Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Make your likes visible on Facebook?

Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.

No, thanks

Sociolinguistics

The social motivation of a sound change by William Labov
by

Chen Te-Hai

on 16 September 2013

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of Sociolinguistics

Language change
The origin of linguistic changes
The spread and propagation of linguistic changes
The regularity of linguistic change
These variations may be induced by the process of assimilation or differentiation, by anology, borrowing, fusion, contamination, random variation,etc
William Laboc
(December 4, 1927~)
THE SOCIAL MOTIVATION
OF A SOUND CHANGE
the direct observation:
a shift of the 1st element of the
diphthongs
/ai/
&
/au/

(the island of Martha's Vineyard)
1. The Island of Martha's Vineyard (p87)
a self-contained unit, separated
from the mainland by a good
three miles of the Atlantic Ocean
enough social and geographic
complexity to provide ample
room for differentiation of
linguistic beharior
1118
1027
1701
Down-island (3846)
Up-island (1717)
Total Population:5563
(from the 1960 Census)
4 ethnic groups (p88)
1. English stock: the descendants
of the old families, who first settled
the island in the 17th &18th centuries
2. Portuguese descent:
immigrants from the Azores
Madeira and the cape Verde
Islands
3. Indian remnant
at Gay Head
4. Miscellaneous group of various origins:
English, French Canadian, Irish, Herman, Polish
(not a coherent social force)
2.Selection of
the linguistic
variable (p89)
frequent:
for easier extraction of
data from
unstructured
contexts
&
brief interviews
Structural:
the more the item is
integrated
into
a larger system of functioning units,
the greater
Stratified:
an
asymmetric
distribution over a
wide range of
age level
or other
ordered strata of society
Exploratory interviews conducted
on the Vineyard in 1961 (p90)
Changes in phonemic inventory were found:
New England short /
o
/ is rapidly disappearing
the two low back vowels, /
a
/ & / / are merging
the /
or
~
r
/ distinction is disappearing
initial /
hw
/ is giving way to /
h
/
3.The History of Centralized diphthongs (P91)
/ai/ was a mid-central vowel in 16th-and 17th-century English
continued to be favored form in the 19th century
the isolated position of /au/ has facilitated phonetic variation on a truly impressive scale
/ai/ is well centralized, but /au/ is not
4. The investigation of /ai/ & /au/(p92)
it was
necessary
to devise an
interview

schedule
which would provide many examples of /ai/ & /au/ in
casual speech
,
emotionally colored speech
,
careful speech
, and
reading style
.

three
two
one
Formal
interview
1. A lexical questionnaire
containing /ai/ & /au/
2. Questions concerning value judgments (elicit answers containing /ai/ & /au/ forms)
-->
3. A special reading
was offered
ostensibly

as a test of the ability
to read a story naturally.
a rich harvest of contrasting
uses of emotionally stressed
/unstressed variants
Interview
(tape-recorded)

69 interviews (40 up-islanders+ 29 down-islanders
more than
1%
of the population,
represent a judgment sample of the
community

3500
instances of /ai/ &
1500
instances of /au/

5. Scales of measurement
a
6-point scale
of height of the first element was used (p94)

Acoustic spectrograms
were made of
80 instances
of /ai/ as spoken and recorded by
7
different Vineyarders (figure 2)

The
80
measurements were then plotted on a
bi-logarithmic scale
-->

the separation of grades 2 from 3, and 4 from5 were not clear as the others, so
a reduced 4-step scale
was then established

6. The linguistic environment
Plot the distribution of centralized forms
for each speaker (figure 4 as an example)

a.
uncentralized norms
: all words, or almost all fall into
grade 0
b.
centralized norms
: most words with
grade 2
c.
phonetic conditioning
: the influence of the phonetic environment is reflected in a range of values from
grades 0 to 2

The influence of the following
consonant (p98)
not favoring centralization:
sonorants
,
nasals
,
voiced
,
velars
, and
fricatives
favoring centralization:
obstruents
,
orals
,
voiceless
,
apicals
, and
stops
The influence of the preceding
consonant (less effect)
most favoring: /h,l, r, w,m,n/
English: pressure from the outside, struggling to maintain their independent position against summer people (esp. Chilmark fishermen) => centralization
Young people: seek reference group from old timers and up-islanders
Stay (0)
Leave (x)
The Social Meaning of Centralization (2/4)
The Interaction of Linguistic and Social Patterns (9/10)
Distribution by Age and Time (1/2)
Arthur: William Labov
Presenter: Monica Lin 林珮君
698210645
2012.10.05
The Social Motivation of a Sound Change (part II)
Non-salient variable
Small population
Changed interviewing techniques
Limitations of this Study
Portuguese: assert one’s identity as an islander
Indians: resent any bar to full participation in the island life, but also adopt the same values as the Chilmarkers; insist on their Indian identity, but no longer have the linguistic resources
Chilmarkers/old-time typical Yankee as a reference group: decline
The Social Meaning of Centralization (3/4)
Indians: mostly in Gay Head, intermarried with Negroes, second class citizens => want to be like Chilmarkers (English)
Increase in centralization of /au/ among young Indians
Revival of Indian culture: commercially motivated
Lost the language
Centralization among Other Ethnic Groups (4/4)
Centralization among Other Ethnic Groups (3/4)
Portuguese: Azoreans, farming and fishing
Second generation Portuguese: do not feel at home, defensive
Third/Fourth generation Portuguese: stay and identify with the island, supplanting the English group in the economic life
Centralization: Full participation of the native status
Centralization among Other Ethnic Groups (2/4)
Centralization among Other Ethnic Groups (1/4)
30 – 45 Chilmarkers: centralization
Stress: grow up in a declining economy
Stay in Martha’s Vineyard or leave for money and recognition
The Interaction of Linguistic and Social Patterns (6/10)
The Interaction of Linguistic and Social Patterns (5/10)
Depend on summer trade => lose personal independence
Summer people: buy up the island
High centralization of /ai/ and /au/: strong resistance to summer people
Chilmarkers: typical old Yankees, fishing, independent, stubborn
E.g. Retroflexion in final and pre-consonantal /r/
The Interaction of Linguistic and Social Patterns (2/10)
Possible Explanations for a Rise in Centralization (4/4)
2. In this study, young people in Chilmark show hypercorrection of the centralized diphthongs due to their desire to be identified as natives. Can you think of any instances of hypercorrection?
Discussion Questions
1. In Labov’s study, Martha’s Vineyard was chosen as a place for exploration because it “has the advantage of being a self-contained unit,” and “enough social and geographic complexity.” Can you think of any other places which are feasible for linguistic studies?
Discussion Questions
Centralization: not salient in the consciousness of Vineyard speakers
Up-islanders (native): centralization
Down-islanders: mainland influence
The Intersection of Social and Linguistic Structure
Centralization: positive orientation towards Martha’s Vineyard
The Social Meaning of Centralization (4/4)
The Interaction of Linguistic and Social Patterns (4/10)
Martha’s Vineyard: the poorest of all Massachusetts counties
Unemployment: 8.3% (1960)
Whaling industry (x)
Ferry rate => decline of farming & dairying
Manufacturing: 4%
Agriculture: 5%
Fishing: 2.5%
Construction: 17%
The Interaction of Linguistic and Social Patterns (1/10)
Possible Explanations for a Rise in Centralization (3/4)
Centralization: declined in late 1930s, and began to rise after the war
Geography: up-island
Occupation: fishers
Ethnicity
Possible Explanations for a Rise in Centralization (1/4)


I have another son Richard — is an aeronautical engineer. He really loves the island. And when he decided to be an aeronautical engineer we discussed it – at length — and I told him at that time: you can’t live on Martha’s Vineyard… He works at Grumman, but he comes home every chance he gets and stays just as long as he can.
We had an idea that he’d go away to school, but he really didn’t want to go away… When he was at Chauncey Hall, they tried to get him to go to M.I.T.; but he said no, he didn’t want to go anywhere where he had to learn to do something that he couldn’t come back to this island.
Gauchat: patois in Charmey
Speakers : under 30, 30-60, over 60
Investigation: 1899, 1920
Result: historical change
Change
Unable to be observed => borrowing and analogic change (Bloomfield)
Basic mechanism of linguistic change (Hockett)
Shifts: borrowing, imitations, random variations
Distribution by Age and Time (2/2)
Different groups respond to different challenges to their native status, and the challenge have become shaper through economic and social pressures.
The Social Meaning of Centralization (1/4)
High school students:
Stay or leave?
The Interaction of Linguistic and Social Patterns (10/10)
Hypercorrection
You know, E. didn’t always speak that way… it’s only since he came back from college. I guess he wanted to be more like the men on the docks.
The Interaction of Linguistic and Social Patterns (8/10)
C
reference group
B
new norm
Structural symmetry
Hypercorrection
B
exaggerate & adopt
feature a
B
generalize feature a
reference group
B
exaggerate & adopt
feature a
A
feature a
Full transcript