science from a position of
gathering data and then, by inference or inductive reasoning, coming to conclusions
.
Believed that experimental evidence could be used to
eliminate conflicting theories
and move closer to the truth.
Francis Bacon
ITERATION
Rene Descartes
vs.
deductive

(1902–94)
Everyone, including experimental and theoretical scientists, would have a bias.
He went on to claim that experiment, and observations
test theories, they do not necessarily produce them
.
Sir Karl Popper
(1922–96)
Introduced the idea of paradigms: science developed conflicting theories about how everything worked.
Experimentation would lead to one of these theories becoming dominant and accepted by the scientific community.
Kuhn christened this a 'scientific paradigm.'
Thomas Kuhn
(1924–94)
The scientific anarchist.
Kill the scientific method! trying to force all scientific disciplines to follow a set of rules actually hampered science, creating false restrictions and barriers to progress.
scientists should not be influenced by 'arcane' philosophies.
historically, many great discoveries would not have been made if constrained by the strict limitations of the scientific method.
Paul Feyerabend
'Anything Goes'
Modern Scientific Method
History of the
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