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Tri-focal Model by Sylvia Rimm
Transcript of Tri-focal Model by Sylvia Rimm
Role Model Identification Step 1: Assessment Step 3: Changing Expectations Step 2: Communication Step 4: Role Model Identification 6 Step Program to reverse underachievement in school Step 5: Correction of Deficiencies Step 6: Modifications at Home and School There are 3 general groups to identify when addressing strategies for the underachiever. They are the Dependent (Conformer and Nonconformer), the Dominant Conformer, and the Dominant Nonconformer. Let's look at the strategies for the Dependent student first.
•Teach organization skills and strategies; predict time needed for studying/project completion/scheduling and teach prioritizing.
• Teach completion of assignments.
• Teach social skills for acceptance and what behaviors are alienating (groups of 2 on projects are better than groups of 3).
• Teach how to ease perfectionism.
• Encourage activities that students have an intrinsic interest in.
• Teach deferred judgment of themselves and encourage creative thinking.
• Encourage student to do their own homework and complete on time and turn in on time.
• Encourage/teach eye contact.
• Encourage parental support/teach parents about dependent child’s needs.
• Enlist help of counselor/school psychologist/other teacher for help.
• Determine if child has too much or not enough expectations at home.
• Give assignment instructions and homework reminders in several forms.
• Teach a growth mindset.
• Show how other famous people succeeded through failure and frustration (biographies).
• Teach how to focus attention and improve attention span.
• Teach goal setting (individually in private.
• Teach test taking skills to decrease anxiety.
• Encourage to help others by tutoring, reading to, etc. Encourage risk-taking in creativity Don’t keep in at recess or write name on board. He is more motivated by intrinsic interests, achievements, good grades and positive attention Dependent
(conformers and non-conformers) Teaching Strategies
•Encourage interests outside of dominating skill that are non-competitive and have no rewards.
• Support the idea that schoolwork is more important than extracurricular activities.
• Teach sensitivity to others and encourage empathy.
• Teach how to accept criticism.
Consider acceleration or grade skipping if appropriate.
•Try to remain an ally and don’t get in a power struggle unless you can control the outcome.
• Teach about famous people (or have students do biography or read-aloud) that were successful and failed multiple times.
• Teach about the possible failures that the future (college) might bring and how to bring about success (See page 302). Dominant
Conformers Teaching Strategies
•Create an alliance with this child by letting them talk to you individually and private. Then give a firm and irreversible answer after careful consideration and don’t ever let them overpower you because it will make them lose respect for you.
• Encourage counselor/school psychologist to get involved for psychological help if needed.
• Communication with parents is a priority.
• If appropriate, write up a contract hat has them set short-term attainable goals with clear positive and negative consequences.
• If appropriate, work with psychologist on behavior rating scale if ADHD is suspected.
• Don’t’ give negative attention (scolding, writing name on board, etc.) •Give quiet reprimands, personal signals and brief time-outs, small daily rewards and privileges.
• Never argue or debate in front of class with this student. Instead arrange a private meeting after class to hear their point of view. Follow table on page 346).
• Encourage this student to channel energies into an interest that gives them an intrinsic sense of accomplishment (with an audience) and then try to use the same audience to develop a weaker area.
• To prevent yourself from manipulation, reframe what they are saying (see page 349-350).
• Regroup to higher group if student can maintain reasonable quality of performance.
• Teach this student to oppose ideals by choosing a career that opposes in a healthy manner.
• Provide this student with a learning sanctuary where they don’t feel like they need to dominate.
• Help this student to find a balance with their intensities.
• Help find treatment if there is a drug/alcohol abuse problem. Help this student see the bigger picture for their future career with your help Dominant
Non-Conformers The ALLIANCE Acrostic briefly summarizes the strategies that can be used for reversing underachievement. Your ability to inspire and engage students, as well as your patience, is most helpful!
ALLIANCE FOR REVERSING STUDENT UNDERACHIEVEMENT
Ally with the student privately about interests and concerns.
Listen to what the student says.
Learn about what the student is thinking.
Initiate opportunities for recognition of the student’s strengths.
Add experimental ideas for engaging curricular and extracurricular activities.
Nurture relationships with appropriate adult and peer role models.
Consequence reasonably but firmly if student doesn’t meet commitments
Emphasize effort, independence, realistic expectations, how strengths can be used to cope with problem and extend possibilities patiently.
(by Sylvia Rimm, 2008) Teachers really can make a difference for Underachievers! In this step, the teacher determines the extent and direction of a child’s underachievement. Underachievement is described by a discrepancy between the student’s abilities and their school performance. There are formal and informal methods for assessing the degree of underachievement. Formal examples of assessment include group or individual intelligence and achievement tests, creativity tests, and underachievement inventories. Formal assessments can be divided into two categories: those that describe the extent of the problem (IQ and achievement tests), and those that describe the direction of the problem (parent inventories like AIM, teacher observation scales like AIM-TO, and child self-report inventories like GAIM). Informal methods of assessing include questioning and observation of students by parents and teachers. The teacher can use observations to identify the difference between conforming and nonconforming and the difference between dominant and dependent personalities that contribute to underachievement. Parents, teachers, and students working together is the strongest approach to reversing Underachievement Syndrome. Each requires the support of the other. Communication can be initiated by either the teacher or the parent. If the teacher is initiating the conversation, great care must be taken to communicate that both the parent and the teacher need to change their approach to the problem. If the parent is initiating the conversation, a steady, persistent effort should be taken to communicate the problem with the teacher. Periodic meetings (start out weekly and move to larger time intervals as student progresses) should be scheduled to track student progress. All 3 parties involved in this process must raise their expectations of the student, including the student themselves. Recognizing improvement and pointing it out to the child is an important part of raising expectations. Be sure not to overpraise the improvements, which can lead to intense pressure to succeed or fear of failure. Clear goals, time frames, expectations, and likely results should be communicated to the student. Parent expectations can be initially set by looking at the child’s IQ scores or other achievement discrepancies and short-term and long-term expectations should be set. Parents and teachers alike should place emphasis on effort, completing all work on time, and putting forth the time required for studies. Parents should also let siblings in the family know of the new expectations and enlist their support. Teacher expectations should be set by consulting IQ scores and other performance discrepancies. One of the most powerful strategies to changing expectations is to teach a growth mind-set to the student in which the student learns that the brain is actually a muscle that can get stronger when exercised. The teacher can also enlist the help of the student’s peers to support the new expectations. Rimm’s Law #2 says that Children learn appropriate behaviors more easily when they have effective models to imitate. This idea of copying behavior is called identification. Students need role models that will model appropriate “adjustment patterns, work habits, studying practices, and general life philosophies and career goals.” (Rimm, p. 213) Several different people can serve as the role models for a student, but the adults closest to the child’s immediate environment are the most influential. Teachers can assist in this step by pointing out role models for the student to emulate. Good role models are the ones that show the work ethic in front of the child, have a positive general outlook on life experiences, and must be able to convey why the effort is worth it for the results. Teachers, parents, older siblings, coaches, counselors, community leaders, religious youth leaders, and peers are all potential role models. There are several ways to encourage a child to find a role model. They include: summer camps, camping groups, special schools, visiting far-away family, and surrounding the child with inspirational people by changing the environment that they are in. Students may have gaps in their education in reading, writing, math, and language that should be filled in. Good tutors that act to reverse underachievement are the best option. Skills should also be taught to the student to: reduce reading anxiety; reduce pencil anxiety or processing speed; improve math and spatial inadequacies; improve listening skills. One final note: attention and support should be given to students that are scotopic sensitive which affects their reading ability.