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Emotion

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Jel S

on 8 October 2012

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Transcript of Emotion

Emotional Expression and Perception Representations of Gendered Emotion in Media Sprecher (1985) describes two types of emotion:

Positive Emotion
Negative Emotion "Many theorists assume that all humans feel the same basic emotions." (Hatfield, Rapson, & Le, 2009) Rosenblatt, Walsh, and Jackson (1976) observed:

"At least in dim outline, the emotional responses of people in almost any culture resemble those of people in almost any other."

"Studies of preliterate and literate cultures suggest that people probably do feel the same basic emotions and express them, at least facially, much in the same way." (Hatfield, Rapson, & Le, 2009) Theories Exercise 1B Emotion Reading

Procedure:

1. You will receive a list numbered 1 -10. On this list there will be a box with ten words (each an emotion).

2. TWO Volunteers. One male and one female student to act out each of these emotions using facial expressions, noises (but not words), and body movements. 10 emotions.

3. As a volunteer performs, the class should write their “reading” of the specific emotion on the paper. Using one of the words for each number. Gender & Emotion Women - Direct expression
Men - Emotional management

"Men and women generally differ in the types of emotion they experience in their close love relationships, the intensity of those emotions, and how readily they express those emotions." (Hatfield, Rapson, & Le, 2009) Why? Five reasons (Hatfield, Rapson, & Le, 2009):

1. Perhaps men consider close relationships to be less important than women do.

2. When men and women describe their love relationships, they may be describing different events.

3. Perhaps men are simply generally less emotional than women.

4. Men and women may vary in how aware, or how honest they are willing to be about what they feel.

5. Men may be conflict avoiding: women conflict confronting. Culture & Emotion Theorists (Averill, 1982, and Kemper, 1978) argue that emotions are social constructions.

...until very recently, social psychology has been "made in America" (Markus, 2004).

"There are profound ethnic group differenes in what people feel. They contend that different ethnic groups possess genetic, structural, or hormonal differences that influence the frequency and intensity of their emotional experience." (Hatfield, Rapson, & Le, 2009)

Individualism vs Collectivism

"Individualistic cultures such as the United states, Britain, Australia and northern and western Europe tend to focus on personal goals. Collectivist cultures such as China and Africa subordinate personal interests to those of the group." (Hatfield, Rapson, & Le, 2009) Experiment Results Gender differences: Fantasy or Fact?

Kring and Gordon (1998) showed undergraduates film clips designed to provoke happiness, sadness, or fear. Men and women did not differ in self-reports of how emotional they felt. They did differ, however in facial expression (women displaying more) and skin conductance (men reacting more).

Similar results found by Hall 1984

Most results reveal that there are differences in how men and women perceive or express emotion. Not in the emotions they feel. What is Emotion? Emotions, often called feelings, include experiences such as joy, fear, disgust, surprise, anger and sadness. Generally, researchers agree that emotions have the following parts:
1. Subjective feelings
2. Physiological (body) responses
3. Expressive behaviour
Our aim today is to explore how subjective feelings and expressive behaviours of emotion differ... Aim Across Gender... Across Culture... ...And how all of it relates to the brain
Deception is defined as a message knowingly transmitted by a sender to foster a false belief or concusion by the receiver.

Deception requires two features:
1. The sender has a conscious intent to distort the truth and
2. The sender does not expect the receiver to know that the What is deception? Common Forms

- White lies
- Conealments
- Bluffing
- Cover-ups
- Pretences
- Tall tales
- Understatements

Cues people provide when actually trying to deceive us (actual deception)

- Speech hesitation/stuttering
- Mispronunciation
- Increased vocal pitch
- Blinking
- Pupil Dilation
- Shorter sentences
- Pause longer between words
- Take longer to respond to questions
- Use lots of hand gestures
- Fidget, twiddle thumbs
- Run fingers through hair Cues we think indicate deception (perceived deception)

Direct eye contact -
Expressive smiling -
Posture shifts - Actual vs Perceived Deception Deceiving causes physiological reactions, such as:

- High blood pressure
- Increased heart rate
- Increased respiration rate An emotional approach Gender and lying Are there any gender differences in the ability to deceive?

Generally there are no gender differences in the ability to identify liars.

Men are likely to lie about their abilities and to exaggerate their personal characteristics and past experiences.

Women are more likely to lie to encourage intimacy and their lies are intended to make others feel better about themselves. Hall & Archer (1978), Rosenthal & DePaulo (1979)
suggest there are possible gender differences in deceptive communication

Women are more superior at decoding nonverbal cues (better liars)

Results

People found to be significantly less accurate when judging the veracity of statements made by men, especially when they lie.
People found it significantly more accurate when judging the veracity of statements made by women, especially when those statements are truthful. Other Researchers
DePaulo and her colleagues in 1996 employed a one week diary study to record people's everyday communication, specifically deceptive communication. Their record suggests that people tell approximately two lies per day on average and that approximately 20% to 33% of our daily interactions are deceptive.


George & Ribb (2008) and Hancok, Santellu, & Ritchie (2004)
Observed 26% of our everyday communication involved some form of deception.

Prater & Kiser (2002), analysed studies in the business world which indicate that 25%-67% of job applicants would falsify their resumes and attempt to justify those falsifications during job interviews. Further Research DePaulo, Kashy, Kirbendol, Wyer, & Epstein, 1996 Jelena, Jack, Yolanda and Michelle
The cortext plays several roles with respect to emotion. The right and left hemispheres of the cortex appear to be specialised for certain tasks.

Broad generalisations are often made in popular psychology about one side or the other having characteristic labels such as "logical" for the left side or "creative" for the right.

These labels need to be treated carefully.
Although a lateral dominance is measurable, these characteristics are in fact existent on both sides. Hemisphere Specialisation Despite this, we do however see laterliasation for different cognitive processes. Language functions such as grammar and volcabulary are typically lateralised to the left hemisphere, while the processing of visual and auditory stimuli show a right hemisphere superiority.

A variety of scientific studies have found laterliasation of emotions. FMRI and lesion studies have shown asymmetrical activation of brain regions while thinking of emotions.

One popular theory is the right hemisphere dominance theory. Lateralisation Some variations of right hemisphere dominance are:

1. The right hemisphere has more control over emotion than left hemisphere.

2. The right hemisphere is dominant in emotional expression in a similar way that the left hemisphere is dominant in language.

3. The right hemisphere is dominant in the perception of facial expression, body posture and prosody.

Although many theories of lateralisation have been proposed, most of the information right now is theoretical and scientists are still trying to understand emotional lateralisation. Right Hemisphere Dominance Theory Nevertheless there is a bulk of evidence supporting the right hemisphere dominance theory:

1. One study found that general lesions in the right hemisphere reduce or eliminate electodermal response (skin conductance response) to emotionally meaningful stimuli while the lesions in the left hemisphere do not show changes in SCR response.

2. In another study condicted by Kenworthy, Barry & Smith in 2001, patents who suffered from right and left temporal lobe epilepsy were monitored when they were subject to emotionally positive and negative stimulation. The study found patients with right TLE showed the highest rate of errors when interpreting the feelings associated with affective stimuli.

These findings accord with extensive literature relating right hemisphre injury to inaccurate perception of emotional stimuli. Evidence to Support The most common forms of decepion are: EES Diversity in Emotional Expression The use of emoticons – The need of expressing emotions through text Most research on understanding the emotional state of others has been done on facial expressions.

However, universally, there are 5 signals that humans use to perceive emotions:

1. Body posture
2. Speech patterns
3. Gestures
4. Facial expressions
5. Physiological clues Exercise 1A
- Hate
- Fear
- Love
- Joy
- Anger
- Guilt
- Frustration
- Jealously
- Excitement
- Surprise List of Emotions Paul Ekman, an American psychologist, is best known for his work in the study of emotions and their relation to facial expression
6 basic emotions:

- Happiness
- Sadness
- Surprise
- Anger
- Disgust
- Fear
- (neutral)

Later in the 1990s, Ekman added 11 more emotions to his list. However, he noted that these could not be encoded via just facial expression. Ekman’s List of Basic Emotions (1972) Plutchik’s Wheel of Emotions (1980) - Joy v Sadness
- Anger v Fear
- Trust v Disgust
- Surprise v Anticipation Perhaps the most comprehensive
Identified over 100+ emotions and conceptualised them as a tree structured list as primary emotions, secondary emotions and tertiary emotions
Primary emotion:
- Love- Joy- Surprise- Anger- Sadness- Fear Exercise Determine who is lying on which questions and who is telling the truth. For each question, write down whether the person is lying or telling the truth, and what cues gave it away. Parrots’ Classification of Emotions (2001) The Emotional Expressivity Scale (EES) designed by Kring et al. (1994) assesses the extent to which people perceive that they outwardly display their emotions. In earlier research, a total of 237 female and 136 male students in an introductory psychology course obtained means of 66.60 and 61.15, respectively. This gender difference was replicated across several samples.

Research using the EES has found that scores correlated positively with the personality attributes of both extraversion and neuroticism. This suggests that expressive people report being more social but are also more excitable and anxious. Procedure:

1. Everyone should have received an EES scale and worksheet for completion.

2. Fill in accordingly.


Scoring

3. Everyone should reverse the numbers they place in front of items 2, 3, 4, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 15, 16 and 17 (1=6, 2=5, 3=4, 4=3, 5=2, 6=1)

4. Add the numbers in front of all the items to obtain a final score. Scores can range from 17 to 102.

5. Higher scores reflect greater emotional expressiveness, regardless of valence (positive or negative emotion) or channel (facial, vocal, or gestural).

6. Gender comparison of scores.
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